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Effect of borate on uptake and efficacy of an anti-sapstain treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30380
The potential for using borates to enhance uptake and efficacy of propiconazole-based anti-sapstain chemicals was assessed on ponderosa pine sapwood wafers. Borates had no consistent effect on either net solution absorption or propiconazole distribution in the wood. Even small amounts of borate, however, markedly improved the performance of propiconazole against fungal discoloration. These results are consistent with previous tests of borate addition to other fungicides and highlight the potential for using less expensive ingredients to boost the performance of more costly biocides.
Jianju Luo, Hua Chen, J J Morrell


A field trial of water repellents as anti-sapstain treatment additives
1987 - IRG/WP 3417
The assessment of water repellents as anti-sapstain treatment additives has been included in a recent FRI research programme investigating improved surface protection of New Zealand Pinus radiata. Laboratory work has shown variation in water repellent effectiveness with chemical type and subsequently a field trial was established to examine the performance of selected water repellent/anti-sapstain treatments. Three water repellents were tested in combination with either sodium pentachlorophenoxide plus borax, Busan 1009 (methylene bisthiocyanate plus 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole), or Mitrol PQ375 (copper-8-quinolinolate). Although inspection of treated wood packages after 3 months' outside storage showed little variation in performance, inspections after 6 months showed that wood treated with formulations incorporating a paraffin wax emulsion was drier and usually showed less fungal degradation than wood treated with unamended anti-sapstain solutions.
J A Drysdale, D V Plackett


A report on the development of "Technical Recommendations Document for the Canadian wood preservation and protection facilities"
1987 - IRG/WP 3447
The wood preservation and wood protection industry uses chemicals which are similar. However, because the methods of applications of preservatives are different in wood preservation (pressure treatment) and wood protection (surface treatment) plants, their problems need to be resolved separately. As a part of a federal strategy to protect the environment and human health from potentially toxic commercial chemicals in use in Canada, Environment Canada (EC) decided to develop Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Canadian Wood Protection and Preservation facilities. These TR documents define design and operational measures which will protect the environment and worker health. The measures are based on current knowledge of existing technology and current knowledge of physical, chemical and biological properties of the preservative chemicals. A significant amount of background information has been included in the TR documents in order to provide readers with the factual basis which supports the suggested designs and recommended operational practices. Although the recommendations are specific, the focus is on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers from harmful exposure to preservative chemicals. Site-specific circumstances may require the modification of certain recommendations in order to best achieve these objectives.
G Das, V N P Mathur


A report of the Technical Recommendations documents for the Canadian Wood Protection and Preservation Facilities and an environmental study of storm water runoff from anti-sapstain treatment plants
1988 - IRG/WP 3478
With the completion of the Final draft of the Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Wood Preservation and Wood Protection Industry, there are naturally questions on what is expected from these documents and how Environment Canada and Provincial regulatory agencies may interact with the wood preservation industry. In general, it is expected that the Canadian Wood Preservation and Protection Industry will meet the objectives of the Technical Recommendations documents, which are to reduce or eliminate the release of preservative and antisapstain chemicals into the environment and to eliminate exposure of workers to these chemicals. The Technical Recommendations documents will help in accomplishing these objectives. The documents explain the rationale for the environmental and workplace concerns and provide information required to achieve controls on the use of wood preservative and antisapstain chemicals.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Laboratory evaluation of water repellents as antisapstain treatment additives
1986 - IRG/WP 3382
Water repellent formulations consisting of five paraffin wax emulsions, three polyethylene wax emulsions, two polybutadiene resin emulsions, a polyester emulsion, and a ß-pinene polymer emulsion were subjected to water repellency tests on radiata pine sapwood. With one exception, the parafin wax emulsions were more effective water repellents than the alternative formulations and one of the paraffin wax emulsions (Paracol 800A) was selected for inclusion in laboratory antisapstain tests. The results showed there was no improvement in fungicidal effectiveness of NaPCP/borax, Busan 1009 (Buckman Laboratories), or Mitrol PQ375 (Kenogard) with addition of this water repellent.
D V Plackett, C M Chittenden


Anti-sapstain chemicals for diffusion treatment of rubber wood
1986 - IRG/WP 3367
Performance of Sinesto B and Akzo EN 494, two formulated products of alkyl ammonium compounds, was tested as fungicidal additive in the boron solution to control mould and stain during diffusion storage of rubber wood. Sinesto B at 2.0% (a.i.) concentration has given good control over mould and its protection against sapstain was only satisfactory. Akzo EN 494 at 0.7% (a.i.) concentration has given good performance against both mould and sapstain. These two chemicals have potential to replace sodium pentachlorophenoxide used for the purpose.
R Gnanaharan


