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Antagonistic effects of a range of fungi to Serpula lacrymans
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10156
Certain fungi have been demonstrated to exhibit antagonism towards Serpula lacrymans in culture. Species from the genera Trichoderma, Gliocladium, Penicillium and Hypomyces were among those exhibiting the strongest antagonism. Certain species showed antagonism in a range of media of varying nutritional status. The possible role of antagonistic fungi as biocontrol agents for Serpula lacrymans is discussed.
P Rattray, G McGill, D D Clarke

Bacteria and wood. A review of the literature relating to the presence, action and interaction of bacteria in wood
1971 - IRG/WP 101
S E Rossell, E G M Abbot, J F Levy

Antagonistic effect of some mycorrhiza fungi as biological control of blue-stain
1987 - IRG/WP 1314
This report discussed the possibility of using some mycorrhiza fungi as biological control of blue-stain. The results show that new bio-technological possibilities are opening, because, by cultivating antibiosis fungi in fermentor, it is possible to prepare extracts which can then be used as the natural preservative to control the blue-stain in wood.
R Benko

Antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp. against Serpula lacrymans in the soil treatment test
1991 - IRG/WP 1473
Soil treatment tests for preventing growth of Serpula lacrymans were conducted using Trichoderma spp. as antagonists. Soil specimens tested were Kanuma-soil without organic matter and the horticultural soil which was collected from the test site of the stake test. Perfect efficacy of treatment with Trichoderma spp. was shown when the horticultural soil without sterilization was used as a soil specimen.
S Doi, A Yamada

Effect of media composition on the antagonistic properties of Trichoderma spp. against wood decay fung
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1538
Most screening of potential biocontrol agents of wood decay fungi has previously been undertaken using artificial media. Similarly experiments designed to evaluate the mechanisms involved in antagonism between biological control agents and target fungi, have largely been carried out in conditions which do not accurately reflect the nutrient status of wood. This paper examines the influence of nutrient composition of growth media on the antagonistic responses of Trichoderma spp. against two wood decay basidiomycetes, a brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus and a white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Assessment of individual modes of antagonism were carried out on two media types, a 3% malt extract agar and a nutritionally poorer minimal medium. The outcome of antagonism between Trichoderma isolates and wood decay fungi was often found to be dependent on the media type, while testing of individual modes of antagonism again highlighted the importance of substrate composition. Analysis of variance testing of a range of antagonistic properties showed that: minimal media generally resulted in higher inhibition of white rots by the volatiles, whereas inhibition by soluble metabolites of both basidiomycetes was higher in the malt extract medium. Total activity of lytic enzymes was higher in malt extract, however specific enzyme activity was found to be greater in the minimal medium. Siderophores were produced only in the minimal medium. The significance of the results for selection of appropriate media for screening of biological control agents for wood protection is discussed.
U Srinivasan, A Bruce, H J Staines

Antagonism to spore germination in Scots pine
1990 - IRG/WP 1458
Germination of Lenzites trabea and Chaetomium globosum spores was observed directly on wood blocks, on water soluble extracts and on organic solvent soluble extracts from pine wood. In all cases pine heartwood was found to be antagonistic to spore germination but pine sapwood varied in its antagonism according to the method of drying. Chromatography revealed that extracts from antagonistic wood differed from those of non-antagonistic wood in their composition.
S M Gray

Bacteria as possible organisms for biological control of blue stain
1988 - IRG/WP 1339
The article discusses the possibilities of biological control of blue stain. Besides using some antagonistic fungi, the possibility of using antagonistic bacteria, which offer still greater possibilities, should not be overlooked. Tests performed have shown that some bacteria from the genera Streptomyces and Pseudomonas have a strong antagonistic effect of blue stain.
R Benko

Susceptibility of Lentinus lepideus (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. to volatiles produced by Trichoderma spp
1987 - IRG/WP 1316
A range of Trichoderma species and strains were tested for their ability to produce fungistatic volatiles. Volatiles from all isolates produced fungistatic effects on Lentinus lepideus however wide interspecies and interstrain variability in the level of response was evident. Cross plating studies between the Trichoderma isolates and Lentinus lepideus showed that Lentinus lepideus was overgrown and lysed by its Trichoderma competitor in all cases. The results indicate that the rate of overgrowth of Lentinus lepideus was directly related to the levels of volatiles produced by each of the Trichoderma isolates. The implications of the results on the use of Trichoderma species as biological control agents is briefly discussed.
A Bruce, C Johnstone, J A P McVey

