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Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2338
Further sets of data received from STU (Sweden) after 36 months exposure and Sipad-IRC (Yugoslavia) after 45 months exposure are presented and discussed in conjunction with data reported previously. The new data are generally in agreement with those presented previously and the major difference between institutes continues to be one of rate of colonisation rather than any relative difference in pe...
J K Carey, A F Bravery

Some observations on miniaturised soil/block tests
1988 - IRG/WP 2317
Results are presented for miniaturised soil/block tests carried out in 120 ml capacity glass jars. The four test fungi (Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria placenta) reacted differently to different moisture regimes established by varying the soil moisture content. Acceptable levels of decay were achieved by the three brown rot fungi with soil at 110% whc; howev...
J K Carey

Natural durability of eight tropical hardwoods species from Africa
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10563
Current forest inventory results reveal that there are more than 700 hundred-hardwood species in tropical forests, of which less than 10 percent are harvested and used for commercial purposes. The increased use of lesser-known species can decrease the pressure on current commercial species, increase the value of the forest and lead to better management practices. However basic information on physi...
P Nzokou, K Wehner, D P Kamdem

The preliminary characterization of ß-1,4-xylanase of the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1990 - IRG/WP 1447
The extracellular ß-1,4-xylanase of the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, was isolated from crude extract by chromatofocusing method (PBE 94 column chromatography). The isoelectric point was estimated to 4.2-4.8 by cromatofocusing and 4.5 by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to 37,000 dalton by SDS-PAGE. The optimal temperature for the crude extrac...
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, L Viikari

The effect of low molecular weight chelators on iron chelation and free radical generation as studied by ESR measurement
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10367
The focus of this work was to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in brown-rot decay. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), is an attractive technique for the identification and study of chemical species containing unpaired electrons (such as radicals and certain transition metal species). ESR spin-trapping techniques...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell

Preservative requirements for exterior particleboard as predicted from accelerated laboratory evaluations
1976 - IRG/WP 265
Arguments for and against preservative treatment of exterior particleboard were considered; it was concluded that preservative treatment is desirable. Laboratory decay tests were conducted to determine levels of sodium pentachlorophenoxide required to protect exterior particleboard from decay fungi. The decay resistance of treated board was compared with that of timber (both naturally durable and ...
M E Hedley

Effect of mineral wools on growth and decay capacities of Serpula lacrymans and some other brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1481
The influence of stone wool and glass wool on growth and decay capacities of Serpula lacrymans and some other brown-rot fungi was studied. Mass losses of pine wood caused by Serpula lacrymans and Gloeophyllum trabeum were increased when stone wool was present. Glass wool had no influence on mass losses. Coniophora puteana, Serpula lacrymans and Gloeophyllum trabeum grew into stone wool and destroy...
L Paajanen, A-C Ritschkoff

Wood degradation mechanisms by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10229
A mechanism for the degradation of wood by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum is outlined. The mechanism includes the function of redox-cycling, low molecular weight phenolic derivatives which sequester and reduce iron in acidic environments. The role of oxalate for the sequestration of iron (hydr)oxides and the pH dependent transfer of iron to the G. trabeum phenolic chelators, as well as ...
B Goodell, J Jellison

Inhibition of termite feeding by fungal siderophores
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1558
Siderophores are iron-chelating extracellular fungal metabolites which may be involved in initiating wood decay. A purified siderophore extract isolated from the brown-rot decay fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr. (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae) was found to deter feeding by Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). This fungus has prev...
J K Grace, B Goodell, W E Jones, V Chandhoke, J Jellison

Triazoles: Synergism between propiconazole and tebuconazole
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30092
The synergistic action of the two triazoles propiconazole and tebuconazole against wood rotting fungi can clearly be demonstrated by determination of toxic values according to Standard EN 113. The results show that by combining both triazoles a better balanced spectrum of activity can be achieved. The reduction of the toxic values against the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (toxic values of t...
H-U Buschhaus, A R Valcke

Effects of a formaldehyde and sulphur dioxide treatment on decay and mechanical properties of aspen waferboard
1983 - IRG/WP 3242
Aspen wafers were sequentially treated under vacuum with formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide gas and pressed into waferboard bonded with powdered phenol formaldehyde resin. Decay resistance and strength properties were determined before and after simulated weathering. The water resistance of the phenol bonding system was lost in board made from the gas-treated wafers. This white rot fungus Coriolus ve...
E L Schmidt

Laboratory determination of the natural decay resistance of some lesser-utilized timbers from Tanzania against wood decay fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10517
Four lesser known/utilized timber species (sap and heartwoods) from Tanzania, namely Albizia lebbeck, Zanthoxylum gilletii, Faurea saligna and Parinari curatellifolia were exposed to the brown rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Coniophora puteana) and the white rot fungus (Coriolus versicolor) to determine their natural decay resistance according to the EN 113 standard procedure. The timbers were...
P R Gillah, R C Ishengoma, E Julias, S A Amartey, D H Kitojo

Effects of Trichoderma harzianum on enzyme activity and oxalic acid production of Gloeophyllum trabeum in ponderosa pine sapwood blocks
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1550
The effect of a bioprotectant, Trichoderma harzianum, on the activity of Gloeophyllum trabeum was investigated using a wood wafer sandwich method. Wood weight loss was greatest with Gloeophyllum trabeum exposed wafers, intermediate with those exposed to both the bioprotectant and decay fungus, and lowest with the bioprotectant exposed wafers. Extracts of wood wafers after 2, 4, or 6 weeks of funga...
C M Sexton, J J Morrell

