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CreoSub – New protection technology to substitute creosote in railway sleepers, timber bridges, and utility poles
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30644
Creosote oil is one of the oldest industrially used wood preservatives. Due to its toxic profile, the European Commission has restricted the use of creosote specific applications, but it is highly controversial within the European Commission. Its approval for use after 2018 is very questionable and may depend on derived research results until then, i.e., the viability of alternatives developed to replace creosote as a preservative of wood products in heavy-duty applications outdoors, like railway sleepers, timber bridges, utility poles, and piles in marine applications. The overall objective of the three year WoodWisdom research project CreSub is the development of a new protection technology to substitute creosote in railway sleepers, timber bridges, and utility poles. The technological objective is to develop production processes for railway sleepers, timber bridges, utility poles, and piles treated with new wood protection systems from laboratory to industrial scale and test the products under real conditions in the field. This implies to individually consider process-related, economic and environmental aspects for each of the three different product groups mentioned above. Alternative products to creosote have to be hydrophobic and biocidal effective, particularly with respect to soft rot and copper tolerant fungi. Last-mentioned are mainly responsible for that conventional impregnations with solely copper-based salts do not provide sufficient protection of products in heavy-duty applications outdoors. In addition, alternative protection technology must be economically viable. In this regard, one-step treatment processes, which preferably can be carried out in existing creosote plants, are desirable. Last but not least, new technologies should have better human toxicological as well as environmental toxicological profiles than creosote technology.
U Hundhausen, K-C Mahnert, A Gellerich, H Militz


Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory


Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. The role of baiting systems in prevention of termite damages and long-term structural protection, however, is more controversial than their use in remedial control. We discuss three lines of evidence in support of the use of baits for long-term structural protection: (1) successful control of termite populations with baits in remedial studies allows a conceptual leap to preventative efficacy, since baits target colonies and populations and cannot be evaluated directly for prevention in the manner of soil insecticide barriers; (2) field and laboratory studies demonstrate that termite colonies feed on multiple resources and continue to radiate outward from each of those resources in search of additional food, increasing the likelihood of rapid bait discovery; and (3) results of our long-term field studies over the past decade demonstrate that newly invading termites will reuse existing galleries in the soil left by earlier colonies that lead to monitoring stations, were detected in monitoring stations, and were subsequently eliminated without any noticeable evidence of structural infestation or damage.
J K Grace, N-Y Su


Standard and accelerated testing of boron-additive wood protection systems
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30381
The main objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of boron-additive protection systems for above ground applications by means of field testing. The two field test procedures used are based on the L-joint test described in the European standard EN 330. For the first set up the boron treated timber was coated in accordance with the standard EN 330 system. The second set up is based on an accelerated test simulating uncoated applications and includes an additional moistening of the jointing area. After three years of aboveground exposure, boron preservatives are still providing an adequate protection to coated L-joint specimens. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that boron-based compounds still provide good protection after three years of natural weathering when protected by a three-coat finish. Similar uncoated L-joints treated the same way show rapid deterioration under the accelerated exposure conditions applied. The mass loss data revealed a significant level of decay for the uncoated specimens even when treated with boron-additive formulations. This is attributed to the high leaching hazard related to the accelerated exposure method used. The latter proves to be too aggressive for all tested boron-based preservatives when unprotected by surface coatings. A treatment with 1 % CCA under the same conditions was still performing adequately after 3 years even under accelerated L-joint exposure of uncoated test samples.
A Mohareb, J Van Acker, M Stevens


Protection of a low-density mangrove timber species gewa (Excoecaria agallocha) through preparation of particleboard – An Assessment
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40348
It is now well established that the conversion of low-density and low-cost timbers into laminated, composite and densified form is an alternative of wood protection by means of wood preservatives. Once only the timber species gewa (Excoecaria agallocha) was used for manufacturing newsprint paper in Bangladesh, which is not continued today. The feasibility of commercial production of particleboard from gewa as an alternate raw material was evaluated for its physical and mechanical properties as compared with those of mixed wood particleboard i.e. mixture of pitali (Trewia nudiflora), kadam (Anthocephalus chinensis) and chatian (Alstonia scholaris). It was found that density of gewa particleboard is 628 kg/m3 and mixed wood particleboard is 617.87 kg/m3. The MOR of gewa particleboard is 158.4 kg/cm2 and mixed wood particleboard 204.2 is kg/cm2. The MOE of gewa particleboard is 18611.1 kg/cm2 and mixed wood particleboard is 26,020.5 kg/cm2. The screw holding capacity at edge was higher in gewa than mixed wood (98.2 kg Vs 89.1 kg) and also at face it is higher in gewa than mixed wood (117.3 kg Vs 72.4 kg). The moisture content after curing was lower in gewa particleboard than that of presently used wood particleboard (7.37% Vs 8.20%). Swelling percentage was lower in gewa particleboard than mixed wood particleboard after both 2 and 24 hours soaking in all directions. The similar trend was also found for water absorption after 2 and 24 hours. The assessment revealed that the particleboard of gewa is superior to those of existing mixed wood species. Hence the gewa is an alternative species for indirect protection of other rarely available timbers used for particleboard in Bangladesh.
A A Mahfuz, M O Hannan, M A Islam, M N Islam , M M Islam, A K Lahiry


