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Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as control product.
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos


Anti-stain field trials in British Columbia
1981 - IRG/WP 3174
Four alternative anti-sap stain chemicals were subjected to a four month field evaluation during the summer of 1980. The test, established at a Vancouver Island sawmill, was designed to evaluate the potential long-term effectiveness of sodium tribromophenate (Velsicol Ltd.), Biocom XX (Bramco Industries) containing methylene bis-thiocyanate, Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butyl carbamate and Mitrol 48 (Kenogard) containing guazatine acetate and quaternary ammonium chlorides, on hemfir and Douglas fir. Sodium tribromophenate was found to give surface protection equivalent to that of chlorophenate treated controls. Biocom XX was also effective, although the active ingredient came out of solution at the required treating solution concentration. Woodbrite NTX and Mitrol 48 were found to be ineffective on either species group under the test conditions.
D V Plackett


Field trials of Sinesto B at some sawmills in Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3512
The efficacy of SINESTO B as antistain chemical for use in Portugal has been studied. The studies were done during the years 1987-1988 at several Portuguese sawmills in co-operation with the Instituto dos Produtos Florestais and the APCIM (Associacao Portuguesa de Comercio e Industria de Madeiras). SINESTO B was used in 5% and 8% concentrations. The storage time varied from 10 weeks to 6 months. In the tests, PCP was used as reference chemical as well as some other commercial antistain products. SINESTO B performed well in most of the tests. It was even better than 3% PCP. 8% concentration is recommended.
I A Linderborg


Search for an anti-sapstain treatment for fresh radiata pine wood in compliance with European BPD norms: Field Tests
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30673
In response to the impending restrictions on the use of pesticide active ingredients developed to control the staining of fresh wood, as a result of regulation issued in 2009 by the European Union, a project was proposed to test an alternative anti-sapstain treatment that meets both the European restrictions and the performance required for an export-quality radiata pine fresh wood treatment. A set of 16 treatments that included a positive control (commercial treatment), and an untreated control was set and evaluated at three and six months after the application. The treatments tested included formulations of active ingredients and coformulants, and focused on two anchor treatments: one made with a azole based formulation and another that tested cupric hydroxide as base active ingredient. The results of the initial evaluation is that the active ingredients, at the concentration tested, failed to provide protection over time as required; therefore, at a second follow up trial, other active ingredients were tested, in order to resolve the problem. The second stage of the study incorporated the active ingredient DCOIT, who had shown in studies carried in New Zealand, a potentiating effect of the azole based treatments in the control of the stainer complex in time. The third stage of the study tested different sources of the active ingredient DCOIT, and different concentrations of active ingredients and coformulants, in order to determine a cost competitive and performance effective alternative.
P Montes C, T Hanke W


In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako


Austrian field test method for anti-sapstain chemicals
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20020
Although Austria is a small country, the annual consumption of anti-sapstain products ranks to approximately 500 tons annually. In 1994, only three products will be approved by the Austrian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPEC). There is demand for a field test method, which demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-sapstain product and consequently implies the acceptance and approval of product by the AWPEC. Present field test was carried out in 1992 and 1993. The results were evaluated after six months storage of test stacks. A TCMTB based product was used as a reference. The results show that the AFPRL method proves very suitable for the simulation of practical situation in Austrian treatment plants, where pine and/or spruce are treated periodically and where different methods of stack storage are applied.
R Gründlinger, M Brandstätter, H Melzer, O Janotta


A comparative field test of the effectiveness of anti-sapstain treatments on radiata pine roundwood
1986 - IRG/WP 3376
Peeled radiata pine posts were sprayed with one of six antisapstain formulations, with and without a wax water-repellent additive, to evaluate the protection given by each treatment. After 3 months' outside storage the best treatments tested were 4% product Busan 30, 2% product Busan 1009, and 2% active sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) with 1.5% borax. After 6 months' storage posts sprayed with Busan 30 were of sounder appearance than those sprayed with Busan 1009 or NaPCP plus borax. The effect of a water repellent on the moisture content of posts and on the severity of the fungal degrade was variable between treatments and requires further research.
J A Drysdale, R M Keirle


