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Observations on the failure of anti-sapstain treated timber under non-drying conditions
1990 - IRG/WP 1437
A range of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from antisapstain treated timber and fresh sawdust. Solution samples containing 100 ppm of TCMTB in a nutrient medium were inoculated with these organisms and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The levels of TCMTB remaining in solution were determined by HPLC analysis after this time. Results indicated high losses of active ingredient for a range of organisms. These results suggest that active biodetoxification of organic biocides could occur in a short period of time during storage of antisapstain treated timber under favourable conditions. The implications of these results are discussed.
G R Williams


Proposed degradation pathway for quaternary ammonium compounds by mould fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10166
One group of chemicals that has attracted considerable attention as potential wood preservatives are the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Based upon results of previous research this study confirmed the degradation pathway employed in QAC-tolerant fungi. For this experiment the two dialkylammonium compounds didecyldimethylammonnium chloride and dioctyldimethylammonium chloride were used. QAC-treated wood blocks were inoculated with the tolerant fungi Gliocladium roseum and Verticillium bulbillosum. After incubation the remaining QACs were extracted with acidified acetonitrilic and HPLC was used to quantify and detect the degradation products.
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick


Influence of storage on mould susceptibility of wood at relative humidity values lower than 100%
1989 - IRG/WP 1413
It is well known that wood material changes with time because of different environmental influences. The effects of such changes on the subsequent mould susceptibility are less known. In this paper we report on increased mould susceptibility of pine wood after storage. Mould growth was detected by indirect methods.
J Bjurman


Quantification of wood decay effects by HPLC analysis
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1576
The present work quantified the effects of the white rot basidiomycetes Coriolus versicolor and Phanaerochaete chrysosporium, and also those of the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Lentinus lepideus, on Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis. Wood colonisation was quantified by Kjeldahl nitrogen determinations converted to biomass assays, and degradation was quantified by weight losses produced in the wood. Degraded wood samples were then analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of hydrolysates and their sugar contents were determined to establish whether the glucose of cellulose and xylose of hemicellulose had been utilised by the respective fungi. The extent and nature of sugar utilisation by each fungus in wood was then compared with the biomass and degradation data. Statistical analyses of these comparisons correlated the extents of colonisation, degradation, and the patterns of wood sugars predominantly utilised by each fungus. It was verified that the extent of wood conversion increased with biomass production. Importantly, the result of corresponding glucose and xylose analyses confirmed the brown rot physiological capacity a cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic, whereas that of the white rotters was primarily non-cellulolytic. In contrast, these analyses also showed that the white rotter Phanaerochaete chrysosporium demonstrated some cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activity. The significance of these findings becomes apparent when colonised wood of apparent soundness is analysed as described here to determine whether or not decay was associated with such colonisation.
V Singh, M Tarin, G D Shelver, A A W Baecker


A preliminary comparison of GC, HPLC and ELISA analysis of resin acids in pulp mill effluents
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20120
Resin acids are naturally occurring diterpenoid carboxylic acids present in most Canadian softwoods. There are eight common resin acids that are classified into two groups; the abietanes and the pimaranes. During processing of wood products they can be released into the environment where they are of concern because of their acute toxicity toward fish and other aquatic life. Traditionally resin acids are analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) which requires extraction of analytes from a sample matrix, derivatization to increase analyte volatility and separation by solid phase extraction. This process is difficult, tedious and expensive but provides quantification of the individual resin acids with low detection limits. Recently a fast and simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to analyze dehydroabietic acid (DHA) directly from pulp mill effluents. Our laboratory has developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on polyclonal antibodies that was successfully used to directly quantify the abietanes in CTMP effluent.. We compared the three techniques by analysing effluent samples from the Quesnel River Pulp Mill at various stages of the pulping process. Preliminary results showed good agreement for DHA analysis between the HPLC and GC methods. Since it analyzed for all the abietanes, ELISA measured a greater proportion of the resin acids in the samples than the HPLC. The merits and disadvantages of each method will be further discussed.
A N Serreqi, K Stark, Xiumei Feng, J N Saddler, C Breuil