Laboratory studies on the antagonistic properties of Scytalidium spp to Basidiomycetes with regard to biological control
1981 - IRG/WP 1130
This investigation was initiated to study the progress of the antagonism against various opposing species of basidiomycetes. The action of the FY strain of the Scytalidium spp isolated by Ricard and Bollen (1968) was compared with that of new isolates of Scytalidium spp against isolates of wood decaying fungi from British sites, specifically Lentinus lepideus the most common basidiomycete causing decay of creosoted Scots pine transmission poles in Britain (Cartwright and Findlay 1958)
P I Morris, D J Dickinson

Control of sapwood-inhabiting fungi by fractionated extracellular metabolites from Coniophora puteana
1991 - IRG/WP 1494
The objective of this study was to test the fractionated metabolites released by Coniophora puteana for their antagonistic activity against the sapstain fungi Ceratocystis coerulescens and Aureobasidum pullulans, and the molds Asperigillus niger and Penicillium spp. The acetone-soluble fraction obtained from the culture filtrate prepared from Coniophora puteana grown on 6% malt extract agar inhibited mycelial growth in a plate bioassay. The <5k-Da fraction separated from the acetone-soluble fraction also inhibited mycelial growth in the plate bioassay and prevented attack by Ceratocystis coerulescens in wood.
S C Croan, T L Highley

A bibliography of the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans
1988 - IRG/WP 1337
For many decades the occurrence of dry rot in buildings has been the cause of serious concern in temperate regions of the world. Consequently, much effort has concentrated on determining the morphology of dry rot and on finding means of prevention and control. During early studies, observers tried to understand the phenomenon of dry rot as a whole, and in the course of the 19th century aspects changed gradually from an enigmatic threat towards a fungus with well-defined biological features. Laboratory studies with pure cultures of the dry-rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, have been performed for over one hundred years. The eminent practical importance of dry rot damage is documented by a wealth of publications, some of them being strictly scientific, some others being general or popular accounts, short or comprehensive, well-known or unknown. Due to the recent resurge in the economic importance of this fungus allied to a renewed research interest, the authors have compiled this bibliography with the aim of presenting an overall account of publications on Serpula lacrymans. In total the bibliography contains over 1,200 references. About 200 papers with uncertain treatment of Serpula lacrymans were discarded and not considered for inclusion. However, like other literature compilations it cannot be regarded as complete, and the authors will gratefully accept any additions and amendments. The references are quoted at full title length in the original language as far as possible. Japanese publications appear in English, and Russian titles are transformed according to the current rules of English transliteration. All titles in a language other than English are supplied with a translation which in some cases may differ from that of summaries and reference journals. The alphabetical list of references (pp 22-145) is preceded by an index of keywords with authors. Papers termed as general accounts comprise overall treatments which may be scientific and/or popular. Occurrence and distribution specify ecological and geographical data respectively. The economic importance of Serpula lacrymans, being stressed in nearly all publications on dry rot, is not recorded in the keywords. Single preservatives are registered only if they are mentioned in the title of the reference.
G Seehann, B M Hegarty

Biological control of decay
1975 - IRG/WP 135
One approach to the biological control of decay in standing poles, live trees or seedlings is with microbial immunising commensals or IC.·These are microorganisms able to grow in the wood without damaging it and as a result of such growth to protect against certain types of decay. Scytalidium and Trichoderma spp have been tested in the field. The latter species have shown an establishment rate in excess of 80% in field tests made with standing creosote treated poles during the past 4 years. In live trees, higher rates can be expected. These IC are known for their antagonistic properties against various Basidiomycetes and their innocuity to man and environment.
J Ricard

Screening of bacteria, yeasts and Trichoderma isolates for antagonism toward stain and mould fungi on agar media and wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20159
A screening programme of soil bacteria for antagonism toward mould and wood stain fungi was undertaken on 8 types of agar-based media by application of several bacteria to each plate. The rapid screening method was subsequently verified by testing antagonism of the most promising bacteria on Scots pine sapwood. Most of the 64 bacterial showed antagonistic effects on certain media against individual fungi after 8 weeks incubation. Bacterial antagonism toward fungi and growth rates of fungi and bacteria were media specific. Greatest total antagonistic effect by bacteria against fungi develeoped on yeast malt agar, and least on tryptone soya agar. The most effective bacteria were not particularly antagonistic toward fungi on low nutrient media but were nevertheless effective on wood. Bacterial colonies which grew only slightly during the incubation period produced the greatest mean fungal inhibition. One unidentified bacterial isolate demonstrated antagonism toward 9 of 10 fungi tested and was the most effective antagonist against both Ceratocystis pilifera and Aspergillus niger on agar media. A total of 10 bacteria showed antagonism to 5 or more of the tested fungi. Selected bacteria along 8 Trichoderma strains and 5 yeast species were subsequently tested for antagonism in wood-based trials under high humidity. The most effective bacterial isolate from the screening programme was also highly effective against mould and stain develepment on wood. Other bacteria were successful against either mould or stain development. Further screening programmes are recommended to test potentially antagonistic bacteria against serveral fungi, including Paecilomyces variotii and Sclerophoma pityophila, on yeast malt agar.
C Payne, A Bruce