Moisture protection and performance during 5 years exposure of 19 wood coating systems on a cladding in Vienna
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40561
A cladding with vertical boards of Norway spruce (Picea abies) comprising different coating systems had been exposed to natural weathering oriented south west in Vienna for 5 years. Weathering behaviour of the boards was assessed in intervals and wood moisture content was measured over the first 22 months of exposure. The moisture protective properties of the coating systems were assessed using laboratory methods. The results of weathering behaviour indicated higher coating durability with higher dry film thickness and lower transparency of the coating systems. The coating systems provided a certain degree of moisture protection that was influenced by paint colour, water permeability and surface roughness. Panels with low permeable coatings showed a better performance in natural weathering.
G Grüll, I Spitaler, M Truskaller


Use of the durable species Coast Redwood as a reference system for field testing of Wood Protection systems
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20486
Data is provided and discussed for a number of field exposure tests where the naturally durable wood species Coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens, was included along with untreated pine and standard preservative treatments. In general, there is potential for higher variability of results with this naturally durable species, but it does suggest that redwood can be a useful reference material for testing systems for above ground applications, especially where long-term decay performance may not be as critical as overall product quality. Comparative performance of products to redwood heartwood at test sites with different climate indices and with different test methods may provide additional useful data on the relative performance of systems than when compared to only untreated pine sapwood and standardized preservative systems.
A Zahora, A Preston, L Jin


Performance of Wood Protection Systems at Multiple Field Test Sites Using the Ground Proximity Test Method
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20499
A series of preservative systems were used to treat southern pine ground proximity test samples which were then exposed at a range of test sites located throughout the world. The sites were chosen on the basis of having vastly different Scheffer Climate decay indices. After almost 14 years exposure, distinct differences are apparent in how different preservative systems perform at the different sites, as well as how their relative performance is impacted at different retentions.
A Zahora, A Preston, L Jin


The situation of the industrial protection of wood in Argentina (La situación de la protección industrial de la madera en Argentina)
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30675
Argentina holds 33 million hectares of native forests and 1.2 million hectares of cultivated forests, which make it the 3rd Latin American country with the largest surface of cultivated forests of the region. (Ministry of Industry, 2012). The industrial impregnation of wood through vacuum pressure was first implemented in our country in the year 1932, and currently there are over 100 active plants which generate an estimated production of 180.000m3 of wood related-products per year, such as beanpoles for agricultural use, poles for overhead lines, sleepers and constructional timber. Nowadays, 4 active ingredients and their formulated products are registered at the National Register of Plant Therapeutics (Registro Nacional de Terapéutica Vegetal), belonging to the National Health Service and Food Quality department (Servicio Nacional de Sanidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria, SENASA). These active ingredients are CCA, CCB, CA-B (tebuconazole and basic copper carbonate) and creosote, but only two of them are used – namely, CCA and creosote. Over the past decade, the trend has been for informal industries to disappear; also, due to the requirements and demands of the different municipalities and buyers, the existing plants have been forced to comply with a whole set of environmentally sound regulations. The industry for preserved wood products has yet to reach its full potential, as there are still many resources which are untapped - not utilized to their fullest extent. Promoting the use of preserved wood in construction, improving and enforcing quality controls and to developing the foreign market even further still pose a great challenge for the industry.
D A Gherscovic


