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Proposed degradation pathway for quaternary ammonium compounds by mould fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10166
One group of chemicals that has attracted considerable attention as potential wood preservatives are the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Based upon results of previous research this study confirmed the degradation pathway employed in QAC-tolerant fungi. For this experiment the two dialkylammonium compounds didecyldimethylammonnium chloride and dioctyldimethylammonium chloride were used. QAC-treated wood blocks were inoculated with the tolerant fungi Gliocladium roseum and Verticillium bulbillosum. After incubation the remaining QACs were extracted with acidified acetonitrilic and HPLC was used to quantify and detect the degradation products.
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick

The use of chlorothalonil for protection against mold and sapstain fungi. Part 1: Laboratory evaluation
1989 - IRG/WP 3515
Laboratory screening of chlorothalonil alone and in combination with other fungicides was conducted against six mold and sapstain fungi. The most promising treatments appear to be chlorothalonil supplemented with CCA or copper-8-quinolinolate. Field tests have been implemented.
J A Micales, T L Highley, A L Richter

The effect of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on growth of different strains of mould fungus Gliocladium roseum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10105
The tolerance and degrading ability of different strains of Gliocladium roseum towards didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were studied. All four of the strains of Gliocladium roseum were tolerant to DDAC and after their growth on amended malt agar, the retention of DDAC in the medium was reduced.
Yu Zheng, J N R Ruddick

Bioremediation of surfactant contaminated waste
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50070
The objective of this work was to determine the potential of fungi as agents for the bioremediation of wastes (particularly wood and soil) contaminated with quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Until now only bacteria have been investigated for this purpose. Tolerant strains of Gliocladium roseum and Verticillium bulbillosum were studied for their ability to degrade the following QACs: didecyldimethylammonium chloride, cocoalkyltrimethylammonium chloride, and dicocodimethylammoium chloride. Preliminary experiments were used to determine the toxic threshold concentrations for selected QACs in solid and liquid media. As solid media, wood and soil were treatet with the different QACs and inoculated with one of the fungi. After a pre determined incubation period, the QAC was extracted from the wood and soil samples and the loss of chemical was measured by HPLC using an indirect photometric detection. Both fungi were able to degrade considerable amounts of all QACs tested under the experimental conditions.
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick

Sawmill Evaluation of a Bioprotectant against Moulds, Stain and Decay on Green Lumber
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10460
Moulds, stain and decay cause serious problems on wood utilization. Though a growing volume of wood is kiln-dried, the market for green exports remains significant, and environment-friendly wood protection is required to replace traditional chemicals. As a solution to this problem, Forintek Canada Corp. developed a bioprotectant for protecting logs and green lumber from moulds, stain and decay, which was granted a US patent. The method relies on an albino fungus, Gliocladium roseum, and a powder product has been formulated. Recently, a sawmill trial on this bioprotectant was carried out on 2400 pieces of a mix of 2”x 3” x 8’ black spruce and balsam fir boards. Mould, stain and decay developments on treated and untreated boards were evaluated after 11-month storage in a lumberyard. Results showed that 90% of boards treated with the powder product of this bioprotectant and 85% of those treated with the liquid product did not get any fungal infection, whereas only 0.5% of untreated boards were clear. Concerning mould and stain growth, powder product treated lumber was 100% acceptable, liquid product treated lumber was 99% acceptable, whereas untreated lumber was 16% acceptable. For decay evaluation, 45% untreated boards were, more or less, decayed after 11-month storage in piles, whereas only 0.7% of powder product treated boards and 1.4% of liquid product treated boards were affected by decay fungi.
Dian-Qing Yang, M Gignac, M-C Bisson

