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Field testing of soil insecticides as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1294
This paper reviews field methods used to evaluate soil insecticides as termiticides by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gulfport, Mississippi. Field tests are conducted on a minimum of five "nationwide sites" in the United States to determine the efficacy of chemicals in various soil types and against different termite species. Test results of selected insecticides are presented.
R H Beal


The role of toilet paper in studies of desert subterranean termites in Arizona, USA
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10375
Toilet paper rolls were used as a substrate for observing foraging activity of Heterotermes aureus (Snyder) and Gnathamitermes perplexus (Banks) in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. Foraging was minimal during the winter months, increased in the spring, was high but erratic in the summer, and then was moderate again in the fall. H. aureus foraged within a temperature range of 7.6° to 47°C, G. perplexus foraged within a range of 9° to 49°C. Temperature had the greatest influence on the number of foragers appearing at the soil surface. Rainfall (and resulting soil moisture) greatly affected foraging in the summer. Density of H. aureus foragers was estimated to be 4.31 x 106, while the density of G. perplexus was about twice that of H. aureus. Density of H. aureus colonies was ca. 190.4 colonies/hectare with an average of 22,632 foragers/colony and an average foraging territory of 12.5m2. Together, these two species transported soil to the soil surface at a combined rate of 744.2kg/hectare/year. Both species brought up soil richer in clay and added significant quantities of organic carbon, nitrogen, PO4, Na, Mg, and soluable salts, while H. aureus alone increased soil K.
M I Haverty


Testing of termiticides in soil by a new laboratory method with regard to Phoxim for replacement of chlorinated hydrocarbons
1986 - IRG/WP 1292
In comparison to chlorinated hydrocarbons insecticides of the compound classes organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids were tested according to an earlier described soil-test in the laboratory. The following termite-species were used: Heterotermes indicola, Reticulitermes santonensis and in addition Reticulitermes flavipes, Reticulitermes lucifugus, Reticulitermes speratus and Coptotermes formosanus (Rhinotermitidae). The method gives reliable results. Criteria for evaluation are mortality and penetration of the termites into the treated soil. According to this test organophosphates, specially phoxim, have a good potential to replace chlorinated hydrocarbons.
R Pospischil


Wood-destroying Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in the oriental region
1984 - IRG/WP 1236
Species of the family Rhinotermitidae are important wood-destroying termites. From the Oriental zoogeographical region, 85 species of the family are reported of which some are wide spread and cause extensive damage to wood, wooden articles and other cellulosic products. The distribution, biology, ecology and pest status of the important wood-destroying species, in the Oriental region, are given in this contribution.
O B Chhotani


The effectiveness of deltamethrin against subterranean termites (final report)
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30011
Two series of block tests of Pinus sp were treated by dipping them for 1 (one) minute in a solution with 0.015 (w/w) and 0.05 (w/w) of deltamethrin, respectively. In both cases, an average retention of 47 kg/m³ (0.32 l/m) was reached. One part of the block tests remained under laboratory conditions during 9 months, and the other was stored during equal period of time in a theater basement submitted to high levels of temperature and humidity. Afterwards, the block tests were placed on nontreated Pinus baits on the ground at a small construction located in Petropolis-RJ-Brazil (22.32S - 43.11W) and highly exposed to subterranean termites of the species Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen, 1958). The block tests were periodically evaluated on a visual basis and given a grade ranging from 0 to 100 according to their condition of preservation. After four (4) inspections carried out during a 3-year period, the block tests treated with 0.015% of a.i. showed no significant increase in the level of attack, which was only superficial, independently of the aging process. The samples treated with 0.005% of a.i. showed an increase in the level of attack from superficial to moderate (grade 50, especially in relation to those aged under high temperature and humidity levels.
P A Zanotto


The evaluation of non-rubber extractives from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum Gray) for pesticidal worth
1986 - IRG/WP 4125
The resin obtained from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum Gray) of the southwestern United States is a potentially imporant domestic source of natural rubber, however only about 20 percent of the extractives from the plant produce this material. An effort is underway to find marketable uses for the remaining non-rubber extractives, and the Naval Research Laboratory is evaluating this resin as a potential wood protectant for use in the marine and terrestrial environments. Pine sapwood, impregnated with the resin, is currently on marine exposure in Panamanian waters and on terrestrial exposure in the Panamanian rain forest. Also, treated wood was evaluated in a laboratory force-feeding situation using the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. After 1 year in the marine environment wood containing the resin was still sound and most of the specimens were only lightly attacked by Limnoria tripunctata; a few were more heavily damaged. Untreated controls were very heavily damaged or missing. There was no molluscan borer damage to either the treated or the untreated wood. After 1 year in the rain forest none of the treated wood was attacked by termites although the baitwood was heavily damaged by species of Heterotermes, and most of it was actively termite-infested at the time of inspection. AIso at the end of 1 year there was no evidence of fungal colonization of the wood. All of the termites closeted with the resin-treated wood in the laboratory force-feeding situaion died within 20 days. Mortality was apparently caused by a combination of starvation and the increasing concentration of resin volatiles within the test chambers.
J D Bultman, R H Beal, C A Bailey, W W Schloman