Bio-friendly preservative systems for enhanced wood durability - the first periodic report on DURAWOOD
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30677
The objective of the paper is the DURAWOOD scientific project carried out within Polish-Norwegian Research Programme, which lasts from September 2013 till August 2016. The aim of the project concentrates on the developing of a new, eco-friendly and biocide-free wood protective systems as an alternative to traditional, commonly used preservatives or coatings, containing biocides. Several wood preservatives containing traditional biocides are no longer desired on the market, due to the stricter toxicological requirements and an increasing ecological awareness of consumers. Therefore, formulating new wood protective systems, based on natural compounds, harmless to humans and the environment, is of the principle interest. On the other hand, it will also facilitate a longer period of carbon capture in wood, which will limit the greenhouse effect. Life cycle assessment (LCA), which is planned to perform for the selected model formulations, is a good example for an attempt to explain the interest. Besides, the implementation of novel solutions in wood protection will make it possible to use low quality wood material to manufacture high quality products (e.g. siding or cladding materials). In this manner such eco-friendly wood protection will be also a key factor reinforcing climate protection. The aim of this paper is to present some selected results gained so far. The model wood protecting systems were based on natural (alkaloids, propolis, plant oils) and synthetic (organosilicones, imidazoles) components as well as on neutral inorganic chemical - potassium carbonate. They were used individually or as a formulation for wood treatment. Wood samples made of Scots pine were treated by soaking or vacuum method and were subjected to mycological and fire tests. The so far results show that aminosilanes and mixtures thereof with natural oils are potential wood preservatives against microfungi and wood destroying fungi. Formulations containing aminosilanes, natural oils and potassium carbonate are potential wood fire retardants. It was also found that the most effective alkaloids were cytisine derivatives and caffeine. The highest antifungal activity among tested imidazoles was achieved by AK17 (1,10-di(3-hydroxymethylpyridinium)decanedibromide). The results of chemical analysis present evidence of interactions between compounds of the model formulations and wood chemical components.
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch, L Ross Gobakken, I Ratajczak, G Cofta, W Grześkowiak, A Komasa, A Przybył


Decay resistance of wood treated with bio-friendly preservative systems
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30698
Due to more restrictive toxicological requirements and increased ecological awareness of consumers, wood preservatives containing biocides are no longer desired on the market. Therefore, research on new environmentally friendly formulations is of great importance. One of the possible solutions is to develop new preservatives based on natural substances, which are harmless to humans, animals and the environment, while biologically active. The aim of the study was to develop new biocide-free preservative systems which increase wood resistance to wood-decaying fungi. The following silanes: [3-(2-Aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AATMOS), (Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTEOS), and (Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMOS); caffeine, natural oils and potassium carbonate were chosen as components of new protective formulations, which were planned to be an alternative for traditionally used biocides. Samples of three different wood species (pine, spruce, and poplar) were treated with the new preservative systems and exposed to brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana and white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor according to EN113 or EN839 standard. The obtained results show that wood treated with the water-based formulation consisting of silanes and caffeine (2% caffeine + 5% AATMOS, 2% caffeine + 5% APTEOS) demonstrated the highest resistance to the test fungi. Wood mass loss after exposure to fungi was 1%. All wood species treated with this formulation achieved index 1 (“very resistant”) within durability class acc. to EN-350 standard.
B Mazela, G Cofta, W Perdoch, L Ross Gobakken, P Kwaśniewska-Sip


Bio-friendly wood protection systems - resistance to mould and blue-stain fungi
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30713
With stricter restrictions on the use of biocides and increasing environmental awareness there is a pronounced need for effective bio-friendly protection systems in the wood preservative and wood coating industry. One of the possible pathways is to exploit and utilize natural substances with active biological effects. Silanes, caffeine, natural oils and potassium carbonate were chosen as compounds in 16 different formulations intended as wood protection systems. The aim of this study was to test the resistance of the selected protection systems against mould growth and growth of blue-stain fungi. Combination of caffeine and amino functional silanes showed good resistance towards blue-stain fungi when applied to pine and the same was found for the combination of linseed oil and amino functional silanes. Some indications of resistance towards mould fungi were also detected for the same chemical combinations.
L Ross Gobakken, W Perdoch, B Mazela, P Kwaśniewska-Sip, G Cofta


Biocontrol of wood decay insects and nematodes as an alternative to traditional chemical treatments
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10914
The protection of wood has been defined until relatively recently, as the application of a chemical to increase its durability. On the other hand, society is becoming more and more demanding in terms of the use of products which have the minimum ecological impact. This has led many countries to reduce the list of biocidal products that can be used (European Biocides Regulation), therefore it is necessary to seek sustainable alternatives. The use of biological control agents can constitute a good alternative to traditional biocides, due to their economic and ecological advantages.
L Robertson, J F Galván, F Llinares, R Viñambres, M T de Troya