Evaluation of a new anti-sapstain formulation
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30035
A new anti-sapstain mixture, which consists of 2% IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynylbutyl carbamate) and 1.5% DCOI (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one), was evaluated by three methods in the laboratory. A standardized test (JWPA standard 2) demonstrated that the new anti-sapstain formulation was highly effective in controlling growth of monocultures of five test fungi on wood substrate. When exposed to mixed spore suspension, the formulation performed better than TCP-based commercial product. A larger scale laboratory tests and supplemental trials at sawmills also supported a satisfactory performance of the formulation to protect freshly sawn timber from moulds and sapstain fungi.
K Tsunoda, H Kumagai, M Sakurai

Gaseous treatment of timber with allyl isothiocyanate. Fungicidal and insecticidal effects
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30108
Gaseous treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was tested for its effects on the growth of microorganisms on the wood substrate and the mortality of subterranean termites and powder-post beetles. Toxic limits of AIT were determined as concentrations in the air when an AIT-treated filter paper was placed in a sealed container with fungus-inoculated wood specimens. Those were <3.8 ppm for Aureobasidium pullulans, 7.5-15 ppm for Aspergillus niger, 30-59 ppm for Gliocladium virens, 59-118 ppm for Penicillium funiculosum and >118 ppm for Rhizopus stolonifer. LD 50 values were determined for insects. Twenty workers of Coptotermes formosanus or 10 adults of Lyctus brunneus were placed in an air-circulated glass bottle, and the mortality of the test insects was recorded after 24 hours. LD 50/24h were 10-13 ppm and approximately 80 ppm in the air for Coptotermes formosanus and Lyctus brunneus, respectively.
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura

Antagonistic properties of Gliocladium virens against wood attacking fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10162
Gliocladium virens has shown good antagonism against decay fungi in agar medium and in wood blocks. Gliotoxin produced by Gliocladium virens is associated with biocontrol of some plant diseases, but its importance to biocontrol of wood-attacking fungi is unknown. We investigated the ability of gliotoxin-producing (GLT+) isolates of Gliocladium virens and gliotoxin-deficient (GLT-) mutants of Gliocladium virens to inhibit growth of wood-attacking fungi in agar medium and to prevent decay in wood. The brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Neolentinus lepideus and the white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Phlebia brevispora were completely inhibited by the GLT+ isolate and the GLT- mutants in agar medium. The GLT+ isolate also completely inhibited the growth of the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum and the white-rot fungus, Irpex lacteus but the GLT- mutants caused lesser inhibition. The GLT+ isolate and GLT- mutants were ineffective in preventing growth of mold and stain fungi in dual agar culture. Pretreatment of wood blocks with a GLT+ isolate or GLT- mutant prevented decay by Postia placenta. Likewise, the GLT+ isolate prevented decay by Irpex lacteus but the GLT- mutants did not. Gliocladium virens (GL-21) was grown on a sulfur containing medium at pH 3.5 to enhance antibiotic production. However, inhibition of growth of decay fungi on agar medium containing culture filtrates was not enhanced. Decay was reduced in blocks treated with the culture filtrates but was not completely stopped. The filtrates were also ineffective in preventing growth of mold and stain fungi on wood.
T L Highley, H S Ananthapadmanabha, C R Howell

Antagonism of Gliocladium virens against wood decay fungi
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10102
Antagonistic abilities of a commercial biofungicide, Gliocladium virens (GL-21, Grace) were evaluated against three white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor, Phlebia brevispora, Irpex lacteus, and three brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta, Neolentinus lepideus, Gloeophyllum trabeum. In dual culture of Gliocladium virens and wood decay fungi, Gliocladium virens rapidly overgrow the decay fungi and killed them. Pretreatment of Southern pine and maple blocks with Gliocladium virens prevented weight loss by all the decay fungi in soil-block tests. Gliocladium virens colonized blocks treated with propylene oxide to kill the antagonist were not decay resistant. Filter-sterilized filtrates from Gliocladium virens showed fungistatic effect against the decay fungi in agar medium. However, weight losses in wood blocks treated with filter-sterilized filtrates of Gliocladium virens were only slightly reduced when exposed to decay fungi in soil-block tests.
T L Highley, L Ferge