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A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also for accelerated infestation of test material out of ground contact. The paper is given to the International Research Group on Wood Preservation as a suggested method which could possibly be used as a standard. Only the laboratory test method is described.
N Vidovic


The evaluation of permethrin for wood preservation
1977 - IRG/WP 3107
The toxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin (NRDC 143) to a range of wood destroying insects has been investigated. In tests using Hylotrupes bajulus, Anobium punctatum, Lyctus brunneus and Reticulitermes santonensis permethrin showed a similar order of toxicity to that of gamma-BHC. Although the toxicity of permethrin to adult Anobium punctatum was of the same order as that of gamma-BHC, the toxicity to larvae was rather lower. The implications of these results are discussed and it is concluded that, subject to further field evaluation, permethrin could provide an alternative to gamma-BHC and dieldrin in wood preservatives.
R W Berry


Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


The status of Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus in buildings in the United Kingdom
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10039
Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus are the two most significant insect pests of structural timber in the UK. This paper describes the results to date from two separate surveys in the UK carried out by the BRE in collaboration with remedial treatment companies, local authorities and building societies to establish the incidence and status of these insects with respect to geographical location, age and type of building. The results update those from previous BRE surveys published in 1965 and 1973. Results for Anobium punctatum show a general trend of increasing infestation with age of property but also suggest a reducing trend in incidence in properties built since the last major survey in 1965. Incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus is concentrated in the areas currently designated in Building Regulations. Houses constructed in the period 1920-1930 show a high level of incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus. Possible reasons for changes in incidence of Anobium punctatum include drier timber conditions due to increased heating levels in buildings and reduced use of highly susceptible panel products. The cause of the apparently high incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus in properties built in the period 1920-1940 is unknown. Possible explanations include increased natural incidence due to a series of particularly favourable annual climatic conditions in that period.
R W Berry, R G Lea, D Higham


Insects in dry wood (other than termites)
1977 - IRG/WP 153
S Cymorek


Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylotrupes bajulus L. and Anobium punctatum De Geer have not the significance given to them for decennies. That often allows to replace solvant-based with water-based wood preservatives in old buildings, for the protection of humans and environment. Therefore, a method has been developed in Switzerland for testing wood preservatives with delayed curative efficacy against the house longhorn beetle. Like the European Anobium Standard EN 370 this method intends to prevent the emergence of Hylotrupes beetles. Laboratory tests with diverse water-based wood preservatives available on the market in Switzerland have shown that particularly boron and benzoylphenylurea derivatives containing products get a sufficient penetration in the wood and prevent the emergence of the beetles.
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz


Di-sodium fluorophosphate, a new fluorine containing, water-borne wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 3373
The physical, chemical properties of Di-sodiumfluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are compared with those of a trade-mark SF-salt. The opposition of biological activity and toxicological data showed that Di-sodiumfluorophosphate may be a suitable alternative to SF-salts ( based on MgSiF6).
D Seepe, W Metzner


Schrifttum über den Hausbockkäfer Hylotrupes bajulus L. (Serville) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)
1977 - IRG/WP 164
H Becker


The resistance of painting materials and consolidants against wood-destroying insects
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10239
Natural and synthetic adhesives, varnishes, painting materials and consolidants were used in investigations of bioresistance against newly hatched larvae and beetles of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.). Animal glues, casein, drying oils and natural resins such as dammar resin and shellac, were not resistant to attack by these larvae. Similarly, semi- and all-synthetic polymers tested including hydroxypropylcellulose, acrylate and methacrylate compounds, are also subject to attack by newly hatched larvae of the House Longhorn Beetle. In contrast, addition of inorganic pigments provides a significant improvement in bioresistance. This effect is influenced by the thickness and the hardness of the paintlayer. The test with beetles of Hylotrupes bajulus show that the restoration materials which are not resistant against an attack by newly hatched larvae are preferred for the egg depositions by the females.
W Unger, H Fritsche, A Unger


Comparative evaluation of the barrier effect against Hylotrupes bajulus L. of different types of wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 1307
This paper settles the difference of contact action against females of Hylotrupes bajulus the likelihood of egg-laying, the ovicide effect and the hazards of development of newly hatched larvae between some preservatives belonging to three differents types: mineral waterborne products, organic products and emulsions. The results show that against females, the action is fast with organic products, slower with emulsions and non existent with mineral products. They point out the relation between the longivity of females and the eventuality of egg-laying. With ageing, this latter become possible for almost every preservative. In the most of cases, the larvae hatch from eggs and can bore into wood until they accumulate the lethal dosis and that occurs more or less fastly. A few differences are observed for preservatives of the same category.
M-M Serment


Die Verbreitung de Hausbockkäfers Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) Serville (Col., Cerambycidae). Versuch einer kartographischen Erfassung seines Vorkommens
1980 - IRG/WP 1120
Die Larven des Hausbockkäfers Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) Serville gehören in den meisten europäischen Ländern und in einigen Überseegebieten zu den wirtschaftlich bedeutendsten Schädlingen verbauten Nadelholzes. Über die historische Einstufung und über die Vermutungen der Herkunft des Käfers, über frühere und aktuelle Berichte über Vorkommen und Schäden finden sich zahlreiche Literaturangaben, die der Autor zusammengefaßt hat. In dieser Arbeit soll der Versuch unternommen werden, die bisher bekannt gewordenen Befallsorte und -gebiete kartenmäßig zu erfassen.
H Becker