Soil termiticides: A review of efficacy data from field tests
1987 - IRG/WP 1323
This paper reports efficacy data from the field evaluation of various soil termiticides by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gulfport, Mississippi. These chemicals, which include a number of chlorinated hydrocarbon, organophosphate, pyrethroid, and carbamate insecticides in a range of concentrations, have been in long-term tests at seven field sites. Data are reported for the ground-board method and/or the concrete slab method of evaluating the effectiveness of these chemicals as termiticides.
J K Mauldin, S C Jones, R H Beal


Termite physical barriers: Update on retrofitting Granitgard around 'mock up' buildings after four years
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10140
This field experiment was installed four years ago (March 1992) to evaluate the effectiveness of graded crushed granite stone, commercially marketed under the name, Granitgard, as a physical termite barrier when retrofitted around 'mock-up' buildings. The field site is located at Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee region of north-west Victoria (360 km from Melbourne), and there are eight common indigenous subterranean termite species at the site. This paper describes the results of the field evaluation after four years in test using Granitgard as a retrofitted termite physical barrier. No termites penetrated the Granitgard barriers, with and without chlorpyrifos treatments. We discuss these findings and their implications in the protection of timber structures in areas in which there are naturally foraging populations of subterranean termites.
B M Ahmed, J R J French


Depth of foraging of subterranean termites in tropical Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10141
Stakes of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) of varying lengths to 800 mm were inserted vertically in the soil with all but their lower 100 mm sheathed in a capped UPVC tube representing a physical barrier to termites. In one series of trials, termites were encouraged to aggregate at the upper ends of the tubes, in order to determine whether they would descend to the lower end of the barrier. In a second trial stakes were relatively isolated and inserted with minimum soil disturbance. In both trials all barrier lengths, namely 300, 400, 500, 600 & 700 mm failed to prevent termite attack on the lower ends of the stakes. Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt), Schedorhinotermes breinli (Hill), Schedorhinotermes actuosus (Hill), Heterotermes validus Hill and Heterotermes vagus (Hill) all attacked stakes at a depth between 700 & 800 mm. This factor should be taken into account when considering the design of protective barriers, whether chemical or physical, for buildings or other timber in service.
L R Miller, M Hoschke, M Neal


Evaluation of tropical wood by-products as a potential source for termite control products
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10408
Termites damaging in houses represent an ever growing threat in Europe, where the phenomenon has accelerated during the last ten years, as well as in the tropics, where infestations are permanent. To fight against this plague, the current methods used, through injection of organochloric or organophosphorized products into the timber structures and walls, are belonging to the past due to the toxicity and harmful consequences of their use on the environment. New techniques were developed and research organisations are still working on minimizing the environmental impacts through the elaboration of new products. Some tropical wood species from French overseas territories (mainly French Guyana), like Ocotea rubra, Licaria canella and Aniba parviflora (Lauraceae), contain repellent, antifeeding or toxic substances which might be extracted to obtain molecules to be used for new wood preservatives. CNRS and CIRAD-Forêt are currently elaborating techniques that will allow to discriminate the possible effects of various molecules contained in sawdusts as regards to termites. Both termite species, Heterotermes indicola and Reticulitermes santonensis, have shown different behaviours depending on the wood species. These wood species were consequently classified according to their repulsive, antifeeding or toxic effects against both termite species studied. Considering the results obtained, it would then be worthwhile to use wood wastes from sawmills. Being so, the up-grading of by-products can be the basis for formulations of new wood preservatives with low environmental impacts and still providing durability against termites to wood species with a low natural durability.
A Zaremski, S Robert, J-L Clement, D Fouquet