Bioremediation of surfactant contaminated waste
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50070
The objective of this work was to determine the potential of fungi as agents for the bioremediation of wastes (particularly wood and soil) contaminated with quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Until now only bacteria have been investigated for this purpose. Tolerant strains of Gliocladium roseum and Verticillium bulbillosum were studied for their ability to degrade the following QACs: didecyldimethylammonium chloride, cocoalkyltrimethylammonium chloride, and dicocodimethylammoium chloride. Preliminary experiments were used to determine the toxic threshold concentrations for selected QACs in solid and liquid media. As solid media, wood and soil were treatet with the different QACs and inoculated with one of the fungi. After a pre determined incubation period, the QAC was extracted from the wood and soil samples and the loss of chemical was measured by HPLC using an indirect photometric detection. Both fungi were able to degrade considerable amounts of all QACs tested under the experimental conditions.
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick


Susceptibility of antisapstain fungicides to rain wash-off
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30046
Results of trials using miniature timber packets and simulated rain wash-off are described. Six fungicidal actives in five commercial antisapstain formulations were involved, and a clear influence of rainfall timing after antisapstain treatment was demonstrated. Differences between actives and formulations were most marked where water-spray was applied in the first hour after treatment, though even when applied after a 48 hour delay there were up to ten-fold differences in the percentages mobilised. Possible mechanisms of fixation are discussed in relation to known formulation properties. Results from a full scale trial at a sawmill are also given, and comparison made with the small-scale packet experiments. It is concluded that the results were very similar. The work is extrapolated to the 'real-life' sawmill situation, and conclusions drawn as to the likely results of heavy rain exposure at different times after fungicidal treatment of timber.
R N Wakeling, D J Cross, D R Eden, P N Maynard


Estimation of mycelial biomass by determination of the ergosterol content of wood decayed by Coniophora puteana and Fomes fomentarius
1989 - IRG/WP 1415
The mycelial biomass of fungi decomposing wood materials may be estimated by the use of an ergosterol assay technique.ln decay tests, essentially according to EN 113, estimates made by HPLC analyses on wood decayed by Coniophora puteana and Fomes fomentarius show the increase in biomass in the wood blocks. The ergosterol contents were correlated with dry weight loss determinations. Degradation of wood in relation to colonization is discussed.
K Nilsson, J Bjurman


Natural Durability studies and Changes in wood chemistry of some Ghanaian hardwoods during decay by white- and brown-rot fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10542
The natural decay resistance of Esa (Celtis mildbraedii), Wawabima (Sterculia rhinopetela) and Dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum) obtained from Ghana was determined according to BS EN 113 (1997). Esa was found not durable to the white-rot, but very durable to the brown-rot; Wawabima was very durable to both white- and brown-rots; and Dahoma was durable to the white-rot, and very durable to the brown-rot. The natural durability ratings for the timbers in accordance with BS EN 350-1 (1994) are: Esa 5, Wawabima 1, and Dahoma 2. Changes in chemical composition of Esa (which has the lowest durability), when exposed to the different decay fungi at various stages of decay, were studied using HPLC, FT-IR and gravimetric methods. Results of the gravimetric and FT-IR analysis suggested that, generally, the white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) degraded the cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin simultaneously. The brown-rot fungus (Coniophora puteana) however, degraded the cellulose and hemicellulose and left the lignin virtually untouched. The HPLC results revealed that Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded the cellulose component (glucose) and the main hemicellulose component (xylose and mannose) at similar rates. However, the brown-rot fungus, Coniophora puteana degraded mannose faster than glucose and xylose. Changes in the components of the branch chains of the hemicelluloses were found to be different according to the various fungi. However, in all cases, rhamnose was consumed faster than the other components, arabinose, galactose and 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid, at the early stages of decay.
Zeen Huang, K Maher, S A Amartey


Isolation and identification of non-decay fungi affecting the performance of alkylammonium compounds
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10020
The isolation of DDAC tolerant fungi was carried out on lumber treated with a range of antisapstain chemicals containing DDAC as one of their active ingredients. The tolerant fungi were selected by using malt media spiked with DDAC (100 and 2500 ppm). Isolations were tentatively identified into a range of fungi commonly found associated with wood deterioration (i.e. Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma sp.). One particular group showed extreme tolerance to DDAC (growing at 2500 ppm) and were tentatively identified as fungi from Verticillium/Acremonium sp. DDAC was extracted from the above media and analysed using HPLC, in order to determine the fate of the DDAC once the fungi had colonised the plate.
A K Doyle, J N R Ruddick