Shorter-term biological control of wood decay in pre-seasoning pine roundwood as an alternative to chemical methods
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1555
Previous studies on the long-term control of decay in creosoted transmission poles, using Trichoderma and other antagonistic moulds, have met with limited success. However, it is possible biological control is more suited to control of decay on shorter time scales. An earlier study, focusing on pre-seasoning treatment of transmission poles showed that favourable porosity increases could be brought about by an isolate of Trichoderma. Furthermore, it was evident that considerable improvement could be made in developing antagonistic strains of Trichoderma. A study further investigating the use of antagonistic primary mould fungi as biological control agents is outlined.
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson

Antagonism of Gliocladium virens against wood decay fungi
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10102
Antagonistic abilities of a commercial biofungicide, Gliocladium virens (GL-21, Grace) were evaluated against three white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor, Phlebia brevispora, Irpex lacteus, and three brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta, Neolentinus lepideus, Gloeophyllum trabeum. In dual culture of Gliocladium virens and wood decay fungi, Gliocladium virens rapidly overgrow the decay fungi and killed them. Pretreatment of Southern pine and maple blocks with Gliocladium virens prevented weight loss by all the decay fungi in soil-block tests. Gliocladium virens colonized blocks treated with propylene oxide to kill the antagonist were not decay resistant. Filter-sterilized filtrates from Gliocladium virens showed fungistatic effect against the decay fungi in agar medium. However, weight losses in wood blocks treated with filter-sterilized filtrates of Gliocladium virens were only slightly reduced when exposed to decay fungi in soil-block tests.
T L Highley, L Ferge

Antagonistic effects of Dacrymyces stillatus against growth of other fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 2363
The antagonistic effects in dual cultures on malt extract agar of 5 wood decay fungi and the antagonistic effects of Dacrymyces stillatus against 1 mould fungus and 1 blue stain fungus were determined. Dacrymyces stillatus was the only fungus which exhibited clear antagonistic effects. The effects of Dacrymyces stillatus against the different test fungi varied however to a great extent. Dacrymyces stillatus exhibited clear antagonism against brown rot fungi and a weaker effect against a mould fungus and a blue stain fungus. The antagonistic effect against a white rot fungus was weaker in dual culture. Spore germination of the responding white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was completely inhibited on an agar overlay over a culture of Dacrymyces stillatus on malt extract agar. Inhibitory activity was present in extracts.
J Bjurman

Antagonism of Scytalidium lignicola against wood decay fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1392
Antagonistic abilities of Scytalidium lignicola against white- and brown-rot wood decay fungi were evaluated. Scytalidium lignicola did not produce inhibition zones but overgrew the decay fungi on a malt-agar medium and in most cases killed them. Pretreatment of Douglas-fir and Southern pine blocks with Scytalidium lignicola prevented decay. Blocks that were heated or treated with propylene oxide to kill the antagonist were not decay resistant. Thus, Scytalidium lignicola does not confer a residual fungistatic effect to wood. Scytalidium lignicola was able to eradicate all the decay fungi in wood except for Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Wood blocks treated with filter-sterilized filtrates of Scytalidium lignicola were not decay resistant, and filtrates were not inhibitory to growth of the decay fungi in agar medium. The antagonistic effect, therefore, apparently does not involve toxins.
T L Highley

Antifungal activity in metabolites from Streptomyces rimosus
1991 - IRG/WP 1495
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal metabolites from Streptomyces rimosus for controlling the growth of sapwood-inhabiting fungi: sapstain fungi - Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, Ceratocystis pilifera, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi - Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. Production of antifungal metabolites by Streptomyces rimosus was studied using petri plate assay, plate bio-assay, wood-block tests, and green pine log sections. The metabolites inhibited mycelial growth at a distance in petri plate assay; clear zones were exhibited around the wells in plate bio-assay. Treatment of Southern Pine and sweetgum blocks and green pine log sections with concentrated metabolites inhibited conidial germination and prevented discoloration.
S C Croan, T L Highley

Assessment of antagonism between lignicolous microorganisms: Research on possible use to preserve wood poles
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10718
Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a given ecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have been interested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type of relationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population. Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibiotic substances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with such degradation processes. The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1) in Petri dishes to assess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2) on test-pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and the antagonistic strain in wood. This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma (Trichoderma konigii, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride) against two white rot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes, Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood of HydroQuébec poles. The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichoderma group of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri dishes were confirmed in wood. By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two by two, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there was substantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next. For instance, the antagonism mechanism of the same Trichoderma could vary from one basidiomycete to another, and inversely, the same basidiomycete could respond differently to each antagonist exposed to.
J-F Labrecque, A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, Y Prin