Your search resulted in 210 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Interaction mechanisms of F/Cr/As/B type preservative and wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3183
The paper reports results of investigations on the fixation of the components of a F/Cr/As/B preservative in wood and its lignin and cellulosic components....
N Ermush, I Andersone
Contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30216
The contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine was investigated. Holocellulose, lignin and xylan absorbed significant amount of copper. The amount of copper absorbed by cellulose was almost negligible. The removal of extractive also decreased the amount of copper absorption. This study clearly indicates the importance of lignin, hemicellulose in the absorption of copper amin...
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang
The effects of heat treatment on the toughness of beech wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40283
The effects of heat treatment on toughness of beech (Fagus orientalis) wood naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 5 x 5 x 5 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at three different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C and 180 °C) and three different durations (2 h, 6 h and 10 h) under air atmospheres. ...
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, Ali Temiz, E Dizman
Susceptibility of angiosperm sapwood to white-rot fungal colonization and subsequent degradation: a hypothesis
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10211
It has long been recognized that angiosperm sapwood in nature is relatively easily and preferentially degraded by white-rot fungi. This susceptibility to white-rot fungi is generally believed to be mainly caused by the structure and concentration of angiosperm lignin. However, an explicit explanation as to why lignin structure makes a particular wood vulnerable to white-rot colonisation and subseq...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas
Étude in vitro de la colonisation et de la dégradation structural du bois de hêtre par Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quélet
1976 - IRG/WP 158
L'attaque du bois de Hêtre par Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quélet, agent de pourriture fibreuse blanche est étudiée après des périodes d'exposition à ce champignon variant de 15 jours à trois mois. L'observation des premiers stades, c'est à dire de la colonisation du bois par les filaments de champignon est faite en microscopie optique, puis au fur et à m...
Proposed degradation pathway for quaternary ammonium compounds by mould fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10166
One group of chemicals that has attracted considerable attention as potential wood preservatives are the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Based upon results of previous research this study confirmed the degradation pathway employed in QAC-tolerant fungi. For this experiment the two dialkylammonium compounds didecyldimethylammonnium chloride and dioctyldimethylammonium chloride were used. QAC-...
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick
Towards a colour assay of wood degradation
1982 - IRG/WP 2180
A colour assay for the enzyme catalase is described. Since the activity of this enzyme has previously been shown to be correlated with degree of wood degradation as determined by other methods, this assay may provide a rapid quantitative indicator of superficial and internal wood decay....
M A Line
Use of fluorescent-coupled lectins as probes for studying fungal degradation of wood
1986 - IRG/WP 1288
The ability of the fluorescent-coupled lectins wheat germ agglutin (WGA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) to react with selected Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Fungi Imperfecti was evaluated using pure cultures of 35 fungi grown on malt extract agar. WGA, which binds specifically to the n-acetylglucosamine residues found in fungal chitin, reacted with nearly all hyaline fungal structures but did not r...
J J Morrell, R L Krahmer, L C Lin
Immunogold labelling of size marker proteins in brown rot-degraded pine wood
1990 - IRG/WP 1428
Pine wood degraded by Fomitopsis pinicola was infiltrated with a mixture of ovalbumin (45 kDa) and myoglobin (16.7 kDa). After crosslinking of the proteins with glutaraldehyde and preparation for electron microscopy ultrathin sections were labeled with gold-conjugated antibodies. Simultaneous labeling of both proteins on the same section showed that at 50-70% weight loss ovalbumin did not penetrat...
E Srebotnik, K Messner
Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 2: Redox states of chromium
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10164
Concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with metal-based preservatives, such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Of particular concern is the toxic redox state of chromium and arsenic in aging and decayed CCA-treated wood. Generally, hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromium and trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic. The desired ...
B Illman, S Bajt, T L Highley
The permanence of permethrin in wood preservation
1984 - IRG/WP 3288
The permanence of the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin in treated wood has been assessed for double vacuum and immersion treated Scots pine sapwood and whitewood using a 0.5% m/m solution of the insecticide in a hydrocarbon solvent. It is concluded that for all but the outermost 0.5 mm of the treated battens the distribution of the permethrin is relatively permanent. The outermost 0.5 mm appears vu...
R J Orsler, M W S Stone
Biological degradation resistance of pine wood treated with dimethylol compounds
1989 - IRG/WP 3528
The study reports the increase of dimensional stability and biological degradation resistance of pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L) after impregnation with dimethyloldibydroxyethyleneurea. Decay resistance was determined according to BS 838:961. Nearly complete protection against Coniophora puteana, (Schum.ex Fr. Karst) weight loss of 2-3% was shown when modification, expressed as weight gain, exceede...
C L Videlov
Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in wood decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi
1985 - IRG/WP 1256
To gain further understanding of the role of H2O2 in wood degradation by brown- and white-rot fungi, we studied the following: (a) extracellular H2O2 production, (b) effect of various hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet O2 (1O2) quenching agents on wood and cellulose degradation, (c) intracellular H2O2 production and catalase activity, and (d) cytochemical localization of H2O2 with diaminobenzidin...
