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Antifungal mechanism of dichloro-N-octylisothiazolone
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30183
4,5-dichloro-N-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOI) is a member of the isothiazolone class of preservatives, whose antimicrobial mechanism of action has been intensively studied over the last decade. DCOI has also been intensively studied for use in wood preservation. The isothiazolones are electrophilic molecules that rapidly react with thiol groups to form covalently bonded isothiazolone-thiol adducts. This ability to bond with thiol groups is crucial to their ability to act as preservatives. Thiol groups are present in proteins as part of the amino acid cysteine, where they play an important role in maintaining protein structure and function. A number of enzymes have thiol groups at the site where the enzyme function is performed, and these thiol groups may participate in the enzyme reaction. If the isothiazolone reacts with this thiol group, the activity of the enzyme is inhibited. Our studies have shown that there are several enzymes in the Krebs cycle that are inhibited by isothiazolones and these enzymes are required to generate energy and perform many biosynthetic functions. Reflective of this, DCOI has been shown to be a rapid inhibitor of cellular respiration, causing the cell to cease consuming oxygen almost immediately upon contact with DCOI. The multiplicity of targets and their central importance to the metabolism of the cell, as well as the fact that all microbes use at least parts of the Krebs cycle, can be related to the low use levels and broad spectrum of activity of DCOI. The antimicrobial mechanism of DCOI results in a potent rapid-acting preservative with a broad spectrum of antifungal and antibacterial activity that is effective at low levels.
J S Chapman, M A Diehl, K B Fearnside, L E Leightley


Development and Implementation of a DNA – RFLP Database for Wood Decay and Wood Associated Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10527
We are developing Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence databases for wood decay basidiomycetes and other fungi associated with wood. These databases currently house information for 39 fungal species consisting of 9 brown-rot basidiomycetes, 12 white rot basidiomycetes, 1 soft rot, 1 stain fungi, and 16 molds or other ascomycetes or imperfe...
S V Diehl, T C McElroy, M L Prewitt


A comparison of fatty acid and molecular profiles for identification of wood colonizing basidiomycota
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20278
Two methods that are currently being employed to detect and identify wood decay fungi are Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) analysis and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A FAME library and RFLP library for 9 species and up to 10 strains within each species have been developed. The profiles generated by these methods have been compared for each species and strain to test for...
T C McElroy, L Prewitt, S V Diehl


Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP I: Accelerated laboratory decay study
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20332
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and BHT is being evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. Results from an accelerated decay test will be presented. The...
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl


Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP II: Results from field studies
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30429
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and the non-biocidal BHT was evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. ACQ-C was a positive control and untreated SYP sta...
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl


Characterization of protein patterns from decayed wood of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) by proteomic analysis
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10654
The primary biotic decomposers of wood belong to the basidiomycetes. The members of this group can attack and biodegrade both wood in the forest and in service. By the time wood decay is visible, there has already been a significant loss of strength. The identification of basidiomycetes and other organisms on wood only tell us what is present, not what is actively decaying the wood. When organisms...
Young-Min Kang, L Prewitt, S Diehl


Microbial Community Analysis Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis: Field Study Results
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20377
The effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the fungal community in southern yellow pine (SYP) were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Field stakes treated with 0.25% and 0.37% ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ-C), 0.1 and 0.25% CTN, and 0.1 and 0.25% CTN combined with 2% BHT were installed with untreated controls in field s...
G T Kirker, S V Diehl, M L Prewitt, W J Diehl


Wood Decay Research Using Molecular Procedures, What Can It Tell Us?
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10678
There are many unanswered questions in wood decay and protection research, and no single research technique will ever answer all of these questions. The process of wood decay is a very complex series of biochemical and chemical reactions that are heavily influenced by the hundreds of bacterial and fungal species found on environmental samples of wood. There are a variety of molecular techniques b...
S V Diehl, M. L Prewitt, Young-Min Kang, L Mangum, J D Tang


Gene expression of selected decay enzymes produced during biodeterioration of three wood types
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10702
Comparative studies were conducted on the expression of several decay enzyme genes during the decay of pine, cedar, and ACQ treated pine over 10 months. Measurements of MOE, decay rating, and moisture control were monitored for physical properties. Identification of decay fungi and the detection of decay enzymes were carried out before gene expression levels were measured. The MOE of wood stakes d...
Young-Min Kang, L Prewitt, S Diehl


A genomic sequencing approach to study wood decay and copper tolerance in the brown rot fungus, Antrodia radiculosa
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10720
We used Illumina paired-end short read sequencing (76 nt, 300 bp insert size) to produce a de novo assembly of the genome of Antrodia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant brown rot fungus that is capable of aggressive wood decay. Quality analysis of the base calls in the dataset (8.95 Gb) showed that the majority of the nucleotide sequence was of the highest quality with 5% in the lowest quality group. ...
J D Tang, T Sonstegard, S Burgess, S V Diehl