Determination of bis-(N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper in different matrices by photometer, thermal energy analyzer and HPLC
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20179
For the quantitative analysis of bis (N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper (Cu-HDO) three analytical methods are used. The employment of the different methods depends on the matrices involved. For several years now, the colorimetric determination of Cu-HDO by photometer has been applied to solutions and concentrates of wood preservatives. In principle, the technique consists of a quantitative conversion of Cu-HDO into a Fe-complex and the measurement by photometer compared to a calibration curve in a range of 20 to 220 mg Cu-HDO per liter. The colorimetric technique is unsuited to extracts of complicated materials such as soil or wood because of disturbances due to other ingredients of these matrices. Further, the method is not suitable for samples with a concentration below 10 mg Cu-HDO per liter. In the case of difficult analytical problems in the determination of Cu-HDO (e.g. soil or air from working areas) another technique, involving the detection by Thermal Energy Analyzer (TEA), is applied. In the first step of the method, Cu-HDO sets nitrogen monoxide (NO) free by a reduction reaction with NaI / acetic acid / sulphuric acid in a laboratory converter. A helium gas flow transfers the nascent NO into the TEA. There, NO is detected by chemiluminescence which originates from its reaction with ozone. The large expenditure of work and the high costs of the instrumental equipment are handicaps for a wide use of the analysis by TEA. A new technique based on the widespread analytical system HPLC was therefore developed to determine Cu-HDO in the important matrix wood. The chipped wood sample is first leached by a mixture of methanol p.a. and 0,05 M KH2PO4-solution at room temperature and the content of the active substance subsequently analysed in the filtered extract by HPLC with UV-detection. The concentration is calculated on the basis of external standard calibration. In studies carried out on impregnated pine samples (pinus sylvestris) in different laboratories, percentage recoveries for Cu-HDO of more than 80% were achieved.
J Wittenzellner, W Hettler, M Maier


Partial characterization of inhibitors extracted from pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood active against germination of wood rotting fungi
1988 - IRG/WP 1351
Germination inhibitors in pine sapwood could be extracted and separated with the aid of solvent partitioning and chromatography on silicic acid. The inhibitory action was tested by three different bioassays. Active fractions have been characterized by TLC and HPLC. Inhibitory activity could be correlated with phenolic compounds. The minimum active concentration of inhibitors have been determined.
J Bjurman


Investigation on a Wood Decay Biomarker
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20336
HPLC evolution of beech wood extractives was investigated with or without exposure to Coriolus versicolor during one month. The nature and the quantity of extracts depends on the extraction conditions, but were also strongly influenced by the wood drying temperature and time leading to an important modification for higher drying temperature. After two weeks of exposure to Coriolus versicolor, results showed that catechin initially present in beech wood, was totally degraded, while other new products appeared. Impregnation of propiconazole before exposure to Coriolus versicolor results in total inhibition of catechin degradation allowing its use as tracer of wood degradation.
S Mounguengui, S Dumarçay, P Gérardin


Chemical Analysis in Production Quality Control at Wood Treatment Plants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20396
Analysis methods for quality control analysis in wood treatment plants have evolved with the changes in treatment preservative chemistries and analytical instrument technology. The basic hydrometer specific gravity measurements used for solution strength and classic wet chemistry methods for wood have given way to instrumental techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, automatic titrator, and HPLC. Not all of methods involve complex instrumentation, simple turbidimeters and handheld refractometers can be used for rapid solution strength testing. These newer methods are discussed in the paper as well as the increased importance of inspection and auditing of the treatment plants production by the chemical suppliers and third party inspection agencies.
P Walcheski, L Jin


Biodegration of treated wood waste by native fungal communities of tropical soil in French Guiana
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50285
Woods have been protected with fungicides for a long time, and the effects of these fungicides on soil after being leached into the ground have turned out to be a true environmental issue. It is in this perspective that we are proposing to study fungal communities of these contaminated woods in a purpose of bioremediation. Most of precedent studies have focused on ability of some Basidiomycetes and white rot fungi to degrade these biocide products. Treated and reference (non-treated) woods samples have been incubated in containers of forest soil in Guyana. The first two samplings of these woods and soils have been realized five months apart. A crop and molecular study allowed us to isolate and identify forty strains of Ascomycetes able to develop on wood and resist xenobiotics. Until now, no Ascomycete was known to resist xenobiotics. Furthermore, a study of fungal communities of the woods and soil were done by D-HPLC and SSCP, and then analyzed by ACP. According to these analyses, biocides are leached in the soil and have an impact on these fungal communities, which are different depending on time of sampling and the way wood is processed.
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, F Chaffannel, J Beauchêne, G LeFloch