Seasonal effects of the field evaluation on wood preservatives against mold fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20087
For the purpose of the amelioration of field test methods, commercial preservatives against mold fungi were tested under two different seasons, in winter and in summer. The specimens were bundled and set over the water bath and all these systems were covered with plastic film. At top of the system under film, black films for regeneration of sunlight were put in, and windows for changing air were reserved in summer. The visual evaluation of damage (rating 0-4) was done periodically. The results obtained as follows. 1.) The evaluation values after 2 months in winter were simmilar results as those after 3 weeks in summer. 2.) The fungicides, mixture of nitoril compound and organo nitrogen sulfuric compound, mixture of thiocyanate compound and organo nitrogen sulfuric compound, were obtained good results in field. Those percentage of the specimens rating under 1 were more than 50% and those mean rating were not more than 2. 3.) In the case of organo iodide compound, the results in winter were good but in summer were not so good.
K Suzuki, Y Sugai, K Ryugo, D Watanabe


A field test with anti-sapstain chemicals on sawn pine timber in Finland
1986 - IRG/WP 3368
Fourteen formulations, each in two concentrations, were tested for effectiveness against sapstain, mould and decay on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a field test in South-Finland. The trial was commenced in June 1985 and finished in October 1985. During the test the boards were infected mainly by mould fungi. In kiln dried boards the protective effects of nine and in green boards of four treatments were better than the effect of the tested formulation of sodium chlorophenoxides at 1.5%
L Paajanen


Field and laboratory studies on anti-sapstain preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 3205
The field tests included 11 different anti-sapstain preservatives and were carried out at different sawmills in southern Sweden. Drying conditions, climate and the local fungus flora were not identical for the different preservatives and comparisons between the preservatives should therefore be made with caution. Results obtained in the field tests are, however, in relatively good agreement with those found in the laboratory tests carried out with the pure preservatives. Especially Cuzol, a methylen-bis-thiocyanate/boric acid-product, showed a good effect against sapstain both in field and laboratory tests. However, Mykocid BS and Improsol 1 (two bifluoride products) as well as Mitrol 48 (benzalkonium chloride/guazatine) were also effective against sapstain. Hager Blue (boric acid/caprylic acid) was also fairly effective even if the untreated control material in this test was only moderately stained. Acceptable protection was obtained with the two Benomyl-containing preservatives and Thiobor (dimethyldithiocarbamate + borax). Mixtures of the various preservatives were tested in the laboratory as regards protective effect against sapstain, mould, thermotolerant mould and decay as well as chemical reactions that could be observed visually (precipitation, change in colour etc.). There was no absolute correlation between observed chemical reactions and changes in the biological effect. Mixtures resulting in reduced biological activity and which should be regarded less suitable are; Mykocid BS/ DuPont Benomyl, Cuzol/Thiobor, DuPont Benomyl/ Thiobor, Fennotox/Mitrol 48, Fennotox/Thiobor, Hager Blue/Sadolin Woodgard, Improsol 1/Mertect, Mitrol 48/Thiobor, Mitrol 48/Sadolin Woodgard and Mykocid BS/Thiobor. When mixing Hager Blue/Mykocid BS, Mitrol 48/Mykocid BS, Improsol 1/Cuzol and Mykocid BS/Cuzol precipitations occurred, which is a factor to be considered in practice since stirring may be necessary in the dipping tank. The preservatives based on bifluorides, Improsol 1 and Mykocid BS, penetrated about 1 cm into the wood after dipping and seasoning. A certain yellowish chemical staining was observed. Bifluorides are corrosive and attack steel and to a certain extent also concrete. Products containing boric acid and borates (Hager Blue, Thiobor, Benomyl + boric acid) also penetrated the timber to a certain extent. Thiobor reacted with certain parts of the heartwood which became slightly stained a reddish tone. The diffusion from the surface of the timber and inwards, which takes place when preservatives containing bifluorides, boric acid or borates are used, results in decreasing concentration of active components near the surface of the timber. This has to be considered when choosing the concentration of the treatment solution. Four of the preservatives included in the tests required stirring in the dipping tank. These are DuPont Benomyl 50, Sadolin Woodgard, Fennotox S2 and Mertect.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson


A field test with anti-sapstain chemicals on sawn pine timber stored and seasoned under different conditions
1984 - IRG/WP 3245
Newly sawn timber of European redwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) was dip treated in four different anti-sapstain chemicals. The protectife effect against sapstain, mould and decay was examined after 10 weeks' and 10 months' storage in open and closed stacks. The results showed that the performance of individual chemicals was different in open and close stacks, although the wood as well as the other storage and handling conditions were identical. This makes it possible explain some of the reported differences in performance of chemicals in different locations.
D J Dickinson, B Henningsson


