Your search resulted in 473 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Light organic solvent preservative treatment of glue-laminated radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3380
The high permeability of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is associated with ray-tissue and in particular the cross-field pits linking ray-tissue to tracheids. This pathway is absent in the tangential grain direction, leading to poor preservative penetration when treatment is restricted to the radial face - for example, timber fabricated into glue-laminated beams....
A laboratory evaluation of the susceptibility to biological attack of glued laminated pine timber
1991 - IRG/WP 2387
In the scope of a research programme concerning the use of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) to produce glued laminated timber structures in Portugal, the natural durability of this material was checked by using laboratory test methods. An European standard, EN 113, was used to test durability against basidiomycetes and a test method developed at LNEC for termites was adapted for this purpose. From t...
L Nunes, H Cruz
Improving the weather resistance of glue-laminated jarrah and karri
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40017
Surface modification and dimensional stabilisation significantly increased the dry and wet shear strength of karri and jarrah lap-shear specimens (laminates) bonded with resorcinol formaldehyde. The combination of surface modification (sanding/sodium hydroxide treatment), and furfurylation produced the highest dry and wet shear strengths. Acetylated laminates had the lowest dry bond strength, but ...
J Balfas, P D Evans
Remedial treatments of glulam = diffusion of active ingredients through glue lines from solid wood diffusable preservatives
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30117
Diffusable preservatives are very suitable for use in remedial treatments of laminated beams in which too high moisture content involves the development of wood destroying fungi. The diffusion of active ingredients (boric acid, disodium octoborate, bifluoride) is well observed in solid wood but in a composite wood, the glue lines may appear not only as a barrier for the diffusion but also, may be ...
D Dirol, S Mouras
A summary of history and use of timber bridges in New Zealand
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40801
Wooden bridges have been an important part of road and rail networks in New Zealand. While wooden structures have largely been replaced by concrete and steel on major arteries they still have a place where lightweight, easily assembled structures are needed. These timber bridges may also be a cheaper alternative to other materials in roads which carry relatively low traffic loads. In the last ten ...
D Page, T Singh
The performance of glue laminated railway ties after 40 years of service in the main line track
1989 - IRG/WP 2325
Two series of horizontally glue laminated ties made of a softwood body and topped with a hardwood lamination were creosoted and installed in 1947 in a tangent and a curved main line track. The tests are now 40 years old and the excellent condition of the ties of these two series suggest that a service life of 50-60 years can be expected....
J P Hösli, E E Doyle, C P Bird, T Lee
Sawn timber of fir (Abies alba Mill.) - Treatability and usability for the Hazard Classes 3 and 4
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40147
Within a national research project, tests on the treatability on sawn timber of fir (Abies alba Mill.) in oscillation pressure, vacuum pressure and double-vacuum processes have been worked out with 95 trunks taken from 3 different altitude levels (up to a height of 590 metres, 600 to 990 metres and over 1000 metres) and from 4 different regions of Switzerland. As the treatability of round wood can...
E Graf, T Bör
Glue laminated poles - Progress report after 12 years' testing
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3685
In 1979 a number of glued laminated poles treated with CCA and creosote were placed in a greenhouse at Uppsala, at the Simlångsdalen test field in southern Sweden and under a power line just south of the Arctic circle in order to study their resistance against biological degradation. The tests have shown that the comparatively best performance will be obtained if each laminate is first treated wi...
J Jermer, Ö Bergman
Monitoring a Timber Bridge in Norway
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40282
We have instrumented three different timber bridges in Norway for the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. The goal was to learn more about the properties of timber bridges. We have instrumented Evenstad Bridge, Daleråsen Bridge and the last year Flisa Bridge. All bridges are have creosoted glulam trusses and creosoted stress laminated deck. Evenstad and Flisa have an asphalt deck on top, while...
F G Evans
Risk of extension of Hylotrupes bajulus attack in glued laminated timber
1977 - IRG/WP 278
Although efficient work-methods and maintenance procedures, which prevent the wood from becoming damp and are therefore successful in considerably reducing and even in excluding the risks of decay, such methods are ineffective in eliminating the risks of infestation and destruction of timber by the House Longhorn Beetle, Hylotrupes bajulus, the chief enemy of softwood timber structures. The possib...
Effects Of Wood Preservative On Mechanical Properties Of Glulam Manufactured From Lower Density Malaysian Tropical Timber
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40590
This study is to investigate the effect of wood preservative on the mechanical properties of glulam timbers made from low density Malaysian hardwood timbers. Utilization of lower density Malaysian tropical timber for structural applications have not exploited extensively due to their inferior strength. By converting into treated glued laminated (glulam) timbers it could offer the possibility of th...
L Francis, Z Ahmad
The durability of manufactured structural building materials
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40718
The projected market potential for Engineered Wood Products such as CLT (cross laminated timber) is very positive however, potential prolonged rain leakage or moisture exposure during construction and in-service could pose considerable concern for its durability and reputation. This research was conducted to assess the decay resistance of CLT and OSB (oriented strand board) in an accelerated trial...
T Singh, D Page
Durability of energy efficient wooden buildings: a building physical point of view
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40812
The drive for more energy efficient and sustainable buildings resulted in an increased popularity of wooden buildings, even in countries with a masonry tradition. Often guidelines and prescriptions then are copied from other countries. Different climatic boundary conditions and tradition of finishing, though, do require different moisture tolerance criteria. This is clearly the case for water vapo...