Developing Analytical Methods for Determination of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (DDAC) using HPLC and HPLC-MS (Application to treating solution and preservatives treated wood)
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20516
Korea preservative treating industry has mainly used alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) expected over 80% of market share in Korea. ACQ employs dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) and benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (DBAC) for active ingredient along with copper. The strongly increasing domestic applications for wood preservatives require developing accurate and reproducible analytical methods. Although a long historical titration method has been successfully applied to quantify quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), the method cannot tell DBAC from DDAC in the analytes. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a method for the quantification of QACs in treating solutions and preservatives treated woods using HPLC and HPLC-MS. This study showed that the both HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS analysis resulted in accurate and reproducible analytical data for QACs quantification, compared to a titration method. The HPLC-MS method, however, produced more sensitive and specific results than HPLC-UV. The MS method was reliable for the determination of the pure DDAC in treating solution and preservative treated wood.
Sung-Mo Kang, Kwon-Min Kim, Won-Mo Koo, Myeong-Won Cho


In vitro fungicidal activity of Tunisian essences extracts against Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20544
Bark of six Tunisian species including cork oak (Quercus suber L.), eucalyptus camaldulensis, alder (Alnus glutinosa), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), nut pine (Pinus pinea) and Chelfi pomegranates (Punica granatum) were tested against two rot-fungi: Coriolus Versicolor (for leafy trees) and Coniophora Puteana (for conifers) according to an adaptation of the European guidelines (NF EN 113, 1986). Five concentrations from 0 to 5 % (g bark sawdust per g culture medium) were tested for each species. Results showed that for the concentration range tested, no Coriolus Versicolor’s radial growth inhibition was observed in the presence of cork oak, eucalyptus camaldulensis and alder glutinosa. Besides, an antifungic activity was obtained in the presence of Aleppo pine and nut pine where Coniophora Puteana’s radial growths were about 87 % and 59% respectively at the end of the fungal essays. Comparing to other species tested, an important antifungic activity of pomegranate’s sawdust was obtained, where Coriolus Versicolor’s radial growth was only about 12% at a concentration of 5%. This activity is related to phenolic compounds concentration, where pomegranate barks are the richest in phenolic molecules in comparison with other species. This result is confirmed by the total polyphenols determination by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent of pomegranates barks extracted with hot water (260.86 ± 3.30 mg GAE/ g DW). HPLC-DAD analysis of the aqueous extract, allowed the characterization of polyphenolic molecules and it seems that punicalagin B, and ellagic acid, which are the major phenolic compounds (1.51 % and 6.59 % respectively), may have an important roles in antifungal properties. Chelfi Pomegranate barks can be considered as a potential raw material and its phenolic aqueous extract could be tested for wood preservation as a green alternative towards synthetic antifungic molecules.
L Lajnef, N Ayed, B Charrier


Wood treatment with organosilanes – perspective for IPBC stabilization
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30641
The aim of the research was a new model preservative’s antifungal properties evaluation. The formulation contained 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) at the reduced concentration. The IPBC was combined with organosilicon compounds (i.e. alkilosilicones with amino groups or fluorine) for supporting its antifungal properties. Due to the fact, that IPBC can be easily destabilized under the influence of iron oxide or higher temperature, the model formulation contained pigments and as a ready to use (RTU) formulation was subjected to appropriate ageing procedure. The chemical analysis was performed to determine the IPBC concentration in RTU formulation and in the treated wood. The biological examination was performed against microfungi (A. niger, T. viride, P. variotii) and wood destroying fungi (C. puteana).
W Perdoch, B Mazela, A Waśkiewicz


Biodegradation of creosote by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and a strains of Pseudomonas
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50329
The aim of this study was to determine degradation effectiveness of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in creosote by white rot fungus and bacteria. The following two species of bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp. as well as Phanerochaete chrysosporium fungus characterised by the ability to decompose aromatic compounds were selected for experiments. Bacterial strains were isolated from soils contaminated with crude oil from the area of northern Poland. Creosote oil biodegradation experiments were carried out on liquid medium and impregnated wood. PAH analyses were conducted employing the method of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped in a fluorescent detector (FLD). The performed chemical analyses revealed that, after 35 days of incubation, the Pseudomonas putida bacterial strain degraded to a higher degree (64.5%) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in creosote than Pseudomonas sp. (47.8%). Benzo(α)pyrene degradation by the bacteria ranged from 11.3 to 13.4%. Following a 16-week long incubation with the Phanerochaete chrysosporium fungus of creosote impregnated pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.), the content of each of the examined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was found to decline. The highest drops were recorded in the case of naphthalene, fenanthrene, acenaphtene, fluorene and pyrene. Depending on the creosote retention in wood, the total PAH degradation in the impregnated wood ranged from 62.8% to 86.4%. Heavier compounds from the PAH group were characterised by lower degradation caused by the Phanerochaete chrysosporium fungus. The change in the benzo(α)pyrene content in impregnated wood after 16-week long exposure to the action of the fungus reached only 27.3%.
J Zabielska-Matejuk, A Stangierska, A Kropacz, E Kaczorek