Laboratory and field evaluations of a novel formulation, BAM as an anti-sapstain agent
1991 - IRG/WP 3639
A novel anti-sapstain formulation, BAM, consisting of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) and methylene bis thiocyanate (MBT) was evaluated for ist anti-sapstain performance in the laboratory and in the field as well. BAM proved effective in controlling the growth of molds and a sapstaining fungus in the standardized Japan Wood Preserving Association (JWPA) tests. All the test fungi could not show any growth on the boards treated at 1% (100 times dilution), and at 0.67% of BAM only Gliocladium virens grew very slightly. In the field tests, BAM maintained good protection for 1.5 months when freshly sawn pine boards were dipped in 1% aqueous solution for 3-10 minutes. The present results definitely support that BAM has a high potential to replace the currently used anti-sapstain formulations containing chlorinated phenols.
Y Nomura


Evaluation of a new anti-sapstain formulation
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30035
A new anti-sapstain mixture, which consists of 2% IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynylbutyl carbamate) and 1.5% DCOI (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one), was evaluated by three methods in the laboratory. A standardized test (JWPA standard 2) demonstrated that the new anti-sapstain formulation was highly effective in controlling growth of monocultures of five test fungi on wood substrate. When exposed to mixed spore suspension, the formulation performed better than TCP-based commercial product. A larger scale laboratory tests and supplemental trials at sawmills also supported a satisfactory performance of the formulation to protect freshly sawn timber from moulds and sapstain fungi.
K Tsunoda, H Kumagai, M Sakurai


Laboratory and field trials of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30146
This document covers the results of laboratory and field trials of combinations of fungicides formulated using a patented technology (PCT NZ 96/00143). A 3 week laboratory trial that uses radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) branch discs as a substrate was used to determine which combinations possessed a suitable spectrum of fungitoxicity against key sapstain, mould and decay fungi. In particular fungitoxicity against Ophiostoma piceae H & P Syd was looked for as this is the most difficult fungus to control on freshly cut radiata pine in New Zealand. The most promising formulations were then tested using block stacked radiata pine stored for 11 weeks during a high hazard summer period. In general the field trial results corroborated with the laboratory disc trial results. The importance of a broad spectrum of fungitoxicity and in particular a high level of activity against O. piceae, was shown by both types of trial. A formulation containing hexaconazole (0.014%w/v) plus carbendazim (0.028%w/v) plus a quaternary ammonium compound (0.291%w/v) was particularly promising. This formulation achieved significantly better (5% level of probability) control than the commercial standards, for 11 weeks of summer storage. The low fungicide concentrations used auger well for it's cost effectiveness. It is believed that this was in part due to fungicide synergy, broad spectrum activity and the use of microemulsions and solutions of the key fungicide components.
R N Wakeling, P N Maynard, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter


Surface retentions of PCP, TCMTB and MTC obtained during a field trial of antisapstain formulations
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20002
Formulations containing NaPCP or TCMTB and MTC were included as reference products in a recent field trial of antisapstain formulations in Queensland. Retentions of these actives on the surface of treated sawn Pinus elliottii were monitored by ultrasonic solvent extraction of excised samples and analytical determination by high performance liquid chromatography. Distribution of actives with depth and longitudinal position were monitored for the particular dipping/draining schedule employed, and related to dip concentration and time since dipping. The analytical data provide a direct measure of surface retention in terms of active ingredients per unit area, the assessment method preferred by WG II Sub-group 3 at IRG 23. Even if only applied to these reference treatments, such analysis would facilitate comparison between trials conducted using widely varying treatment regimes and conditions.
D E Ferlazzo, M D Needham, M J Kennedy


Effectiveness of some microbiocides against the development of molds and sapstain in Pinus elliottii
1981 - IRG/WP 3169
Eleven commercial biocidal formulations were tested in the field to determine their effectiveness in protecting logs and lumber of Pinus elliottii sapwood from sap stain and molds. Among these formulations 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole showed the best performance in controlling both types of fungi. Potassium N-hydroxymethyl-N-methyl dithiocarbamate and the mixture potassium N-methyl dithiocarbamate plus ethylenediamine plus disodium cyanodithioymide-carbonate showed good effectiveness against sap stain fungi but failed to prevent mold growth.
S Milano


