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Extraction, identification and antifungal activity of polar extractives originated from various wood species
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20673
Extractives are non-cell wall small molecules present in wood and other lignocellulosic materials that can be removed by solvents. Although they represent a minor fraction in comparison with the structural cell wall components, they are an important source of functional groups or molecules with bioactivity or antioxidant properties, that could be used in medicine, cosmetic or wood preservation. T...
R Herrera, F Poohphajai, J Labidi, S Willför, A Sandak

Biological control with Trichoderma harzianum in relation to the formation for spores the production of soluble metabolites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10073
The amount of spores produced by three strains of Trichoderma harzianum on the aerial mycelium of agar cultures and in shake cultures, respectively, correlated with the inhibition zones exerted against Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an agar diffusion test. The amount of soluble antifungal metabolites as well as the protein content also correlated with the inhibition zones and the amount of spores ...
J Bürgel, E Horvath, J Haschka, K Messner

Collaborative soft rot tests: Programme and test method
1973 - IRG/WP 229
J G Savory, J K Carey

Iron promotes decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10008
The influence of iron and iron compounds on the decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans was studied. Mass losses of pine wood caused by dry rot fungus were increased when FeSO4 was added into the culture medium or when there were iron nails or stone wool on the culture medium. This supports the hypothesis that iron in stone-based building materials is one reason for the increased decay capacity of Ser...
L Paajanen

Antifungal mechanism of dichloro-N-octylisothiazolone
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30183
4,5-dichloro-N-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOI) is a member of the isothiazolone class of preservatives, whose antimicrobial mechanism of action has been intensively studied over the last decade. DCOI has also been intensively studied for use in wood preservation. The isothiazolones are electrophilic molecules that rapidly react with thiol groups to form covalently bonded isothiazolone-thiol adducts. This ability to bond with thiol groups is crucial to their ability to act as preservatives. Thiol groups are present in proteins as part of the amino acid cysteine, where they play an important role in maintaining protein structure and function. A number of enzymes have thiol groups at the site where the enzyme function is performed, and these thiol groups may participate in the enzyme reaction. If the isothiazolone reacts with this thiol group, the activity of the enzyme is inhibited. Our studies have shown that there are several enzymes in the Krebs cycle that are inhibited by isothiazolones and these enzymes are required to generate energy and perform many biosynthetic functions. Reflective of this, DCOI has been shown to be a rapid inhibitor of cellular respiration, causing the cell to cease consuming oxygen almost immediately upon contact with DCOI. The multiplicity of targets and their central importance to the metabolism of the cell, as well as the fact that all microbes use at least parts of the Krebs cycle, can be related to the low use levels and broad spectrum of activity of DCOI. The antimicrobial mechanism of DCOI results in a potent rapid-acting preservative with a broad spectrum of antifungal and antibacterial activity that is effective at low levels.
J S Chapman, M A Diehl, K B Fearnside, L E Leightley

Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1982 and 1983
1985 - IRG/WP 3327
The data of Brazilian production of treated sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the years of 1982 and 1983. This report updates information given to the Group in Document No: IRG/WP/3321 Wood Preservation in Brazil, STU information no 445...
M S Cavalcante

Antifungal activity of a stilbene glucoside from the bark of Picea glehnii
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10402
Stilbene glucosides are widely distributed as phenolic extractives in the bark of Picea glehnii, a commercially species planted in the northern area of Japan, and its content reaches to more than 10% by the dried weight of the bark. Although antifungal activities of these compounds have been reported, the mechanism of growth inhibition is still unclear. Isorhapontin (5,4'-dihydroxy-3&...
S Shibutani, M Samejima

Report on the status of collaborative experiments within the Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests
1983 - IRG/WP 2194
This report summarises the results of co-operative work carried out within the Sub-Group on Basidiomycete tests up to December 1982. The principle findings are recorded in the Conclusions Section. Work intended between IRG-13 in Turkey and IRG-14 in Australia is cited under Future Programme. An Annex provides a response sheet for existing and new participants to notify their contributions....
A F Bravery

Testing wood in ground contact: An artificial soil
1977 - IRG/WP 280
This document is an interim report on the development of the artificial soil medium. It includes some information on the relationship between soil, wood and water which is of relevance in testing....
E F Baines, D J Dickinson, J F Levy

Some observations on miniaturised soil/block tests
1988 - IRG/WP 2317
Results are presented for miniaturised soil/block tests carried out in 120 ml capacity glass jars. The four test fungi (Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria placenta) reacted differently to different moisture regimes established by varying the soil moisture content. Acceptable levels of decay were achieved by the three brown rot fungi with soil at 110% whc; howev...
J K Carey

Antifungal properties of new quaternary ammonium and imidazolium salts against wood decay, staining and mould fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30347
The biological activity of twenty-four potential wood preservatives – imidazolium and quaternary ammonium salts with a modified anion structure was determined employing screening agar-plate and agar-block methods. Experiments were carried out on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood. The aim of the performed studies was to investigate the effect of structure modification of IC and QAC with organ...
J Zabielska-Matejuk, W Wieczorek

A new laboratory technique devised with the intention of determining whether, related to practical conditions, there should be a relationship between growth rate and decay capacity (of different strains) of Serpula lacrymans
1989 - IRG/WP 1384
Most laboratory techniques for the determination of growth rate not only use a medium (agar) unrelated to practice, but also yield values that are often far less than those found in practice. Also, most laboratory techniques for the determination of decay capacity ensure that the whole of a small test block becomes fully surface-colonised within the first few days; whereas in Australian practice S...
J D Thornton