The biodegradation of creosote oil by various species of white rot fungi and bacteria isolated from the contaminated soil
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50334
The aim of the study was to determine biodegradation effectiveness of the selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in creosote oil, by two white rot fungal species (Bjerkandera adusta and Irpex lacteus) and three bacterial species (Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp. OS4 and Rahnella aquatilis). Bacteria were isolated from the soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from the northern area of Poland. Tests with the fungi (16 weeks) were performed with the use of creosote-impregnated wood samples, while tests with bacteria (5 weeks) were done in liquid mineral medium containing creosote oil as sole source of carbon. The analysis of PAHs loss was conducted using the method of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped in a fluorescent detector (FLD). The obtained results indicated that, the total PAH degradation in the impregnated wood by fungal species was high and reached ca. 64 and 96% for Irpex lacteus and Bjerkandera adusta, respectively. The biodegradation extent of PAHs by bacterial species was lower and reached ca. 10, 12 and 16% for Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp. OS4 and Rahnella aquatilis, respectively. On the other hand, the addition of natural surfactant – saponins – had positive influence on the biodegradation extent of PAHs by bacterial species (loss of sum of PAHs reached ca. 25, 34 and 57% for Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas sp. OS4 and Pseudomonas putida, respectively. This may suggest that natural surfactants can enhance the bioavailability of the hydrophobic organic pollutants (such as PAHs) and improve the biodegradation efficiency of creosote oil in the environment. In general, the obtained results showed that the studied microbial species have potential to be used in cleaning-up of creosote-impregnated wooden elements and bioremediation of soils/aquatic environments polluted with creosote oil.
M Sydow, J Zabielska-Matejuk, E Kaczorek, AStangierska, A Kropacz


Changes in topochemistry and mechanical properties of Beech (Fagus orientalis L.) by natural fungus infestation
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10986
Beech is one of the major hardwood species in Europe. It is, however, highly susceptible to fungal attack both in the fresh state and during the storage. Understanding the alteration in chemical and mechanical properties of beech wood during the initial degradation state can lead to improved raw material utilization. Therefore, UV-microspectrophotometer (UMSP) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were employed to study the chemical changes in beech (Fagus Orientalis L.) samples infested naturally by white rot fungi. The mechanical properties of infested beech were also determined and compared with the sound wood. The UMSP showed an apparent degradation in the region of the S3 and the S2 layers. HPLC analysis illustrated that catechin was the main component both in sound and infested beech wood. Considerable reductions in the mechanical strengths, bending properties and compression strength, were also apparent due to infestation.
H Sivrikaya, M Rehbein, F Divos, S Adamopoulos, R Hosseinpourpia


Antifungal and antitermite activities of acetonic extractives from Cedrus Atlantica heartwood
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10990
Cedrus atlantica is a woody species present in France, which in a context of climate change can be privileged in the next years. In addition, this woody species presents great ecological and socio-economic interest as it is mainly recognized for its durable timbers and its essential oil presenting some interesting chemical properties. Therefore, the studies of its heartwood formation and properties of its extractives are interesting, spite of very few studies have been conducted till now. The radial repartition of water/acetone extractives within the tree (bark, sapwood, transition wood, outer heartwood and inner heartwood), at different tree height levels, were screened. HPLC analyses were performed, especially to characterized flavonoid compounds of these extractives fractions. The radial variation of the extractive composition obtained, highlighted the phenomenon of heartwood formation. Hypotheses on the metabolic pathways involved in the heartwood formation process of cedar wood were suggested, especially based on the occurrence and the radial evolution of catechin, taxifolin and flavan compounds. Then, the antifungal and anti-termite activities of the extracts were tested. The water/acetone extractives from Cedrus atlantica showed a strong repellent activity against termites and a moderate antifungal activity against crops and fruits pathogens. Thus, the results show a possible valorisation of the extractives of the Atlas cedar, as wood preservatives and/or as biocontrol products against pathogens of lignocellulosic agricultural crops.
R Dijoux, R Ducruet, E Kieny, D Aznar, C Cayzac, L Bidel, C J Allemand, K Candelier