Performance of kiln-dried and air-dried anti-sapstain treated pallet timber under use scenarios against wood discolouring fungi
2015 - IRG/WP 30669
During their lifespan there is a high probability that wooden pallets and packaging material will be exposed to rainfall or rewetting conditions, increasing the risk of growth of discolouring fungi. Kiln-drying of wooden pallets and packaging material without anti-sapstain treatment does not give efficient protection against wood discolouring fungi during rewetting periods. However additional temporary protection can be achieved, when pallets and packaging material are manufactured from timber treated with anti-sapstain preservatives. In order to compare the performance of kiln-dried pallets and air-dried pallets treated with an anti-sapstain preservative against blue-stain and mould infestation, three practical use scenarios of rewetting were investigated. The first scenario was the simulation of rainfall, followed by indoor storage under moist and warm conditions representing shipping of wet pallets in closed trucks or container. The second scenario simulates storage of humid goods or goods which can release moisture like, e.g., fruits or vegetables which have been stored under plastic foil in a changing temperature climate like e.g. during night and day. Condensed water can be formed on the foil building water droplets which will increase the wood moisture. The third scenario was the simulation of pallet movement of cooled goods from a cold storage warehouse into humid and warm climate area, studying the influence of the condensed water on the surface of a pre-cooled good, packed with foil on the pallet and subsequently stored or transported under high humidity and elevated temperature. The evaluation of the specimens was carried out by optical assessment according to CEN/TS 15082. After 28 days in all of the simulated scenarios the kiln-dried pallets were three times more affected by moulds and sapstain fungi than the pallets treated with anti-sapstain preservatives.
A Steitz, E Stoyanova, N Pfabigan, R Gründlinger


Search for an anti-sapstain treatment for fresh radiata pine wood in compliance with European BPD norms: Field Tests
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30673
In response to the impending restrictions on the use of pesticide active ingredients developed to control the staining of fresh wood, as a result of regulation issued in 2009 by the European Union, a project was proposed to test an alternative anti-sapstain treatment that meets both the European restrictions and the performance required for an export-quality radiata pine fresh wood treatment. A set of 16 treatments that included a positive control (commercial treatment), and an untreated control was set and evaluated at three and six months after the application. The treatments tested included formulations of active ingredients and coformulants, and focused on two anchor treatments: one made with a azole based formulation and another that tested cupric hydroxide as base active ingredient. The results of the initial evaluation is that the active ingredients, at the concentration tested, failed to provide protection over time as required; therefore, at a second follow up trial, other active ingredients were tested, in order to resolve the problem. The second stage of the study incorporated the active ingredient DCOIT, who had shown in studies carried in New Zealand, a potentiating effect of the azole based treatments in the control of the stainer complex in time. The third stage of the study tested different sources of the active ingredient DCOIT, and different concentrations of active ingredients and coformulants, in order to determine a cost competitive and performance effective alternative.
P Montes C, T Hanke W


Effect of the Storage Time of Logs in Anti-Stain Treatment Effectiveness
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30683
Storage of green lumber, for 7 months, operationally treated with anti-stain products, depending on the storage time of the logs (10, 20 and 30 days) post harvesting allows to affirm that with increasing storage time of the logs, occurs a progressive increase in intensity, severity and types of fungi present in the logs. It is further noted, a significant increase in the percentage of sawn lumber affected by fungi the longer the logs remain in storage, which results in a decrease in the effectiveness of the anti-stain treatment applied. The study results allow the conclusion that in order to reach an effectiveness of the anti-stain treatment equal or higher than 95%, it is required to process the logs with a maximum of 10 days post harvesting, if the procedure of re-sawing of matrix is used with three days of storing after the sawing and logs with a maximum time of storage of 20 days post-harvest, if the timber is subjected to re-sawing immediately.
M A Peredo, C Barria


Commercially available anti-sapstain chemicals in New Zealand - An update
1987 - IRG/WP 3416
Six anti-sapstain chemicals or mixtures (NaPCP plus borax, Haipen 5F, Mitrol PQ375, Busan 1009, Protek S, Pinefol 50W) are available as commercial treatments in New Zealand. A further two (Hylite 20F and Isothon-35) have shown potential in field and mill trials and will be available for use. A number of other formulations are under evaluation.
J A Drysdale


In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako


Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better understanding of biocide - fungal interactions.
G R Williams, D A Lewis


Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi


Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods


Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as control product.
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos


The identification and preservative tolerance of species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from freshly felled timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1553
The surface disfigurement of antisapstain treated timber by preservative-tolerant fungi remains a major problem in stored timber. Identification of a range of isolates of Trichoderma based on microscopic morphological characteristics was found to be imprecise due to the variable nature of this organism. In addition, studies to compare visual (morphological) characteristics of these isolates with their tolerance to the antisapstain compound methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) using minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests showed no clear correlations. Isoenzyme electrophoresis was used to investigate the taxonomic relationships between species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from antisapstain field trials and to identify physiological differences between 30 isolates of Trichoderma which show tolerance to MBT at concentrations ranging from less than 4 ppm to 34 ppm. Results indicate that there is considerable variability in the preservative tolerance of different Trichoderma isolates from particular locality. This highlights the need for field testing of an antisapstain compound in the same locality and under the same conditions in which it will be used in practice.
R J Wallace, R A Eaton, M A Carter, G R Williams