A field trial of water repellents as anti-sapstain treatment additives
1987 - IRG/WP 3417
The assessment of water repellents as anti-sapstain treatment additives has been included in a recent FRI research programme investigating improved surface protection of New Zealand Pinus radiata. Laboratory work has shown variation in water repellent effectiveness with chemical type and subsequently a field trial was established to examine the performance of selected water repellent/anti-sapstain treatments. Three water repellents were tested in combination with either sodium pentachlorophenoxide plus borax, Busan 1009 (methylene bisthiocyanate plus 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole), or Mitrol PQ375 (copper-8-quinolinolate). Although inspection of treated wood packages after 3 months' outside storage showed little variation in performance, inspections after 6 months showed that wood treated with formulations incorporating a paraffin wax emulsion was drier and usually showed less fungal degradation than wood treated with unamended anti-sapstain solutions.
J A Drysdale, D V Plackett


Performance of Tuff Brite C™ and other formulations against blue-stain, mold and brown-stain in freshly-sawn rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in the humid tropics of Peninsular Malaysia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30163
The relative anti-sapstain and anti-mold efficacies, including brown-stain development in freshly-sawn rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in the Malaysian tropics, between selected water-based product concentrations of formulations Tuff Brite CTM without/with added Borax (at 1.5/0, 1/1.5, 1.5/1.5 and 2%/1.5%), PQ8TM without/with added Borax (at 2.5/0, 1.5/1.5, 2/1.5 and 2.5%/1.5%) and NeXgenTM/NeX-BriteTM combination (at 1/0.25, 1.5/0.25 and 2%/0.25%) were assessed visually. Rubberwood boards, dipped in these concentrations for 1 min. were subjected to an 8 weeks sapstain trial in a FRIM sawmill shed. Sodium pentachlorophenate/Borax combination (at 2/1.5 and 2%/2%) was the reference anti-sapstain chemical. The rough-sawn boards were rated for blue-stain and mold weekly, while both the planed and the internal faces of the boards, sawn lengthwise into two-halves, were rated for blue-and brown-stain only after 8 weeks. Results for the rough-sawn boards, planed boards and the internal faces of the boards revealed a generally consistent excellent performance of Tuff Brite CTM without/with Borax against blue-stain and mold in rubberwood, protection being marginally better than that of NaPCP/Borax. Over a range of concentrations, performance by the remaining fomulations PQ8TM without/with Borax and NeXgenTM/NeX-BriteTM were variable: rated satisfactory (generally <10% surface infected) and/or poor (31-50% of surface infected) against sapstain and/or mold. Against brown-stain development (i.e. to conserve the natural cream/yellow hue in rubberwood), Tuff Brite CTM without/withBorax also appeared to be relatively better (generally yellow-to-light brown hue) than the other formulations, but perhaps only marginally so than NaPCP/Borax (light blue as well as yellow-to-light brown hue observed).
A H H Wong, T L Woods


A field test with anti-stain chemicals on sawn pine timber in Brazil
1989 - IRG/WP 3513
Field tests were carried out in São Paulo State - Brazil, to evaluate pre-treatment formulations of O-Phenyl-Phenol (OPP) based products. The Sodium Pentachlorophenate solution was used as a reference formulation. The treated test blocks were stacked in a covered shed, and in an uncovered place for air drying. The evaluation was done by measuring the percentage of stained surface on each test block, and the effect of the sodium tetraborate on the OPP fixation was also tested. Statistics analyses allowed to correlate the factors exposition, treatment, among others, indicating that the OPP 2.1% plus sodium tetraborate, showed the best performance.
M B B Monteiro, S Brazolin


Evaluation of the effectiveness of defence anti-stain in the control of sapstain in laboratory and field tests
1990 - IRG/WP 3593
The anti-sapstain product Defence Anti-stain (DAS) has been evaluated internationally in laboratory and field tests during the years 1988 and 1989. Results of tests carried out by institutes and by own companies in countries like Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and Spain will be presented. In the several tests Defence Anti-stain showed a high fungicidal activity to sapstain and mould fungi on wood. The product is a promising alternative to sodium pentachlorophenoxide from biological and other product characteristics point of view.
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver


