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Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris by cerium chloride technique
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10299
Cerium chloride (CeCl3) was used to localize H2O2 cytochemically for studying relationship between ultrastructural and functional characteristics of cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi. This technique proved very useful in localizing discrete electron-densereactionproducts at high resolution with minimal nonspecific deposition. The cytochemical localization of extracellular H2O2 by CeCl3 usin...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi


Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


The Relationship of Fiber Cell Wall Ultrastructure to Soft Rot Decay in Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwoo
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10541
The ultrastructure of fiber walls in kempas (koompassia malaccensis) heartwood was examined in relation to soft rot cavity formation. The fibers consisted of middle lamella and thick secondary wall. The secondary wall was differentiated in to a S1 layer, and a unique multi-lamellar S2 layer. Two distinct forms of lamellae were recognisable, one type being considerably thicker than the other. They ...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi


Immunogold localisation of catalytic domain of endocellulase in the cellulosic substrates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10205
The reaction of catalytic domain of endocellulase on the cellulosic substrates was visualised by using immunogold labelling procedures to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Polyclonal antibody was produced against the catalytic domain of endo-l, 4-ß-glucanase (EGI) from a ruminal anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus albus F-40. Immuno-TEM works showed th...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kyu Ho Myung, K Ohmiya, S Karita


Immunolocalization of extracellular metabolites from Tyromyces palustris
1991 - IRG/WP 1491
Polyclonal antisera produced to extracellular metabolites from the brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris was used in immunogold TEM studies. Gold labelling was detected in the fungal cell wall and extracellular slime layer but little or sporadic labelling was noted within the cytoplasm of the fungal hyphae. Gold particles were also found within the wood cell wall of Pinus densiflora decayed by Tyro...
Yoon Soo Kim


Natural Durability of Tropical Species – Variations and Prospects
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10568
The tropical timber resources of the world play an unequivocal role in economic development of both the tropical timber producing and importing regions. This paper describes natural durability as an important and preferred wood quality of tropical species of the world with emphasis on Malaysian hardwoods, the link between various aspects of tropical hardwood durability, hardwood utilization and bi...
A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, Wang Choon Ling


Biodegradation of wood in wet environments: A review
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10217
Wood in wet environments is attacked and degraded by soft rot fungi and erosion and tunnelling bacteria, which are more tolerant to high moisture and reduced oxygen conditions than basidiomycetes, such as white and brown rot fungi. Since basidiomycetes are normally more aggressive and can degrade wood faster than soft rot fungi and bacteria wood in wet environments can survive longer. In fact, arc...
A P Singh, Yoon Soo Kim


Degradation features of waterlogged archaeological compression wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10258
The degradation characteristics of waterlogged archaeological compression wood excavated in South Korea were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Degradation of Pinus compression wood occurred mainly in the inner part of S2 layer. In contrast, the outer part of S2 layer remained relatively intact. CLSM and TEM showed the erosion type of ...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


Soft Rot Decay of Cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii) Heartwood in Ground Contact in Relation to Extractive Microdistribution
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10501
The heartwood of cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii, fam. Dipterocarpaceae) is naturally durable. A square-sawn utility pole specimen of cengal heartwood, after 30 years in ground contact, showed 10-15 mm surface decay all around the ground line position, accompanied with isolated surface termite attack at the decayed region. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the decayed regions prov...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang Ho Lee


Ponding of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) - 2. The effect of ponding on coating penetration into wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10249
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) wood panels which had been ponded for periods ranging from 2 to 12 weeks, dried and subsequently coated with a primer and examined by light microscopy after staining sections with Sudan IV to enhance the contrast of the primer material. A correlation between the extent of ponding and the extent of coating penetration into wood was observed. The coating penetration var...
A P Singh, S S Gallagher, U Schmitt, B S Dawson, Yoon Soo Kim


Solid state NMR study on pine wood degraded by brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10067
Blocks of Pinus koraiensis wood were degraded by Gloeophyllum trabeum and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Chemical compositions were estimated from relative signal aras. There was no evidence for preferential degradation of the noncrystalline cellulose which accounted for about 4% by weight of the wood. Loss of partly ordered cellulose on crystal surfaces exceeded the loss of crystal...
Yoon Soo Kim, R Newman


Micromorphology of oak wood degraded by brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10356
To characterize the degradation of hardwood by brown rot fungus, Coniophora puteana was incubated on the wood blocks of Quercus accutissima. For comparison, the same fungus was also incubated on the pine wood blocks of Pinus densiflora. In softwood, the shape of the wood cells and thickness of the cell appeared unchanged even the loss of birefringence in the affected areas. In contrast, oak wood d...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang-Ho Lee


Extracellular laccase production in brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10391
Coniophora puteana, one of representing brown-rot fungus, was investigated in terms of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production. Three fungal strains of C. puteana were inoculated in liquid culture medium with sawdust of pine and oak wood. Extracellular laccase production was observed in some strains of C. puteana in the culture medium with sawdust of oak wood. The highest activity occurred at...
Kwang-Ho Lee, Seung-Gon Wi, Yoon Soo Kim


Micromorphological Characteristics of Degradation in Bamboo Attacked by White Rot Fungus Lentinus edodes
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10575
In comparison with micromorphological works for wood decay, little known is about the decay pattern of bamboos by wood decay fungi. The present work was undertaken to understand the general degradation pattern of bamboo and the influence of polylaminate layers in bamboo fiber walls on the restriction of fungal decay. The weight loss of bamboo species Phyllostachys puberscens against the white rot ...
Chang Hyun Cho, Kwang Ho Lee, Yoon Soo Kim