Major insects attacking timber used for building purposes and a practical approach for their control
1990 - IRG/WP 1449
Lignocellulosic materials like wood, bamboos, palmyra palms, reeds, leaves and grasses have been the oldest materials used by human beings. Although with the rapid pace of industrialisation, specially in several western countries, wood began to be replaced with alternative materials like cement, steel etc. yet its use has not vanished even in highly developed countries. Some of the reasons for this are its inherent advantages over other building materials. Wood is a renewable resource, economical in use, easy to work with and process and possesses adequate strength. In addition, it has better thermal, electrical and accoustic insulation properties and can withstand fire resulting in lesser damage to buildings. In developing countries, like India, where resource exploitation has not kept pace with rapid population growth, the use of wood in building construction has dwindled in preference to alternative materials due to certain reasons like:- (i) use of cement, steel, etc. is regarded as a symbol of industrial advancement, (ii) naturally durable species are becoming scarcer and costly and (iii) lack of knowledge amongst consumers, engineers, designers regarding processing techniques, scientific designing of wooden structures, choice of suitable species according to strength etc. The component of wood varies from 10-15 percent of the total building cost (1) Presently it is reported that nearly 3 million cum. is utilised for building construction which is likely to increase in the near future (2) as there is a shortage of the order of 6 million urban and 18 million rural units. At several recent International consultations on the utilisation of wood in buildings, it has been emphasised that wood, as a constructional material, has not been receiving adequate attention in the training programmes of architects and engineers and that there has been a complete neglect of the large technological potential that exists for replacing solid wood by plywood, particle board, wooden board etc. Introduction of proper processing techniques, careful selection of species for the end use, proper grading practices, reduction of presently permitted safety factors through mechanical grading and improved designing and timber engineering, progressive adoption of re-constituted wood products can lead to considerable savings of wood. The ill organised state of sawmilling industry in most of the developing countries restricts investment potential for essential operations - processing, grading, design development etc. Conversion of timber in advance and stocking of graded and processed sizes and prefabricated components is not possible when units operate in a very small scale and in widely scattered locations. Lastly, sufficient education and confidence in the feasibility of timber structures are yet to be developed amongst consumers, engineers, architects and manufacturers. Apart from timber other forest based materials like bamboo, thatch grasses, leaves, reeds etc. for rural housing cannot be ignored specifically in developing countries like India, where bulk of the population lives in villages and uses these materials without processing. While several problems in the introduction of scientific processing of building materials of lignocellulosic origin, including reconstituted wood, arise due to socio-economic factors and organisation of the industry, the need for research to develop simple and economical processing techniques cannot be ignored for any developing country. It may, however, be pointed out that in India there is already enough data base on properties and working stresses of timbers, seasoning and preservation processes, timber engineering designs, use of reconstituted wood etc. Some of these aspects are briefly highlighted here.
V R Sonti, B Chatterjee


Protection for whole-of-house timbers from subterranean termites in Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20315
A field study was designed to increase maximum protection of whole-of-house timbers against subterranean termites. Concrete slab and suspended floor simulated houses were constructed using untreated and treated (slow acting toxicants) timber frames. The treated and untreated timber structures within the simulated houses were exposed with or without soil chemical and/or physical barriers in the field. Although many termite species are known to be present in this field site, the five major economic termite species found attacking either trees, the bait stations or the structural timbers were: Coptotermes spp.; Heterotermes spp., Nasutitermes spp., Schedorhinotermes spp., and Mastotermes spp. The study explores termite foraging behaviour and the termiticidal efficacy of various termite control measures used to prevent termite attack and damage of the simulated houses under natural field conditions.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden, P Blackwell, J Hann


Deltamethrin effectiveness against subterranean termite attack on wood under natural conditions
1989 - IRG/WP 1407
On fighting subterranean termites on wood, out of ground contact, the synthetic pyrethroid Deltamethrin shows positive aspects such as its efficiency and low mammalian toxicity. To evaluate its performance in conditions very similar to those in service use, specimens of Pinus sp were treated with solutions of Deltamethrin diluted in "white spirits" at 0.005% (w/w) and 0.01% (w/w) and exposed in a cottage higly infested with Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen, 1858) colonies. Previously to this exposition, the treated specimens were conditioned for nine months under two different environmental conditions: dry and damp. After the second inspection, performed sixteen months after the exposition to termite attack, it was found that only the specimens which had been subjected to damp conditions were attacked, most of them treated using the 0.005% (w/w) concentration level. The specimens treated but conditioned in a dry ambient were not attacked by subterranean termites.
P A Zanotto