Antisapstain field trials of NeXgen in New Zealand
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30145
This document covers the results of summer and winter log trials of NeXgen, an antisapstain formulation containing methylene bis thiocyanate plus chlorothalonil. Log billets (20 - 25cm diameter) were stripped of bark using a commercial maul debarker and antisapstain treated within 8 hours of felling by dip application. Billets were stored in a pole barn and assessed for internal sapstain and decay and surface mould at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The performance of NeXgen was compared with two commercial standards tested at 5% (IPBC at 0.35% plus DDAC at 3%v) and 20% (acid solubilised oxine copper at 0.75%). These two formulations are used for protecting export radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) logs in New Zealand. For 24 weeks of winter storage and 16 weeks of summer storage, NeXgen applied to radiata pine log billets at a concentration of 2%w/v (MBT at 0.29% plus chlorothalonil at 0.29%) gave significantly (5% level of probability) better protection against sapstain and at least equivalent protection against decay and surface mould compared to two commercial standards tested at 5%w/v (IPBC at 0.35% plus DDAC 3%) and 20% (oxine copper at 0.75%).
R N Wakeling, T L Woods, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter


Development process of a new anti-sapstain formulation and its present status with the relevant problems
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30257
An anti-sapstain formulation, which contains 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazol (TCMTB) and methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) as active ingredients, was developed by a technical agreement with Buckman Laboratories (Memphis, TN, USA) as an alternative to chlorinated phenols for the Japanese market. The formulation was commercialized as BAM 12 years ago. As anti-sapstain treatment is commonly conducted by momentary dipping at the Japanese sawmills and the treatment solution is repeatedly used, a high stability of the solution is required. Thus, a series of surfactants was screened to select the most suitable surfactant to meet the requirement. Laboratory evaluations showed that the newly developed product was effective against molds (Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus) and a sap-staining fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. When it was occasionally found ineffective against Gliocladium at lower treatment concentration, a chemical additive (IPBC or carbendazim) was shown to be helpful to fill up the deficiency of effectiveness. This was also demonstrated in the field trials. This report additionally refers to the problems that were experienced during and after commercialization of the anti-sapstain chemical formulation BAM.
K Nobashi, Y Nomura, K Tsunoda


Development and field trials of Evotek 230, a new antisapstain product
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30140
Laboratory and greenhouse studies, using freshly sawn pine boards, demonstrated that the fungicidal properties of prochloraz and carbendazim were complementary for protection from sapstain and mould under extreme conditions of close stacking and high humidity. Analysis of dip bath solutions before and after dipping 20 boards showed no evidence of any stripping of the active ingredients. Neither fungicide is very active against basidiomycetes that cause decay. Normally, such fungi do not present a significant hazard to freshly sawn timber and they are out-competed by sapstain fungi in the absence of chemical control. Where the prochloraz + carbendazim combination prevented colonisation by sapstain fungi, and where the boards were stored under very humid conditions, some growth of brown rot fungi was observed which could be prevented by tank mixing the anti-sapstain product with borax. Field trials in Europe, S. America and S.E. Asia have confirmed the anti-sapstain efficacy of Evotek 230, a suspoemulsion containing 100 g/l prochloraz and 130 g/l carbendazim, at rates as low as 0.5%.
A Adams, J Oudenweyer, J L Lindars


Field evaluation of anti-sapstain products
1987 - IRG/WP 3402
Product A based on methylenebisthiocyanate, product B based on methylenebisthiocyanate plus 2-thiocyanomethylthio-benzothiazole, product C based on 2-thiocyanomethilthio-benzothiazole and product D based on didecyl dimethil ammonium chloride plus 3-iodo-2 propynil butyl carbarnate were evaluated on Pinus radiata sawn timber as fungicides for sapstain and mould in the Sawmill Division of the Universidad del Bio-Bío. Product D causes stain and mould when used at 1.5% (it is recommended to be used at 0.5%). The other three products cause mould development, although they were checked at higher concentrations than indicated in the product data sheet. All four products are used in other countries with good results.
M C Rose, A Bedoya


Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tuff Brite C in the control of sapstain in laboratory and field tests
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3718
Since 1990, the anti-sapstain product Tuff Brite C (ASC 66898) has been evaluated internationally in laboratory and field tests, and has been commercially introduced in New Zealand. The product is an aqueous flowable formulation of chlorothalonil and carbendazim. Efficacy tests which have been carried out in New Zealand, Australia, USA, South Africa and Europe are described and summarized. Tuff Brite C is a highly efficacious product against commonly occurring mold and stain fungi causing degradation of freshly sawn lumber.
T L Woods, C J Klaver


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