Micromorphology of Bamboo Fibers Degraded by Brown-Rot Fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10576
The decay pattern of bamboo by brown-rot fungus was examined. In addition, the influence of polylaminate structures in bamboo fibers on the restriction of fungal decay was also investigated. The weight loss of bamboo Phyllostachys puberscens by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum after 16 week incubation was about 25%. Parenchyma cells were severely degraded. Microscopical studies showed tha...
Kwang Ho Lee, Chang Hyun Cho, Yoon Soo Kim


Anatomical, physical and chemical changes of Bamboo (Phyllostachys puberscence ) during weathering processes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10650
Bamboo (Phyllostachys puberscence) culms with 1, 2, 3 year old were exposed to natural weathering condition in Gwangju, Korea for 12 months. Changes in color, surface topography, strength and chemical properties were investigated using various microscopic and instrumental techniques. After one year’s weathering, the color of bamboo became lighter but strengths of bamboo did not change significan...
Jong Sik Kim, Kwang Ho Lee, Mi Young Cha, Yoon Soo Kim


Improved analysis of field test data related to service life prediction of tropical wood species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20458
Long field trials of wood in ground contact give valuable data on the natural durability of the material. The European Standard EN 350 gives guidance on how to perform these durability classification, but is limited to the use of averages of in-service life of a set of specimens compared to a reference set. Starting from a database of visual assessment of field stake testing, it is possible to obt...
J Van den Bulcke, A Wong, Ling Wang Choon, Yoon Soo Kim, J Van Acker


Micromorphological and chemical characteristics of waterlogged archaeological bamboos excavated from the Yellow Sea
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10785
Bamboos have widely used as documentation material in Far Eastern countries such China, Korea and Japan. In particular, bamboo slips as documentation material were extensively used even after the wide spread of paper in those countries. A large number of bamboo slips have been excavated from the shipwreck since 2009 in Korea. Understanding the cause of deterioration of ancient bamboos is crucial f...
Mi Young Cha, Yoon Soo Kim


The First Description of Soft-rot Cavity in Waterlogged Archaeological Woods by a Japanese Wood Anatomist Prof. F. Onaka in 1935
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10885
The term soft rot, which was caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes, was first used by J G Savory in 1954. Soft rot decay can be characterized by cavities within secondary cell walls align along the cellulose microfibrils. Our recent literature search revealed, however, that Prof. F. Onaka in Kyoto University described the soft rot cavities in the waterlogged archaeological woods in detail from ...
Yoon Soo Kim, K Yamamoto


The whitening cause of Korean wooden heritage by flame retardant treatment
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20560
Korean wooden heritage used to treat by flame retardants in order to protect fire. There are 2 types flame retardant using for wooden heritage. These flame retardants treatment are basic measure that apply to wooden heritage along with other fire protection. The flame retardants cause white stains by reacting with Korean traditional wood painting (Dancheong) and increase wood humidity. The Korean ...
Jin Qyu Kim, Gyu-Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung, Hwa Soo Lee, Dong Won Son


Diversity of wood decay fungi isolated from ground-contact wood stakes in Korea
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10952
This study was conducted to investigate wood decay fungi from 5 different ground-contact wood stakes in Korea. A total of 73 basidiomycetes were isolated and identified into 20 genera and 22 species by using molecular method. Among all fungi, only 6 species were brown-rot fungi and the others were white-rot fungi. Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis showed high fungal diversity and isolation f...
S-M Yoon, M-J Kim, W-J Hwang, Y-S Choi, D-W Son


Molecular identification of marine borers causing wood deterioration on marine facilities in Korea
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10955
The deterioration factors of wood which was used in the marine environment, Tongyeong (South Coast) and Incheon (West Coast) in Korea, were investigated in order to develop technologies for safe and long-term use of timber in ocean facilities. The marine microorganisms isolated by damaged wood were identified as morphological Chelura sp. and Teredo sp. As a result of DNA sequencing, it was confir...
Sae-Min Yoon, Min-Ji Kim, Won-Joung Hwang, Yong-Seok Choi, Dong-Won Son


Evaluation of Decay Resistance of Copper-based Preservatives Treated-Wood exposed to different field test sites in Korea
2022 - IRG/WP 22-20679
In Korea, preservative treated wood is required to have a stamp on the surface which contains information such as wood species, use categories, and the company that treated the wood. Such stamping is necessary to safely and appropriately use the treated wood. Since majority of treated wood is being used outdoor environment, the treated wood must have efficacy against wood decay fungi or termite. I...
W-J Hwang, S-M Yoon, Y Park, Y-S Choi, H-M Lee, J-W Kim


Evaluation of Decay Resistance for the Larch Wood Heat-treated with Superheated Steam
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40956
Heat-treatment of wood is a process that involves applying heat ranging 160–260°C to improve its physico-mechanical properties and resistance against wood rot fungi. The level of the changes in the wood properties by heat-treatment differs depending on the temperature and duration of heat-treatment, as well as the types of heat transfer media used for heat-treatment. The heat-treatment on wood ...
Y Park, S-M Yoon, H Kim, W-J Hwang


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