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An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. Part 2: Progress report after approximately 13 years' exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 1189
The condition of heartwood specimens of Australian and exotic timber species after approximately 13 years' in-ground exposure is given. Four of the 5 test sites have a termite hazard in addition to the hazard from a range of decay fungi. Values for specimen life are given only where all replicates of a timber species have become unserviceable. Results give evidence leading to doubt about ...
J D Thornton, G C Johnson, I W Saunders


The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20051
The BRE ground contact field trials for the determination of the biological natural durability of different timber species have recently been reviewed. The data obtained from these trials have been used to appraise the different ways in which natural durability may be expressed. It is concluded that the use of the mean as a method of assigning the timber to one of five durability classes may be ac...
G A Smith, R J Orsler


Natural durability of wood in ground contact - A correlation between field and laboratory tests
1985 - IRG/WP 2182
A field test is being carried out to evaluate the natural durability of 20 hardwoods. The resistance to decay and termite attack was evaluated in accelerated laboratory tests. The results of the field test after 6 years and 8 months indicate that there is not necessarily agreement between results from laboratory and field tests. It is pointed out that apart from the artificiality of the laboratory...
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, R G Montagna, M E S Fosco Mucci


Natural durability of European wood species for exterior use above ground
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10499
The main interest in using more timber for exterior constructions is to protect the environment, where wood is considered an environmentally friendly material. However, chemicals for wood protection are getting more and more restricted, consequently, the focus on the natural durability of wood is increased. Good, well-documented data on the durability of wood species in ground contact exist, which...
B Lindegaard, N Morsing


An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. Part 5: Extensive data from a site where both decay and termites are active. Results from a full-replicated set of heartwood specimens from each of ten myrtaceous hardwoods after 18, 19 and 20 years' exposure - A discussion paper
1988 - IRG/WP 2324
Extensive data are presented on the decay situation, the termite situation and the decay-termite associations; all gathered from a fully-replicated set of heartwood specimens of 10 hardwood timbers after 18, 19 and 20 years' exposure in the ground at a single test site, i.e. a semi-arid steppe site. Sixteen tables are presented in addition to the one table providing the rating data; the l...
J D Thornton, G C Johnson, J W Creffield


Some experiences with attack of microorganisms on wooden constructions supporting foundations of houses and bridges
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10232
Reconstructions of bridges and public buildings or damage of houses during the construction of subway lines in Berlin have led to a number of inspections of wooden foundations, mostly pine or spruce piles, representing service lives of between ca. 70 and 140 years. In all cases bacterial attack was found both in wood submerged in ground water and in surface water. The extent of deterioration diffe...
M Grinda


The natural durability of wood in different use classes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10457
The natural durability of important European wood species has been tested on 3970 specimen in field trials. The wood was exposed at five test fields in Germany with different climates at each site in European hazard class 4 and 3 (with and without soil contact). Within EHC 3 it was distinguished between tree different expositions (end grain sheltered, unsheltered and with water trap). The test is...
U Augusta, A O Rapp


Soft Rot Decay of Cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii) Heartwood in Ground Contact in Relation to Extractive Microdistribution
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10501
The heartwood of cengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii, fam. Dipterocarpaceae) is naturally durable. A square-sawn utility pole specimen of cengal heartwood, after 30 years in ground contact, showed 10-15 mm surface decay all around the ground line position, accompanied with isolated surface termite attack at the decayed region. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the decayed regions prov...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang Ho Lee


Above-Ground Durability Estimation in Australia. Results after 16 years exposure
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20314
A program of research was established in 1987 to examine the above-ground durability of a selection of timbers that are commercially significant in Australia. Test samples were assembled in an L-Joint design and placed on exposure racks in a format to replicate joinery that is exposed to the weather above ground. Both painted and unpainted material has been exposed. Test samples have been evaluat...
L P Francis, J Norton


Natural durability of Norwegian wood species for above ground applications – Project presentation and preliminary results
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10594
In Norway exterior wood structures have traditionally nearly exclusively been made of treated and untreated Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In recent years there has been a tendency that other tree species, like various domestic hardwoods and imported species have been used in exterior above ground applications, often unfinished. For several wood speci...
P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, F G Evans


Termite resistance of Malaysian and exotic woods with plantation potential: Field evaluation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10289
An in-ground resistance of selected Malaysian and exotic timbers to attack by a representative aggressive subterranean Coptotermes termite was evaluated as part of an on-going collaborative research between the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia and the University of Hawaii on termite control of building timbers under humid tropical conditions. A test site at FRIM, highly susceptible to the sub...
A H H Wong, J K Grace, L H Kirton


Evaluation of teak sawdayst Tectona grandis L Fil as a potential source to obtain a natural wood preservative in Colombia
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30356
Plantation Teak (Tectona grandis L. Fil) has been tested as a possible source of natural wood preservatives due to the known excellent durability of old-growth teak wood. Field tests (ground proximity termite and above ground simulated decking exposures) were established in Colombia in April 2003 at two different test sites with different climates (Tropical Dry and Rain forest). Teak heartwood ex...
A Castillo, Y Cabrera, A F Preston, R Morris


