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The whitening cause of Korean wooden heritage by flame retardant treatment
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20560
Korean wooden heritage used to treat by flame retardants in order to protect fire. There are 2 types flame retardant using for wooden heritage. These flame retardants treatment are basic measure that apply to wooden heritage along with other fire protection. The flame retardants cause white stains by reacting with Korean traditional wood painting (Dancheong) and increase wood humidity. The Korean ...
Jin Qyu Kim, Gyu-Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung, Hwa Soo Lee, Dong Won Son


Study on the Effects of Flame Retardant in Dancheong for Korea Wooden Cultural Heritage
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40692
This study identifies the effect of the agent depending on environment change and conducted basic study to prepare criteria for stable application. Dancheong sample, which is similar to wooden cultural heritage, was manufactured to study the effect of the agent on dancheong. Regular observation on the samples located in inland and shoreline area in the country detected visible phenomena. Whitening...
Hwa Soo Lee, So Jung Lee, Gyu Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung


Fungal and bacterial attack of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from a water-cooling tower
1991 - IRG/WP 1488
Transmission electron microscopy of decaying CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from an industrial water cooling tower showed presence of a thick biofilm covering some areas of the wood. The biofilm contained various morphologically distinct forms of microorganisms embedded in a slime. The study provided evidence of the activity of soft rot fungi and tunnelling and erosion bacteria in wood cells. T...
A P Singh, M E Hedley, D R Page, C S Han, K Atisongkroh


Treatability of Siberian larch and spruce with chromated copper arsenate
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40060
Heartwood of Siberian larch (Larix gmelini) and spruce (Picea jezoensis) was pressure treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) Type B using a full cell process. Larch heartwood was somewhat difficult to treat than the spruce, although both species did not meet a minimum requirements of penetration and retention specified by the American Wood Preservers' Association (AWPA) for difficul...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Woo-Gue Jee, Jae-Jin Kim


Leaching of CCA components from treated wood under acidic conditions
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50004
The leaching of CCA components from treated wood under acidic conditions were investigated. Western hemlock treated with three types of CCA and two levels of target retention was subjected to leaching at four different levels of pH. After leaching tests, leached samples were subjected to laboratory decay and soft rot tests. The amount of CCA components leached was dependent on acidity of leaching ...
Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Bending properties of TCMTB-treated Southern pine sapwood using supercritical carbon dioxide impregnation process
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40080
The effects of elevated pressure and treatment with thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) on the bending properties of Southern pine sapwood were evaluated at pressures ranging from 1,800 to 3,600 psi. All bending properties were affected to some extent by supercritical fluid treatment. Modulus of elasticity and work to maximum load were not significantly affected by pressure levels. Modulus of...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, S Kumar, E S Demessie, K L Levien, J J Morrell


The role of third party independent inspection agency for wood preservation industry in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20425
This presentation attempts to provide a brief historical background and a current status report on the wood preservation industry in China. In addition, it will briefly introduce the need for building the quality control procedures and China wood protection Quality Supervision and Testing Center, a third-party inspection agency. Besides, some suggestions of this industry are proposed for its furth...
Zhenzhong Tang, Changsheng Shen, Yujie Han, Changming Song


Leaching and fixation characteristics of chrome-copper-fluoride-zinc (CCFZ) treated wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30096
The leaching characteristics of radiata pine sapwood blocks treated with CCFZ were evaluated by the AWPA standard leaching test. The rate of fixation of the preservative components in CCFZ treated radiata pine were also evaluated by quantitative analysis of solution expressed from the treated wood. Both leaching and fixation characteristics of CCFZ were compared with CCA-Type C treated wood sample...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Jong-Bum Ra


Which fungi should be included in the laboratory evaluation of anti-stain chemicals?
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20236
Test fungi for efficacy tests of anti-stain formulations were selected based on the assumptions that test fungi should be fungicide-tolerant antagonists and fungi resistant to both fungicides and fungicide- tolerant antagonists, and such fungi should be re-isolated from treated samples with the highest fungicidal concentration used for laboratory evaluation of fungicides. This paper discusses the ...
Hyung-Jun Kim, Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Monitoring the potential biological control agent Cartapip
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10365
Attempts to biocontrol woodstain caused by Ophiostoma species led to the development of an O. piliferum colorless mutant - Cartapip (AgraSoL). The mutant's ability to prevent sapstain of stored logs and lumber is tested in a variety of field trials in Germany, England, Canada and New Zealand. To carry out biocontrol field trials, users have to obtain a permit from a regulatory agency and ...
S Schröder, K Sterfinger, Seong Hwan Kim, C Breuil


Mold and stain fungi associated with Radiata pine logs imported from New Zealand
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10346
The Korean sawmills have recently realized the importance of prevention of fungal discoloration due to increased losses in revenue. Before establishing integrated control strategies of fungal discoloration, more complete knowledge about causal organisms is needed. As a first step, we initiated a through survey of mold and stain fungi colonized commercially important softwood species (Pinus densifl...
Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Fixation and leaching characteristics of Douglas-fir treated with CCA-C
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50213
Fixation and leaching characteristics of CCA-treated Douglas-fir was evaluated using the expressate method and the AWPA E11-97 leaching procedure. CCA fixation, as monitored by the chromium reduction, was much faster in heartwood than in sapwood; however, copper and arsenic fixation in heartwood appeared to be incomplete regardless of the extension of fixation time. This poor fixation of copper a...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Yun-Sang Song, Dong-heub Lee