S Roels, J Langmans
Self-Extinguishment Phenomena of Mass Timber in Medium-Scale Compartment Fires
2018 - IRG/WP 18-30729
This paper presents a review of the fire safety risks that mass timber construction may introduce in buildings, with special consideration to medium- and high-rise buildings. These main risks are represented by an effect to the classical fire safety strategy for buildings: (1) Compartmentalisation, to ensure that the fire will not spread farther than the compartment of origin, (2) Preventing verti...
C Gorska, J P Hidalgo
Preservative Treatment of CLT: An Example at Shimojishima Airport
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30748
Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new construction method that allows multi-storey construction using solid wood instead of concrete or steel. It is a method favoured by progressive architects and recognized for its much lower environmental footprint. Wood is an excellent construction material and is a long-term carbon sink that also performs well in the event of earthquakes and fire....
J Lloyd, N Yamashita, A Taylor
Durability testing of mass timber building elements: a call for a collaborative trial
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40875
Mass timber buildings have captured the imagination of architects and engineers seeking more environmentally friendly building materials. The mass timber movement has tremendous potential to markedly increase timber use in mid-rise to high rise buildings. With great promise, however, comes great risk. Most mass timber structures that have been built or are being planned use no protective treatm...
J J Morrell
Experimental study on compressive strength performance of cross laminated timber with biodeterioration damage
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40883
The mass timber construction has attracted attention around the world. The reasons are due to the environmental impacts and the potential of the strength performance and quantity of the wood. Nowadays, CLT is one of the most important materials for the timber constructions. If we use CLT as a building material, we should consider the biodegradation risk for long time use. From an estimation of fut...
T Mori, Y Otsubo, R Inoue, M Ikeda, K Kambara, W Ohmura
Estimation of residual compressive strength on cross laminated timber with biodeterioration damage
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40918
CLT is susceptible to biodeterioration such as fungal decay and termite attack during long-term use for buildings. It is necessary to know the residual strength performance of biodegraded CLT for estimating future performance and aging of CLT. In this study, compression tests of CLT damaged by brown rot fungi and termites were conducted to clarify the relationship between residual strength and mas...
R Inoue, T Mori, K Kambara, W Ohmura
Preliminary investigation for preservation method of CLT using non-pressure treatment
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40919
Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) is increasingly being used in residential and non-residential construction around the world, and some of these areas are at high risk of biodeterioration. Addition to moisture management of construction, preservative treatment of CLT may be needed to prevent decay and termite attack in the area. Pressure treatment being most reliable, is not feasible due to the large d...
T Miyauchi, Y Ohashi, J Miyazaki, R Takanashi, H Shibui, S Isaji, T Shigeyama, Y Sugai, A Yamamoto, T Hramiishi, T Mori, H Matsunaga
Carbon footprint of a cross laminated timber building – Torvbraten school case study
2021 - IRG/WP 21-50366
Torvbråten school is a public school in Asker, Norway, that has reached many sustainability goals. The school was the second in Norway to have Nordic Swan Ecolabel and has a 60 % reduction in carbon footprint compared to the reference benchmark. The building is made of cross laminated timber (CLT) and extensive wood use in general. From a wood protection viewpoint, will this sustainability sustai...
L G F Tellnes, J K Naess, M R Hanssen, P-O Flate
Post-layup protection of mass timber elements in above ground protected exposures: 2-year results
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30766
Mass timber has seen increased use as a building material for low and mid-rise construction in recent decades. The durability of mass timber elements has not been fully examined and the effects of wood destroying organisms on this these materials merits attention. The effectiveness of currently labeled soil termiticides and passively applied biocides at post-construction or as remedial agents need...
M E Mankowski, T G Shelton, G T Kirker, J J Morrell
Utilization of Pressure Treated Lumber in Cross Laminated Timber Manufacture and its Impact on Bondline
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40953
Mass timber building construction is increasing dramatically across North America which presents challenges to these structures not seen in Northern Europe. Large parts of the United States harbor termites and existing mass timber building technologies that rely solely on moisture exclusion to increase durability are insufficient in these areas. The successful expansion of mass timber construction...
G Presley, C Wainscott, J Valenti, S Noble
A Comparison of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Floor Panels using Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Fire Testing
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40955
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new timber product and has gained popularity in North America and Europe as a construction material. As a sustainable engineered timber product, CLT offers many advantages over solid wood, concrete, or steel construction. However, the use of timber in medium to high rise buildings is often avoided mainly due to its combustible nature. In this paper, a n...
M Yasir, A Macilwraith, K Ruane
Solvent drying and preservation of timber
1977 - IRG/WP 381
Processes which combine drying and preservation are first reviewed. Some preliminary experiments are then described in which blocks of green Sitka spruce sapwood were immersed, in a solution of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in methanol at 60°C. Satisfactory penetration of the preservative and exchange of methanol and water occurred in a few hours. The methanol was removed rapidly from the wood by evap...
J A Petty
Screening potential preservatives against stain and mould fungi on pine timber in Zimbabwe
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30063
The search for environmentally and toxicologically safer chemicals for use in the timber preservative industry against stain and mould fungi has been intensified during the past few years. Results of field tests with two chemicals previously evaluated in the laboratory are presented. The conventional sodium pentachlorophenate was the more efficacious chemical against stain and mould fungi, providi...
A J Masuka