Whole-of-house protection from subterranean termite attack and damage after four years of field exposure
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10665
This study reports the condition of the whole-of-house termite protection test in tropical Australia after four years. The study was designed to provide maximum protection to whole-of-house timbers in a natural situation posing the highest hazard from subterranean termite populations. The houses were constructed either on concrete slabs or suspended floors using untreated and treated timber framing. Termite foraging behaviour and the various termite control measures used to prevent termite attack and damage of the simulated houses were examined. Although many termite species are known to be present in this field site, the five major economic termite species found attacking either the bait stations or the structural timbers were: Coptotermes spp., Heterotermes spp., Nasutitermes spp., Schedorhinotermes spp. and Mastotermes spp. The results obtained after four years of field study suggested that an integrated pest management (IPM) approach based upon ecological knowledge of termites and minimisation of environmental impact of treatments enhanced the protection of the whole-of-house timber framing structures. This IPM approach includes adopting a mix of alternative strategies in termite control including chemical and physical barriers, combinations of treated and untreated timber framing and emphasise on building practices that are designed to build out termites and ensure whole-of-house protection of timber in buildings against termites for the reasonable life of the building.
B M Ahmed (Shiday), J R J French, S R Przewloka, P Vinden, J Hann, C Y Adam


Prevelence of termite infestation and wood preferences in Pakistan
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10695
In order to know about prevalence of termite infestation in Pakistan, A study was carried out to know the intensity of infestation of different species of termites to different types of woods used in buildings as well as in the forests. Heterotermes indicola was the most notorious species of termite present in buildings, grounds throughout the year while Odontotermes obesus was most common in forests. Of the different kinds of woods used in buildings, Sagwan was reported to be highly resistant in buildings. As far as public perception of termites is concerned, only 2% of the people have the knowledge about termite and its proper treatment. In the second part of study, 10 heartwoods of local timbers used in Pakistan were evaluated for their ability to resist termite damage by Heterotermes indicola. Woods were evaluated for forced feeding and not forced feeding bioassays in the laboratory as well in the field for 4- weeks. Tested woods were evaluated for Mean visual ratings, Mean wood mass loss and Mean % mass loss. At the end of experiment, in the field for H. indicola, the wood specimens were arranged in the following descending order of preference Ficus religiosa(FR)< Albizzia lebbeck (AL) < Eucalyptus citriodora(EC) < Heterophragma adenophyllum (HA) < Terminalia arjuna (TA) < Melia azedarach ( MA) < Alstonia scholaris (AS) < Abies pindrow (AP) < Pinus wallichiana (PW) < Erythrina suberosa (ES). In laboratory experiments, both by choice and No choice feeding, the woods were arranged the following order of preference Heterophragma adenophyllum (HA)< Ficus religiosa(FR)< Terminalia arjuna (TA)< Albizzia lebbeck(AL) < Pinus wallichiana (PW) < Alstonia scholaris (AS)< Erythrina suberosa (ES)< Eucalyptus citriodora (EC) < Abies pindrow (AP) < Melia azedarach ( MA).
F Manzoor, S Asma Malik


The case for using borates in termite control in tropical Australia
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30573
A brief historical overview of boron based wood preservatives efficacy against subterranean termite management worldwide, and in Australia, is presented. The boron based compounds to be used in H2 hazard conditions, may be applied as a surface treatment by dip, flood coat or spray, and rapidly penetrates to the centre of timber substrates, whether containing sapwood or heartwood. However, section 8, clause 8.2.2 (c) of the Australian Standard AS 1604.1-2010 bans the use of boron compounds for use in termite management north of the Tropic of Capricorn. In this paper we argue the case for the adoption of boron compounds in termite management systems north of the Tropic of Capricorn, as either single or multi-component biocide systems. We have searched the numerous papers for “boron and termites” in the IRG data base since 1969 to the present, and other scientific evidence from a consistent science worldview; our own results of boron against termites in our ‘whole-of-house’ above-ground and in-ground field test using simulated houses and wood stakes respectively at Nhulunbuy, Arnhem Land, in tropical Australia. In these test sites, active populations of Coptotermes spp., Heterotermes spp., Nasutiterme spp., Schedorhinotermes spp., and Mastotermes darwiniensis, were present. After 5 years in the ‘whole-of-house’ above-ground trial and 2 years of the in-ground trial, no termite damage has occurred to boron-treated timbers. Furthermore, we refer to analytical data by two NATA certified laboratories in Brisbane of the Tru-Core® Timber Preservation Process which was applied as a spray treatment from a mobile unit. This system is a boron-based multi-component biocide system, incorporating glycol borates, deltamethrin, permethrin and the fungicide propiconazole, that surpassed all the minimum requirements of AS 1604.1-2010 for the H2 status, even penetrating the heartwood of radiata pine and oregon. While, this standard does not specify the methods of preservative treatment that may be adopted to achieve the specified penetrations and retentions. It states that the standard is only intended for application in approved industrial treatment plants. In the current climate of extreme environmental challenges out standards need to broaden the scope of protection and treatment and also consider the new generation of biocides are different than the traditional wood preservatives. Standards specify the minimum requirements of a preservative to protect timber from attack and damage from termites and the document must encourage innovative systems for access into the industry and the protection of structural timbers.
B M Ahmed (Shiday), J R J French