Evaluating the Process of ACQ-Treated Woods with TGAand CEM Analysis
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20374
To provide an understanding of the fundamental thermal behaviour and the disposal-end products of ACQ-treated woods, this study is comprised of two categories of examination. The first is related to the use of TGA under different thermal decomposition conditions (nitrogen or air, and 5 or 40 oC/min), and the use of EDX to examine certain residual elements of the char. The second applies the CEM ...
Han Chien Lin, Tsang-Chyi Shiah, Jung Ting Tsai


Laser stain removal of fungus-induced stains on paper-based cultural relics
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40389
Laser techniques has been developed and applied in commercial use for 40 years, but it has not been used successfully to remove stains from paper-based cultural relics . The purpose of this study was to investigate the paper cleaning by using a technique of Nd-YAG laser. Artificial stained papers were inoculated with fungi and then were treated at different laser cleaning parameters, in order to f...
Tsang-Chyi Shiah, Han Chien Lin


Development of preservative treatment method using sub and super critical carbon dioxide
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40385
Significant efforts have been devoted for developing biocide impregnation method into wood materials using supercritical fluid. Developing better understandings of fluid phase and its effect on treatment results would facilitate a more rational development of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation. In this project, the preservative treatabilities under super- and sub-critical fluid conditions we...
Myeung-Won Cho, Sung-Mo Kang, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Optimization of oxalic acid production for bioleaching of metal components from CCA-treated wood by an unknown Polyporales sp. KUC8959
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50266
A brown-rot fungus, an unknown Polyporales sp. KUC8959, has recently been identified and proven as a prominent fungal species for bioremediation of CCA-treated wood wastes in our Lab. The fungus produced a larger amount of oxalic acid than other fungi tested, and removed 90 % or more of chromium, copper and arsenic from CCA-treated wood sawdust through bioleaching process. The bioleaching process ...
Yong-Seok Choi, Min-Ji Kim, Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Effects of intumescent formulation of vinyl acetate-based coating on flame-retardancy of thin painted red lauan (Parashorea spp.) plywood
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40537
Using intumescent coatings on wood-based materials is an effective method for fire safety. The intumescent coatings consist of four major components: (1) binder resin (BR), (2) carbonizing substance (CS), (3) foam producing substance (FPS) and (4) dehydrating agent (DA). Previous studies have demonstrated that the formulation of the four components strongly influences the performance of coatings. ...
Chih-Shen Chuang, Kuang-Chung Tsai, Te-Hsin Yang, Ming-Kuang Wang, Chun-Han Ko


Fungal biodegradation of CCA-treated wood wastes
2011 - IRG/WP 10-50276
Fungal biodegradation could be employed as a pretreatment method to alleviate problems caused by landfill disposal of CCA-treated wood wastes (e.g. a shortage of landfill space and a release of leacheate). It could be used to decrease the volume of waste and to remove metals from waste simultaneously. We have screened hundreds of decay fungi, including fungi isolated from CCA-treated wood in servi...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Yong-Seok Choi, Jae-Jin Kim


Performance of Zinc Borate-Treated Oriented Structural Straw Board against Mold Fungi, Decay Fungi and Termites–A Preliminary Trial
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40571
The performance of zinc borate (ZB)-treated oriented structural straw board (OSSB) against mold fungi, decay fungi and termites was examined in standard laboratory evaluations. OSSB was fabricated with split wheat straw and diphenylmethane diisocyante (pMDI) resin. The ZB was added during panel manufacture to achieve preservative levels (wt.%) of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 3.0%. Untreated (0.0% ZB) OSS...
Guangping Han, M Manning, Wanli Cheng, E Pierre, W Wasylciw


Fixation and leaching characteristics of Malaysian tropical hardwoods treated with CCA-C
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50289
The fixation and leaching characteristics of 8 Malaysian tropical hardwood (MTH) species treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C) wood preservative were examined. The species evaluated were Acacia (Acacia mangium), Bintangor (Calophyllum sp.), Geronggang (Cratoxylon arborescens), Medang (Litsea sp.), Meranti rambai daun (Shorea acuminata), Putat (Planchonia sp.), Ramin (Gonystylus sp.) and S...
S Salim, S Shahomlail, Z Ashaari, Yong-Seok Choi, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Hydroponic Phytoremediation of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Copper Contaminated Water
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50304
The removal of selected metals by duckweed (Lemna minor) and parrotfeather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) from a simulated aqueous environment contaminated with Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and copper sulfate was studied in a controlled laboratory experiment. The duckweed and parrotfeather’s tissues were analyzed to evaluate the removal of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As) from CCA cont...
C Keith, H Borazjani, S Diehl, Y Su, Fengxian Han, B Baldwin