Observations on the failure of anti-sapstain treated timber under non-drying conditions
1990 - IRG/WP 1437
A range of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from antisapstain treated timber and fresh sawdust. Solution samples containing 100 ppm of TCMTB in a nutrient medium were inoculated with these organisms and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The levels of TCMTB remaining in solution were determined by HPLC analysis after this time. Results indicated high losses of active ingredient for a range of organisms. These results suggest that active biodetoxification of organic biocides could occur in a short period of time during storage of antisapstain treated timber under favourable conditions. The implications of these results are discussed.
G R Williams


Austrian field test method for anti-sapstain chemicals
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20020
Although Austria is a small country, the annual consumption of anti-sapstain products ranks to approximately 500 tons annually. In 1994, only three products will be approved by the Austrian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPEC). There is demand for a field test method, which demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-sapstain product and consequently implies the acceptance and approval of product by the AWPEC. Present field test was carried out in 1992 and 1993. The results were evaluated after six months storage of test stacks. A TCMTB based product was used as a reference. The results show that the AFPRL method proves very suitable for the simulation of practical situation in Austrian treatment plants, where pine and/or spruce are treated periodically and where different methods of stack storage are applied.
R Gründlinger, M Brandstätter, H Melzer, O Janotta


Ecotoxicological risks of anti-sapstain preservatives washed off from treated timber
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50144
A field method for ecotoxicity assessment of rain water wash-off from anti-sapstain treated timber was developed. In the course of this study freshly sawn timber treated with 1.5% Busan 30 L (reference preservative) and a control stack with untreated pine were exposed to weathering. The run-off water was ecotoxicologically tested with organisms from three trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Kirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna). Results show, that the highest ecotoxicity can be detected immediately after treatment and within the first 4 weeks of storage - depending on the precipitation: high rainfall during the first month of exposure significantly increases ecotoxicity. Covering the treated stack provides sufficient protection of timber against leaching of chemicals and further on significantly minimises the environmental risk. Results suggest either storage of anti-sapstain treated timber in saw mills underneath a roof or, when stored outside, protection of treated stacks by coverage.
G Aschacher, R Gründlinger


The use of bifluorides-diffusion in remedial treatments
1983 - IRG/WP 3256
A description is given about the experience to date of a 14 years' development to bring bifluorides-diffusion from laboratory evaluation to commercial service application. The described treatment is an adjunct to good design and not a replacement for it. The process is also used with an injection method for the remedial treatment of premature decayed external joinery.
H F M Nijman


An evaluation of anti-apstain chemicals in Queensland, Australia
1986 - IRG/WP 3374
Five formulations were evaluated for potential use as antisapstain chemicals. Tolcide FSM (0.01, 0.02, 0.04%), Koppers N.P.-1 (0.70, 0.35, 0.25%), Kathon WT (0.10, 0.25, 0.40%) and Sinesto B (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%) offer potential as antisapstain treatments. An incorrect stock of Busan 1009 was used resulting in unacceptable results.
L E Leightley


Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface roughness, and decreased with initial timber moisture content. Dipping time beyond 20 seconds, timber basic density and earlywood content had little effect. Relatively low surface retentions, produced by dipping smoother boards with higher initial moisture contents, provided lower protection against mould and stain during seasoning than higher retentions. Equations describing the effect of surface retention on efficacy were developed for both formulations, and retentions providing complete protection under the conditions of the test were determined.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods


Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans


Anti-stain field trials in British Columbia
1981 - IRG/WP 3174
Four alternative anti-sap stain chemicals were subjected to a four month field evaluation during the summer of 1980. The test, established at a Vancouver Island sawmill, was designed to evaluate the potential long-term effectiveness of sodium tribromophenate (Velsicol Ltd.), Biocom XX (Bramco Industries) containing methylene bis-thiocyanate, Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butyl carbamate and Mitrol 48 (Kenogard) containing guazatine acetate and quaternary ammonium chlorides, on hemfir and Douglas fir. Sodium tribromophenate was found to give surface protection equivalent to that of chlorophenate treated controls. Biocom XX was also effective, although the active ingredient came out of solution at the required treating solution concentration. Woodbrite NTX and Mitrol 48 were found to be ineffective on either species group under the test conditions.
D V Plackett


Production of preservative-treated wood in some countries
1990 - IRG/WP 3598
This report presents figures of the production of preservative-treated wood and wood treated with anti-stain chemicals in 26 and 20 countries respectively from all over the world.
J Jermer


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