Environmental protection and long term in-service sustainability of preserved wooden poles is secured by non-toxic barrier protection system – History and case studies in South Africa
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50340
Non-toxic flexible sheeting systems have been developed to encapsulate the ground contact regions of preserved wooden poles and prevent their premature failure in South Africa since 1992 but the technology also has a long history of resistance by individuals with vested interests in the built-in redundancies of such poles. The concept has, however, been simultaneously validated by many independent research institutions worldwide and IRG itself formed a Working Group in 1997 to examine the role of the technology in wood protection. This paper reviews the work done over the past 25 years to validate butt-encapsulation of preserved wooden poles with inert impermeable materials as a proven technology that prevents the loss of preservative from, and subsequent decay of, the protected poles. The paper also presents the findings of four case studies to that effect in South Africa.
A A W Baecker


Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen


Granitgard used as a partial and perimeter barrier in the protection of buildings against subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10114
The graded granite subterranean termite physical barrier, commercially marketed as Granitgard, has a Certificate of National Accreditation issued by the Australian Building Codes Board, and is included in Australian Standards. After several years in developing the specifications and installation techniques for Granitgard, it may be used to protect almost all footing designs. Granitgard can be simply placed around slab penetrations and buildings perimeters to provide a durable, long-life subterranean termite barrier. This paper discusses the development of partial and perimeter applications of Granitgard around buildings, and the advantages of using a termite barrier that removes the need for costly and dangerous chemical retreatments.
D M Ewart, J R J French


The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer


The registration of wood preservatives under the Pesticides Act of 1962 in the Netherlands
1976 - IRG/WP 364
J Van der Kolk


Conservation of wooden cultural property
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30038
A survey of the conservation of wooden archtitectual monuments, art objects and archaeological finds is presented. Each of the three areas has typical conservation problems which reqire the use of selected wood preservatives and consolidation agents. Furthermore specific protection and consolidation methods are necessary. A precise damage diagnosis with non-destructive testing methods is the first step in a careful conservation work.
A Unger, W Unger


Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper.
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger


Blue stain in timber in service. Results of co-operative tests to compare different artificial weathering systems 1981-82
1983 - IRG/WP 2193
The paper describes results of the third phase of co-operative laboratory experiments comparing the effects of different artificial weathering systems on chemicals to control blue-stain in service. Atlas, Xenotest and Marr equipments are shown to give essentially the same results for 5 of the 6 chemicals tested.
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson


Field performance of wood preservative systems in secondary timber species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30152
The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the performance of new, potential, and standard wood preservative systems in secondary North American timber species. Eleven preservative systems were evaluated in this study - ACQ Type B, Copper Citrate 2: l, CDDC, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, copper-8-quinolinolate, tebuconazole/chlorpyrifos, RH287, propiconazole/chlorpyrifos, copper naphthenate, CCA. and creosote. Field evaluations are being performed with ground contact field stakes and termite-specific testing in Hawaii, along with laboratory soil bed tests. The major wood species used with all the systems and evaluation methodologies are loblolly pine, northern red oak, tulip poplar, and cottonwood. More limited evaluations (field stakes only) are being conducted with eastern hemlock, red maple, and sweetgum. Information is presented from laboratory soil bed, field termite, and field stake evaluations. There is good correspondence between soil bed and field stake results. The more highly developed preservative systems and those in an AWPA P9 Type A oil carrier tend to perform better, and there can be a strong affect on performance from the wood species.
P E Laks, K W Gutting, R C De Groot


Developments in the protection of wood and wood-based products
1980 - IRG/WP 340
Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the field of wood protection. This current review highlights how modern techniques have provided greater insight into the biological and physical processes affecting the durability of wood and wood-based products. Emphasis is also given to developments in preservative testing methodology and to the encouraging changes towards both the correct use of timber and the improvement of Standards and Codes of Practice. A final section, on recent technical developments in wood preservation, considers subjects ranging from an evaluation of new specific biocides to methods of increasing the permeability of refractory timber species.
J M Baker


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


Regulations of pesticides (including wood preservatives) in the United States
1977 - IRG/WP 397
G B Fahlstrom


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