The accelerated L-joint test method for determination of the out of ground natural durability
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20146
The accelerated L-joint test incorporates a moistening device and uses a close end water trap in an open joint connection with a laminated tenon member consisting of the perishable reference wood species scots pine sapwood and beech. After one year of exposure it is possible to show a distinct identification of natural durability classes 4 and 5 against the more durable wood species. Both weight ...
J Van Acker, C Brauwers, M Stevens


The natural durability of wood in different use classes - PART II
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10598
The natural durability of important European wood species has been tested on 3970 speci¬mens in field trials. The wood was exposed at five test sites in Germany with different climates, at each site in European use class 4 and 3 (with and without soil contact). Within European use class 3 three different expositions were tested: vertical with sheltered end grain, vertical unsheltered and horizont...
A O Rapp, U Augusta, K Brandt


Durability of some alternatives to preservative-treated wood. Progress report 2: Results from field tests after 5 years’exposure
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30442
A number of alternatives to preservative-treated wood have been tested according to EN 252 (stake test) and a specially designed ground-proximity field test, the latter in Sweden as well as in Hawaii, USA. Seven untreated wood species and four alternative wood treatments labelled as environmentally friendly (acetylation, linseed oil, heat treatment, vinyl polymer) were included in the study. Four ...
M-L Edlund, J Jermer


Natural durability of different wood species in above ground applications - Weight and MOE loss
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10667
In Norway, exterior wood structures have traditionally, nearly exclusively been made of untreated Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and pressure treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In recent years there has been a tendency that other wood species, like various Norwegian hardwoods or imported species, have been used in exterior above ground applications, often not surface treated. For se...
F G Evans, P-O Flæte, G Alfredsen


Long term durability of the heartwood of seven common softwood species in above ground conditions
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10771
The natural durability for wood in above ground use has been evaluated based on results after 11 years of exposure in a test site situated at the Danish Technological Institute in Taastrup, Denmark. Selected results for seven common softwood species exposed horizontally are reported. The test results cover samples with direct rain exposure (use class 3 of the European standard EN335-1:2006) and sa...
E Tang Engelund, M Klamer, T Mark Venås, B Lindegaard


Classifying white rot decay resistance of some hardwoods from Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia and correlations with their tropical in-ground durability
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10788
White rot wood decay under Malaysian (humid tropical) terrestrial conditions pose more serious threats to the in-ground service life of hardwoods than other common fungal decay types. A study is made on decay resistance variation for a total combined list of 30 Peninsular Malaysian and Sarawak timber species (plus 6 exotic reference temperate commercial woods for comparison) using the laboratory s...
A H H Wong, J M E Jem, Lai Jiew Kok


The durability of natural and thermomodified black poplar wood and Scots pine sapwood after two years of external exposition
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40730
Natural biological durability of many European wood species is considered to be relatively small, particularly in a ground contact conditions. This is due to the exposure of the wood to the range of biological and atmospheric destructive factors. This may to limit the scope of application of the wood of these species, particularly in construction. The biocides are often used for wood protection in...
A Fojutowski, A Kropacz, A Noskowiak


Identifying the fungal community on western redcedar (Thuja plicata) wood in field tests above and in ground contact exposure: preliminary results
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10939
Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is a high value species in the Canadian forest industry due in large part to the natural durability of its heartwood. Western redcedar heartwood contains extractives that are inhibitory to the growth of many fungi responsible for decay. In order to gain insights into which extractives are important in long term durability, and which fungi are important to decay of ...
A Dale, S Kus, R Stirling


Above-Ground Termite Resistance of Naturally Durable Species in Ontario and Mississippi
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30767
A collaborative above-ground protected termite field test was initiated by FPInnovations and the USDA Forest Service at sites in Ontario and Mississippi. The aims of the experiment were to compare the rate of attack in protected, above-ground exposures by the subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes, between northern (Ontario) and southern (Mississippi) test sites and to generate perf...
R Stirling, M Mankowski


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 3: Full penetration of the refractory sapwood of white cypress
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40167
The heartwood of white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla, is renowned for its termite resistance and durability against decay. The sapwood, which can represent up to 30% of log volume, is non-durable and refractory to conventional preservative treatment. Previous work ascribes the lack of permeability to oily deposits within tracheids and ray cells. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was use...
M J Kennedy, L M Stephens, M A Powell


Interspecific variability of European oak durability against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor): Comparison between sessile oak and peduncle oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10393
The knowledge of wood natural durability against biologic predators enable its external use. The resistance of European oak wood was reported like durable according to the EN 350-2. However, some individuals may contain high durable wood. Our research was focused to understand this variability in oak population that represent the first french species (4.1 millions of ha). Natural durability of Eur...
N Ayadi, B Charrier, M Irmouli, J P Charpentier, C J Allemand, F Feuillat, R Keller


The susceptibility of 35 Amazon wood species to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker)
1982 - IRG/WP 1160
Laboratory tests were carried to evaluate the susceptibility of 35 Amazon hardwoods to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker). The results were analysed statistically and showed that five wood species were non resistant, nine were resistant and the other twenty-one in between those classes of resistance....
M D Canedo


Possibility of use of wood species per class of biological risks. Attempt to determine criteria based on Pr EN 350-1/2/3
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2409
M Rayzal


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