Rapport sur l'activité du CNE/TC 38 'Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois'
1980 - IRG/WP 279
G Castan


On the problem "House Longhorn Beetle" in hardwoods and an aid to distinguish between Hylotrypes bajulus and Hesperophanes cinereus larvae
1981 - IRG/WP 1141
S Cymorek


Rapport sur l'activité du CNE/TC 38 'Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois'
1977 - IRG/WP 288
G Castan


The more important wood-destroying insects found in buildings in Poland
1974 - IRG/WP 128
In the different regions (voievodships) of the country Anobium punctatum and Anobium pertinax were to be found in the range of 47.7 to 63.5%. These insects were the main pests in urban buildings. In the second place came Hylotrupes bajulus occurring in the range of 25.9 to 45.1%. The other insects were to be found within the limits of 0.1 to 10.0%; only in a single instance did the amount reach 24.1%.
J Dominik, J Wazny, M Czajnik


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers to be used on hidden unpainted surfaces of wooden antiques were investigated. We studied relevant properties of five different coating materials: thickness, hardness by resistance to scratching, adhesion, flexibility, resistance to temperature changes, conformability to the concept of reversibility and bioresistance against wood boring insects. The most promising results were exhibited by the coating that is commercially used for protection of fresh log ends in forests, immediately after a tree is cut.
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Sex pheromone of the male house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10100
Since 1990 studies have been conducted with respect to the chemical communication of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The structure of glands located in the prothorax of the beetles was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses of different extracts from beetles resulted in the finding and identification (GC-, GC/MS-, and HR-GC/MS-studies) of specific substances derived from the prothoracal glands: (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol and (2R,3R)-2,3hexanediol. In wind tunnel experiments, unmated female beetles were attracted over a distance of 1m by males, headspace extracts of males, the 3 major components of the glands as well as by the synthetic blends of the components. Thus, the bioassays revealed the initiation of premating behaviour by emission of a long-range sex pheromone from the male prothoracal glands. The pheromone functions as activator, attractant and possibly aphrodisiac for unmated females. Further studies are conducted with respect to disturbance and prevention of mating behaviour of Hylotrupes bajulus in the attics of houses by using pheromone traps.
U Noldt, R Fettköther, F Schröder, H Meyer, K Dettner, W Francke, W A König


Feasibility of microwave disinfestation of wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40051
Microwaves have proved to be an effective means to disinfest worm-eaten woods. The use of microwave electromagnetic energy to increase the woodworm temperature to a lethal level presents several advantages with respect to other conventional techniques, such as liquid pesticides and gas chambers. In particular, there is not contamination of the treated wood and of the environment: stray electromagnetic fields around the wood object under treatment can be easily maintained below the safety levels by a proper design of the treatment chamber, and anyway they exist only when the microwave source is powered on. Furthermore, the risk of wood damage associated with the microwave treatment is very low: a preferential heating of the woodworm with respect to the surrounding wood has been observed, and theoretically justified. Extensive experiments have been conducted on larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus L. to determine the lethal temperature as a function of the larva weight and of the microwave exposure duration. An exposure time of 3-minutes at a temperature of 53°C has proved to be sufficient for destroying all the insects, without increasing the wood temperature to dangerous levels. Preliminary experiments have been conducted in a commercial microwave oven. A portable system for the microwave disinfestation of infested woods, using radiative applicators, is presently under development.
D Andreuccetti, M Bini, A Ignesti, A Gambetta, R Olmi


Comparison between the Hylotrupes bajulus strains of different European laboratories
1980 - IRG/WP 1118
In several European countries, wood preservatives of the same formulation are subjected for the quality label to particular tests according to standards established by the CEN. The different laboratories which carry out these tests have had their cultures for many years. The insects are kept in optimal nutritional and climatic conditions and have always mated amongst themselves. On the one hand, eradicant tests made with the same preservative in different laboratories have not always yielded the same results, and on the other hand, the Comitte of European Homologation has been trying to establish a single label for the European Community according to which it will be possible to carry out tests by any national laboratory of the participating countries. If the results are satisfactory, this will enable an approval certificate to be provided for the sale of these products throughout the countries of the Community. It is very important to be certain that the behaviour of insects and the insecticide resistance of the different insect strains are identical. For this, the best test seemed to be the determination of the toxic value of the wood preservatives against Hylotrupes bajulus (Linnaeus) new-hatched larvae, according to the European standard EN 47.
M-M Serment


Questionnaire on the distribution of the house borer Hylotrupes bajulus
1982 - IRG/WP 1170
H Becker