Iron in stone wool - one reason for the increased growth and decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1537
The chemical compositions of stone wool and glass wool were analysed. There was more iron in the stone wool than in the glass wool. It was found that iron present in stone wool was easily dissolved by oxalic acid that Serpula lacrymans is able to produce. The stone wool promoted the decay of pine wood by Serpula lacrymans. The glass wool had no effect on the decay capacity of Serpula Iacrymans. Th...
L Paajanen, A-C Ritschkoff

Copper binding capacity of modified wood flour
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3709
Wood flour was modified by reaction with oxidising agents and CCA preservative. The copper chromium and arsenic were removed from the CCA treated wood flour by an acid leaching procedure. The modified wood flours were allowed to react with copper acetate solution and the level of copper fixation achieved was determined. The modified wood flours had greater affinity for copper ions present in solut...
N C Milowych, W B Banks, J A Cornfield

An investigation into the influence of soil cation exchange capacity on preservative component depletion
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20050
The mobility of preservative components from treated wood into the soil environment is regarded as an important determinant of preservative performance. Standard procedures for the investigation of this phenomenon have not been developed to any great extent. Soil bed studies conducted in this laboratory using natural soil and modified soil media have provided interesting comparative data on the in...
K J Archer, L Jin

Soil-bed studies. Part 2: The efficacy of wood preservative
1983 - IRG/WP 2205
Various methods of decay assessment were investigated. Three stages or phases of decay were identified which could be used to describe the efficacy of a preservative system or virulence of a soil-bed testing medium. These included the lag, decay, and senescent phase. Premature senescence could arise if wood samples became waterlogged. It was concluded that time to failure was unsuitable as a metho...
P Vinden, J F Levy, D J Dickinson

Preliminary studies to assess the effects of aeration and lowered humidity on the decay capacity, growth and survival of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans (Wulf ex. Fr.)
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10208
Novel microcosms were used to test separately the effects of aeration and humidity on the decay capacity, linear spread and survival of Serpula lacrymans. The application of a pumped air supply resulted in an effective cessation of fungal activity when all but the lowest of the air flow rates was used. Furthermore, the lowest air flow rate caused marked growth tropisms away from the stress. In sep...
G A Low, J W Palfreyman, N A White, H J Staines, A Bruce

The antifungal efficacy of Guayule resin
1987 - IRG/WP 3429
The Naval Research Laboratory is evaluating the non-rubber-producing portion of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) resin as a protectant for wood in terrestrial and marine service. This study phase, in collaboration with the universities of Arizona and Mississippi State, evaluates the resin's fungicidal worth. Resin-impregnated pine sapwood was exposed to brown rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeu...
J D Bultman, R L Gilbertson, T L Amburgey, J E Adaskaveg, S V Parikh, C A Bailey

A study of the colonization of wood blocks in a laboratory unsterile soil test
1988 - IRG/WP 2318
CCA treated and untreated beech blocks were exposed to a defined horticultural loam using the method proposed for the collaborative soft rot test in the soft rot sub-group of Working Group Two. At intervals during the incubation wood samples were removed and fungal isolations were made using selective media. Fungi were identified and tested for their cellulolytic ability and their decay capacity i...
M T De Troya, S M Gray, D J Dickinson

Antifungal properties of metabolites produced by Trichoderma isolates from sawdust media of edible fungi against wood decay fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10051
Trichoderma isolated from a sawdust medium of Pholiota nameko produced filtrates which had antifungal activities to four wood decay fungi tested on the agar plates. Filtrates produced from another isolate, from a sawdust medium of Lentinus edodes, had antifungal activities only to the white rot fungi, Coriolus versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus. These results did not agree with those from earlier...
S Doi, M Mori

Intraspecific variability in feeding capacity of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1175
This paper describes laboratory studies to evaluate the comparative feeding capacity within and between five mound colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Matched specimens of mountain ash, pine and coachwood were exposed to five replicate 10 g groups of termites from each colony source. After an initial 8-week exposure period, all groups were assessed for vitality and continued feeding ...
C D Howick, J W Creffield

Effect of soil type and moisture content on soft rot testin
1986 - IRG/WP 2270
Several soils of different types were tested at a range of moisture contents for their suitability for use in a soil burial soft rot test. Their effectiveness was assessed by weight loss in CCA treated and untreated beech and birch outerwood. A horticultural loam (John Innes No. 2) was the most appropriare soil in terms of amount of weight loss caused, tolerance to changes in soil moisture content...
S M Gray

Status of wood preservation industry in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30388
The paper traces the history of wood preservation industry in India, listing various mile stones for creation of treating capacity. The preservation industry developed with the development of rail road system on the line of most other developed countries. The most popular wood preservatives are CCA, CCB, ACC, Creosote and recently LOSP have also appeared in the market. The major users of CCA is th...
S Kumar

Soft-rot in Tabebuia sp. wood used in water cooling tower: identification and degradation capacity of the fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10253
Tabebuia sp. (ipe), a native Brazilian wood, is considered of high natural resistance to decaying fungi, and has been used in harsh environments, as cooling towers. Fifty-one fungi, belonging to mitosporic fungi group (Fungi Imperfecti), were isolated from deteriorated Tabebuia sp. wood samples, collected from the mist eliminator and packing of a cooling tower in operation for about 23 years. The ...
S Brazolin, M Tomazello, I H Schoenlein-Crusius

The effect of added nutrients on growth rate and decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans
1990 - IRG/WP 1427
At the previous meeting a new technique was presented that enables both fungal growth rate and wood decay rate to be measured using the same timber specimen. The technique (IRG/WP/1384) has previously been carried out with 1% malt as the sole nutrient within the small jar that provides the inoculum for this method. Results presented here relate to an additional level of 5% malt, with or without a ...
J D Thornton, A McConalogue

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