Oxalate production and calcium oxalate accumulation by Gloeophyllum trabeum in buffered cultures
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10075
Most basidiomycetous fungi produce oxalic acid as a result of their metabolic activities and nutrient procurement. There is currently a renewed interest in the role that oxalic acid may play in the decomposition of wood by basidiomycete fungi. It has been observed that although most wood degrading fungi have the capacity to produce oxalic acid, not all of these organisms express this capacity equa...
J H Connolly, J Jellison

Preliminary studies on cellulase production by selected Basidiomycetes and the effect of copper-chrome-arsenate on these enzymes
1980 - IRG/WP 1122
The growth of wood-destroying fungi on ligno-cellulosic materials depends on the production of many enzymes, of which probably the most important is the multi component cellulase system. Within this system, at least three different kinds of enzym are believed to be involved in crystalline cellulose decomposition. These are endo-1,4-glucanase, exo-1,4-ß glucanase and ß-glucosidase. Most of the re...
O Collett

Evaluation of substituted isothiazolone as a potential new wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3306
Laboratory decay tests were carried out with isothiazolone (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolone-3-one) treated wood. This compound was found to be extremely effective against three common wood decaying brown-rot fungi, exhibiting toxic threshold values in the range of 0.37 to 0.50 kg/m³. For the white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, the toxic threshold values for treated pine and sweetgum wer...
D D Nicholas, A F Preston, D E Greenley, S V Parikh

The efficacy of remedial treatments for controlling fungal decay in window millwork used in the United States
1987 - IRG/WP 3432
Conventional window millwork was subjected to basidiomycete decay by inoculation and sampled for active growth of the decay fungus before and eight months after remedial preservative treatment with fused disodium octaborate rods (IMPEL) at boric acid levels of 1.5 and 4.0 kg/m³ or liquid bifluoride injections (IMPROSOL) at 1 kg/m³. The elimination of decay fungus after remedial treatment was nea...
M G Dietz, E L Schmidt

Natural decay resistance of some lesser-used tropical hardwoods from Ghana
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10438
Ghana is a tropical African country that is rich in diverse timber species. In order to reduce over-exploitation of the popular timber species and increase the resource base for the wood industry, lesser-used or lesser-known timber species are being promoted locally and for export. To do this successfully, it is essential to determine the physical, mechanical and biological properties of these tim...
S A Amartey, F R Hanson

In vitro sporulation of selected wood decay fungi
1978 - IRG/WP 190
Basidiospores produced axenically without laborious attention in the laboratory are useful in studies of wood decay initiation. Such spores presumably approach those collected from natural sporophores in size and germinability (Morton, 1964). Production of spores in vitro by inversion of cultures grown on 2% malt extract agar in deep glass dishes (100x80 mm²) has been the preferred method (Morton...
E L Schmidt, D W French

Moisture requirements and wood degradation of pine and spruce wood by some Basidiomycetes-fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1406
The minimum moisture requirements for the growth of the brown rot fungi, Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula lacrymans were near or above the fibre saturation point of pine and spruce, sap and heartwood, during 160 days incubation according to the standard method EN 113. The moisture of wood for the optimum growth of Coniophora puteana and Serpula lacrymans was about 35-80% and fo...
H Viitanen, A-C Ritschkoff

Improvement of wood decay resistance by tannin impregnation
1991 - IRG/WP 2380
The fungical effect of tannins is appraised after exposure of treated woods samples to wood rotting fungi. A screening-test is carried out with several solutions containing extracts of two kinds of tannins; a condensed tannin derived from Quebracho heartwood (Schinopsis sp.) and a hydrolyzable one extracted from chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa Mill). If a fungicidal action was indeed found it ...
D Dirol, A Scalbert

Contradiction between uptake of preservative in practical situation and laboratory testing
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2392
By brush treatment water- and solvent-based products were applied on boards of Scots pine and Norway spruce to achieve an uptake of 100 and 200 g/ml. In addition the scope of work to achieve the required uptake of preservative was determined under practical conditions for both product groups. EN 113 (RAL-GZ 830) tests were carried out to test the biological efficacy of products. After 18 months ex...
R Gründlinger, O Janotta, M Melzer

A serial exposure technique for estimating probable service life of treated timber
1978 - IRG/WP 2111
This paper briefly describes part of our preliminary work aimed at developing a test procedure that culd be adopted as a standard method. A detailed version of the work has been submitted for formal publication. In both papers, the aim is to promote interest in extended laboratory testing of wood preservatives. It is believed that this work may provide the basis of a laboratory test procedure from...
J A Butcher

A chemical and mycological evaluation of fused borate rods and a borate/glycol solution for remedial treatment of window joinery
1983 - IRG/WP 3225
The possibility of using fused borate rods (Impel Borpatron) and a borate/glycol solution (Boracol-40) for depot impregnation of window joinery has been examined in a co-operative project between The Swedish Forest Products Research Laboratory, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Prolignum AB. The fused Impel rod is a glassy rod composed of disodium octaborate which readily dissolv...
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, A Käärik, P-E Dickèr

Low polymer levels containing bioactive monomer polymerized in situ provide resistance to Gloeophyllum trabeum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30066
Wood preservation based on in situ polymerization of potentially bioactive monomers has been studied. Tributyltin oxide acrylate (TBTOA) and pentachlorophenol acrylate (PCPA) were synthesized. Wood samples were treated at 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight solutions with varying amounts of crosslinker (trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, TMPTM) and polymerized in situ in wood samples (2.54 x 2.54 x 0....
R E Ibach, R M Rowell

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