Incorporating insect behaviour in standard tests of wood preservatives - A possible way to reduce pesticide loadings
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20190
The application of wood preservatives to protect timber against insect infestation is common practice world wide. The effectiveness of wood protecting insecticides is usually determined in various standard tests. Depending on the target pest species and the test method, larvae of different developmental stages and sizes or adult insects are exposed artificially to the insecticide-treated commodity by placing them into or on to the material. The achieved mortality usually rates the effectiveness of the tested insecticide. Detailed observations have shown, that a lot of insecticides already show repellent effects to ovipositing females, or have ovicidal effects at much lower quantities necessary for larval kill. Furthermore, if the natural chain of behavioral steps in the insect, which lead to an infestation, are correctly analyzed, an interference and manipulation of the behavior should prevent or at least minimize the risk of an infestation and thus the needs for wood preservatives. Examples for successful manipulation of mating and host finding behavior are presented in this paper, using the old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus L., as a model: In the general biology of the old house borer, males emerge slightly before females and attract the later with a sex pheromone from the future breeding site. Experiments in the laboratory and semi field situations have shown, that pine wood, offered in no-choice bioassays, was most attractive to males, more than any other given alternative. Virgin females neither accepted pine nor the alternatives. Only the presence of males on pine wood increased its attractiveness to virgin females. Females of H. bajulus, when mated, readily deposit their eggs on any material (natural or artificial) if a suitable crack is presented. However, they hesitate to deposit eggs on timber treated with certain preservatives even in no choice situations. Additionally, it was found, that certain modern insecticides show ovicidal effects, preventing the larvae from hatching, rather than larvicidal effects. The observed host selection and mating behavior, together with general considerations of energy budgeting in insects suggests, that males rather than females of the old house borer most likely select new breeding sites. Interfering with host selection biology might therefore enable alternative control strategies against this destructive pest of structural timber. These strategies include: reducing the attractiveness of breeding sites for males, repelling host seeking males, trapping mate seeking virgin females, etc. Furthermore, ovicidal effects of wood preservatives are not yet considered in standard test. More detailed knowledge of the general behavior of wood boring insects will permit new ways to preserve timber without or with reduced amounts of pesticides. The effectiveness of behavior modifying chemicals can not be evaluated in existing standard test methods. An alternative test set up is presented in this paper.
H Hertel, R Plarre


Incursion of Hylotrupes bajulus Linnaeus (European House Borer) into Western Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10558
In January 2004, an adult Hylotrupes bajulus Linnaeus was detected emerging from a beam of Pinus pinaster in a house in Perth, Western Australia. The timber had been locally grown and milled. Surveys to define the extent of the infestation show it is restricted to dead pine trees in 28 sites around Perth. The biological and economic feasibility of eradication is being assessed. Since about 2001, kiln dried plantation gown Pinus radiata and Pinus pinaster timbers have largely replaced Australian native hardwoods in building construction in Western Australia. More than 80% of this structural pine is not treated with preservatives, and is at risk from attack by H.bajulus. The replacement cost of untreated pine in house construction in Western Australia is estimated to be about $Aus3 billion.
M Grimm


The Use of Insect Hormones as Non-Neurotoxic Insecticides in Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30277
The ecdyson and juvenile hormone analogues show a clear difference in their effect on the house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus. In the tested dosages, the ecdyson analogues have only a slight ovicidal effect but a very clear effect on old larvae. With a dosage of 1250 mg/m², Halofenozid achieved 100% mortality after 27 weeks and Tebufenozid after 40 weeks. The two juvenile hormone analogues, Fenoxycarb and Pyriproxyfen, behave differently. They show a clearly recognisable to high ovicidal effect if the treated wood surface has not been aged, however, their eradicant effect is not anywhere near sufficient. In the case of Fenoxycarb at a dosage of 1250 mg/m², 100% mortality was only achieved after 94 weeks. Pyriproxyfen in the same dosage of 1250 mg/m² took 124 weeks to achieve 96% mortality. Fenoxycarb and Pyriproxyfen did not prove to be very weather resistant in the aging experiments. This means that treated wood in hazard class 3 must always be protected against the influence of weather with a top coat. Two months of outdoor or adequate artificial weathering showed that without a top coat the concentration of the active substance would have to be increased by at least two to three powers of ten to achieve sufficient biological effect on eggs and egg larvae required by EN 399.1 (field testing).
E Graf, M Barkhoff, R Hamberg, H Büttner, M Pallaske


The geographical distribution of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L) Serville (Col., Cerambycidae). An attempt at a cartographical compilation of existing data
1978 - IRG/WP 176
The larvae of the house longhorn beetle belong to the most economically important pests of softwood in service in most European countries and also in some areas overseas. I have reported earlier regarding the history, the question of where the pest originally came from, and concerning attacks in earlier and recent times (1968, 1970, 1974, 1976). In this report an attempt has been made to compile cartographically the currently existing data.
H Becker


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers to be used on hidden unpainted surfaces of wooden antiques were investigated. We studied relevant properties of five different coating materials: thickness, hardness by resistance to scratching, adhesion, flexibility, resistance to temperature changes, conformability to the concept of reversibility and bioresistance against wood boring insects. The most promising results were exhibited by the coating that is commercially used for protection of fresh log ends in forests, immediately after a tree is cut.
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


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