Structural changes, basidiomycete richness, enzyme activity and proteomic profiling of decay resistant and non-resistant woods over 18 months in soil contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10733
Wood decay fungi damage wood by production of enzymes that attack the structural components. The objective of this study was to better understand which suite of decay genes and proteins are expressed during biodeterioration of three different wood types in forest soil over time. Variation in decay genes and proteins were determined for pine (non-resistant), cedar (naturally durable), and ACQ-treat...
Youngmin Kang, S Diehl, L Prewitt, D Nicholas


Towards Understanding the Biology of Wood Decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10739
Our previous research has focused primarily on ways to identify the wood decay fungi and microbial community. We continue to explore this complex and dynamic community and its interactions through microbial community ecology studies, gene expression interactions and proteomics. However, in order to better understand the mechanisms of fungal decay, we have sequenced the genome of a copper tolerant...
J Tang, K Jenkins, L Parker, S V Diehl


Gene expression analysis of a copper-tolerant brown rot fungus on MCQ-treated wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10748
Most brown rot fungi are copper-tolerant, which makes them difficult to control with copper-based wood preservatives like MCQ. To better understand what biological processes are regulated, we used our model species, Antrodia radiculosa, to examine expression of genes on MCQ-treated wood. Our hypothesis was genes that decreased copper bioavailability would be up-regulated early, when wood showed ...
J D Tang, A Perkins, S V Diehl


Remediation of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Biodiesel versus Diesel Carriers
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50279
Biodiesel is believed to be more environmentally friendly than petroleum based diesel when used as a carrier for impregnation of PCP into wood products for protecting wood from decay. A six month study was conducted to evaluate the remediation of PCP in biodiesel versus diesel in soil. Different percentages of biodiesel, diesel and PCP were mixed with clean soil from a forested site and tested. Sa...
S Keshani Langroodi, H Borazjani, D Nicholas, L Prewitt, S V Diehl, S Kitchens


Effect of Biodiesel on the Efficacy of Pentachlorophenol Treated Wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30584
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is widely used as a wood preservative for utility poles and other wood products. Recently, it has been proposed that a modified PCP carrier system based on a diesel/biodiesel mixture should be used in place of the conventional diesel/KB3 carrier, but there is some question as to whether or not this modified carrier system can provide the same service life for wood products ...
S Keshani Langroodi, H Borazjani, D Nicholas, L Prewitt, S V Diehl


Communities of mold fungi on flooded building materials
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10799
A small building built to residential code was flooded using farmland pond water to a depth of two feet at Tuskegee University. The building was drained and left enclosed for an additional three weeks. A total of 168 material samples were removed either immediately after opening (wet) or seven months after flooding (dry). Wall materials sampled included fiberglass batt insulation, gypsum wallboard...
F Skrobot III, H Aglan, S V Diehl


Leaching Potential of selected Mississippi Soils Contaminated with Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Chromated Copper Arsenic (CCA)
2013 - IRG/WP 13-50293
Desorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP), and chromated copper arsenic (CCA) from five Mississippi soil regions was studied. The soils tested were Blackland Prairie (Dorman), the Interior Flatwoods (Winston), the Delta, the Coastal Plains (Wiggins) and the Loess soil (Raymond). Soils were contaminated with 500 ppm and 1000ppm PCP and 1000 ppm for CCA respectively. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Pro...
K Ragon, H Borazjani, S Keshani Langroodi, S Diehl


Microbial Community Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood in an Above Ground Field Test
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10826
This paper presents preliminary results of an above ground field test wherein eight naturally durable wood species were exposed concurrently at two sites in North America. Surface samples were taken at regular intervals from non-durable controls and compared to their more durable counterparts. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism was performed to characterize the microbial (bacteria, ...
G T Kirker, S V Diehl, P K Lebow


Hydroponic Phytoremediation of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Copper Contaminated Water
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50304
The removal of selected metals by duckweed (Lemna minor) and parrotfeather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) from a simulated aqueous environment contaminated with Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and copper sulfate was studied in a controlled laboratory experiment. The duckweed and parrotfeather’s tissues were analyzed to evaluate the removal of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As) from CCA cont...
C Keith, H Borazjani, S Diehl, Y Su, Fengxian Han, B Baldwin


Activity of Two Strobilurin Fungicides Against Three Species of Decay Fungi in Agar Plate Tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30704
The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of strobilurin fungicides against wood decay fungi in order to assess their potential to act as a co-biocide for copper-based wood protection. Two strobilurin fungicides, Heritage (50% azoxystrobin active ingredient) and Insignia (20% pyraclostrobin active ingredients), and copper sulfate pentahydrate were tested against one white rot fungus...
J D Tang, T Ciaramitaro, M Tomaso-Peterson, S V Diehl