T L Highley, L L Murmanis
Effect of felling time related to lunar calendar on the durability of wood and bamboo
-Fungal degradation during above ground exposure test for 2 years- (Preliminary report)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20311
Current study was carried out to know whether the felling time of trees and bamboos based on lunar calendar affects natural durability of felled wood-bamboo or not. Each of one sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) tree of 28 years old and one Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) of around 3 years old was cut 12 times between February and December in 2003. Six sets of sugi tree and bamboo were felled in ...
K Yamamoto, S Uesugi, K Kawakami
Degradation of the normal fibre walls of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) by the tropical blue-stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10286
Rubberwood was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to the common tropical sapstain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae for four weeks to study hyphal colonisation of wood cells and to determine if this fungus also degraded lignified normal fibre cell walls in addition to the walls of non-lignified elements. Light microscopy revealed relatively large ...
A A H Wong, A P Singh
Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh
Wood degradation mechanisms by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10229
A mechanism for the degradation of wood by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum is outlined. The mechanism includes the function of redox-cycling, low molecular weight phenolic derivatives which sequester and reduce iron in acidic environments. The role of oxalate for the sequestration of iron (hydr)oxides and the pH dependent transfer of iron to the G. trabeum phenolic chelators, as well as ...
B Goodell, J Jellison
Stability and performance of tributyltin compounds
1984 - IRG/WP 3275
Based on the critical examinations of the disputable permanence of tributyltin compounds in wood, this paper deals with a number of examinations of the relative evaporation, thermal stability and oxidation stability of some TBT-compounds. While thermal and oxidative stability is high for all TBT-species, the relative evaporation at elevated temperature is highly variable, and lowest for the TBT-es...
F Imsgard, B Jensen, H A B Landsiedel, H Plum
Analysis of degradation observed on ancient wooden objects buried underground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10403
Ancient wooden objects were sometimes excavated from the moat of mounded tombs in Japan. Such wooden objects were in the shape of a sunshade, bird, shield, pole, yugi(a bag that holds arrows) among others. Archaeologists discussed the usage of such shaped objects, but no one could clearly explain their use. Some objects were observed using an ordinary microscope. Deterioration by bacteria was foun...
Evaluation of New Zealand staining fungi for degradation of radiata pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10310
This investigation sought to determine the potential of selected NZ staining fungi to induce weight loss and changes in toughness (impact bending strength) and composition in unseasoned radiata pine sapwood. Furthermore, assays were performed to eveluate enzyme production by staining fungi. Sets of side-matched specimens were inoculated with Ophiostoma floccosum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and O. plurian...
A Schirp, R L Farrell, B Kreber
Immunogold localisation of catalytic domain of endocellulase in the cellulosic substrates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10205
The reaction of catalytic domain of endocellulase on the cellulosic substrates was visualised by using immunogold labelling procedures to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Polyclonal antibody was produced against the catalytic domain of endo-l, 4-ß-glucanase (EGI) from a ruminal anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus albus F-40. Immuno-TEM works showed th...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kyu Ho Myung, K Ohmiya, S Karita
Alternative technologies for wood wastes recycling - Part B: Biotreatment of PCP- and creosote-treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-18 b
Alternative technologies have been investigated to detoxify treated wood. Two classes of organic compounds are studied. Creosote-treated wood are classified in France as dangerous wood wastes. A conventional incineration could be provided for these wood wastes but the cost of this elimination could be very high (> 2000 FFR/ton). For these reasons, we have tested two kinds of new processes as al...
S Legay, P Marchal, G Labat
Ultrastructure of degraded, CCA-treated Pinus radiata wood from a marine pile
1990 - IRG/WP 1461
During an inspection of marine piles, 12 years after installation, severe degradation was noted on one of them in the vicinity of a corroded eye-bolt. The wood was dark brown in colour and tended to crumble easily. Wood fragments were examined by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were also analysed for carbohydrates and lignin. Light microscopy showed numerous ...
A P Singh, M E Hedley
Photo-discoloration and Degradation of Wood and its Stabilisation by Modification with Benzoyl Chloride
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40274
Photo degradation of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber wood) was studied under artificial accelerated weathering conditions in a Xenon test chamber. The irradiated samples were analyzed for color changes and chemical changes. Analysis of colour changes in wood surfaces by UV-Vis. irradiation was carried out using a colour measuring (CIELAB) system and chemical changes ...
K K Pandey
Kinetic of the wood degradation produced by wood decay fung
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20016
The degradation degree of a wooden structure has a direct influence on its loss of mechanical strength. It's necessary to deepen in non destructive techniques which permit to extrapolate the results obtained in laboratory to structural timber used in the building's construction. This work studies the relationship existing between the pulse velocity of ultrasonic waves and the wei...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete, A Sanchez, V Bucur