Laboratory and Field evaluation on Natural Resistance and Feeding Preference of Different Wood Species to Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) in Pakistan
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10769
The resistance of twenty four different woods to attack and damage by subterranean termite species Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann) was evaluated by choice and no choic in laboratory and field trials. Mean wood mass loss was calculated for both laboratory and field trials results using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Mean percentage termite mortality was calculated for laboratory trials only. Results revealed that mean percentage mortality and feeding varied with different wood species. The loss in weight served as a measure of termite attack. Each wooden block was also graded by the amount of termite damage using American Wood Preservation Association (AWPA) scale 1997. Two weeks of no choice laboratory trials against H. indicola and C. heimi for all types of wooden blocks oven dried at 100°C) were used in setting the feeding preference for each species to arrange the 24 woods in descending order. Impact of temperature exhibited as directly proportional to the increased wood consumption. Choice feeding tests in laboratory and field for both test termite species exposed that both species Populus deltoides was most preferred and Dalbergia sissoo was the least preferred wood. Smilarly, same wood preference was observed for no choice field test against H. indicola. The no choice field test against C. heimi result indicated D. sissoo was least palatable and Mangifera indica was most palatable wood.
S A Malik; F Manzoor, B M Ahmed (Shiday)


Antitermitic activities of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) heartwood extractives against two termite species
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10856
Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) heartwood extractives were investigated for antitermitic activities against Heterotermes indicola and Reticulitermes flavipes. Heartwood extractives were removed from wood shavings by soxhlet extraction using (2:1) ethanol: toluene as the solvent system. Filter paper bioassays were conducted against both species to observe concentration dependent feeding response and mortality of termites. Results indicated that the highest termite mortality occurred at 10 mg/ml with a LC50 at 5.54 and 3.89 mg/ml against H. indicola and R. flavipes, respectively. Shisham extractives showed more repellency and antifeedant activity against H. indicola compared to R. flavipes. In choice and no-choice feeding bioassays with extracted and un-extracted Shisham wood blocks, increased wood loss due to termite feeding was observed on extracted blocks compared to un-extracted blocks. Higher termite mortality was also observed after feeding on un-extracted blocks compared to extracted blocks. Results also showed that extractives from Shisham imparted resistance to vacuum-pressure treated Southern pine (SYP, Pinus taeda L.) and Cottonwood (CW, Populus deltoides) against both species. These results suggest that Shisham extractives have antitermitic properties and may be potentially useful in the development of environment friendly termiticides.
B Hassan, M Mankowski, G Kirker, S Ahmed, M Misbah ul Haq


Effects of teak, Tectona grandis Linn, heartwood extractives against Heterotermes indicola (Isoptera; Rhinotermitidae)
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10910
Heartwood extractives from Tectona grandis were investigated for antitermitic activities against Heterotermes indicola in laboratory experiments. Extractives were removed from wood shavings by soxhlet extraction using an ethanol: toluene (2:1) solvent system. Termite feeding and mortality followed a concentration dependent response. The highest termite mortality occurred at an extractive concentration of 10 mg/ml. The calculated LC50 based on the concentration dependant response was 3.2 mg/ml. Extractives showed high repellency and antifeedant activity against H. indicola. Tests in which extractives were used to vacuum-pressure treat southern pine and cottonwood, showed that T. grandis extractives imparted resistance to these non-durable species. At the highest concentration of extractives tested, complete mortality was observed after termites were exposed to extractive-treated southern pine and cottonwood. Compared to solvent controls, minimum weight losses of 3.6 and 3.5% were observed for extractive-treated southern pine and cottonwood, respectively, at the 10mg/ml concentration after 28 days of exposure. Termites exposed to a subset of extractive treated then leached southern pine and cottonwood showed high mortality. These results suggest that T. grandis extractives have antitermitic properties and may be potentially useful in the development of environmentally friendly wood preservative.
B Hassan, S Ahmed, M Mankowski, G Kirker, R E Ibach, M Misbah ul Haq