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The first two years of an area wide management program for the Formosan subterranean termite in the French Quarter, New Orleans, Louisiana
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10357
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, is a serious pest in several parts of the world and is the most destructive insect in Louisiana. The density of the Formosan subterranean termite in the French Quarter, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA is very high. A large area pilot test for area wide management of this insect was begun in 1998 in the French Quarter to reduce densities of termites and demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach of treating all properties in a large area using area wide management. The pilot test is a cooperative effort between the LSU Agricultural Center, USDA-Agricultural Research Service and New Orleans Mosquito and Termite Control Board. All but four of 323 properties in a contiguous 15 block area in the French Quarter were treated using commercially available baits or non repellent termiticides selected by property owners and applied by professional pest control operators. Properties were inspected for conducive conditions and proper treatment after treatments were made. Data on termite activity were collected using glue boards for alates and in ground monitors for foraging activity. Alates were sampled two to three times weekly during the flight season (May through July 15) in both 1998 and 1999 using glue boards hung near lamps on street lights. Monthly monitoring of foraging activity began in January, 1999 to determine the number of stations with termites and amount of wood consumed. Reductions in densities of alates between years were not found; probably as a result of the limited time treatments had been in place. The percentage of in ground monitoring stations with termites was lower in the treated zone than outside the treated zone after September 1999. Continued treatment and monitoring are required to determine the extent of and the long term effects of the area wide management program.
D R Ring, A L Morgan, W D Woodson, A R Lax, X P Hu, E D Freytag, L Mao


Community-wide suppression of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin – Search for the Holy Grail
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10674
In 2006, the Forest Products Laboratory, in collaboration with Alternative Pest Solutions Inc. and the UW-Madison Entomology department, developed a strategy for sustained suppression/elimination of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin. Our commitment includes a minimum of five years of active treatment followed by at least one year of monitoring. The Whitmire Micro-Gen Advance baiting system (a.i. 0.25% diflubenzuron) was chosen to be the main method of termite treatment in the Village as the collaborating pest control company had access to this system. The efficacy of these baiting treatment cartridges were assessed in field and laboratory situations. Initial results after the first treatment season suggested a significant effect of the active ingredient on R. flavipes populations as activity in the buildings located in the central treatment zone appeared to be eliminated. However, the two following treatment seasons seemed to show reduced effectiveness of the baiting cartridges in controlling termite populations. In order to improve the efficacy of the commercial bait system, supplementary termiticidal dusts were tested including: borates, N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine, zinc and boron oxide (nanoparticles) as well as dusting with the Micro-Gen cartridge itself. Liquid fipronil was also examined. Although preliminary laboratory tests involving dusting with N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine did not show the dust to transfer to undusted termites, subsequent field and laboratory tests support this compound for used with commercial systems in treatment of northern colonies of R. flavipes.
F Green III, R A Arango, G R Esenther


Coding scheme for samples for IRG world-wide co-operative field experiment
1975 - IRG/WP 360
Each sample has been given a number containing six digits (eg 16 23 05). The first 2 digits indicate the country and person supplying the timber, the second 2 digits indicate the species of timber, and the last two digits indicate the treating concentration. All samples which end with the numbers 26 to 50 are to be placed in one site in the United Kingdom, probably at the Imperial College site at Silwood. All the other samples will be returned to the persons in the following list according to the code number indicated.
R Cockcroft


A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented.
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


IRG WG III - World-wide co-operative field experiment
1977 - IRG/WP 383
R Cockcroft


Durability of wood in the area of wood-inhabiting termites in Slovenia
1981 - IRG/WP 1139
This report describes a research dealing with resistance and durability of five different species of wood. The experiment was made in natural conditions in the Slovene area of wood-inhabiting termites. The results of our experimental field, which correspond to the results of the former laboratory experiments, show a very weak resistance of spruce-wood, fir-wood, and beech-wood. They also show their short durability /up to two years/, if they are exposed to all natural external influences. Pine wood shows a better resistance; the most resistant of them is oak-wood. However, the results of the experimental field indicate a possibility of prolonging the durability of these species of wood by a preventive protection made by chemicals.
L Kervina


Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans


Albumin borate: A new non-toxic, wide-spectrum, long-term wood preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30167
Boron, widely recognized for its broad range of activity towards both fungi and insects and for its low mammalian toxicity, can not provide long term protection to treated timber due to its high leachability. Boron, in the form of boric acid, can be partially fixed to timber by the formation of an association with egg albumin, which is insolubilized by heat-induced coagulation. Chemical investigations on fixation mechanisms of boric acid by egg albumin indicated that both acid-base salt formation occurs, as well as the formation of boric acid-albumin complexes, depending on the boric acid/protein ratio. In treated timber, a chance in protein conformation in presence of boric acid, has been shown by scanning electron microscopy. These mechanisms, partly reversible, while greatly retarding its leaching, leave small amounts of boron free to exercice its activity when needed. Boron leaching as a function of time, appears to tend to an equilibrium value, which one differs in the case of an albumin coagulum alone from what is obtained by leaching treated wood samples. Accelerated biolocical tests using such treated timber have shown that albumin borate used as wood preservative has effectiveness against wood decay, and have durability performances comparable to those obtained with CCA.
M-F Thévenon, A Pizzi, J-P Haluk


Copper linoleate: A new low toxcity wide spectrum, heavy duty wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30082
Copper linoleate, a "fixed" copper soap has been developed and evaluated in South Africa over a 30-year period. The initial product, an organic solvent based preservative has been tested in pine poles against termites and fungi. Results indiate that the product has performed well against existing heavy duty wood preservatives such as CCA and creosote in long term field trials (30 years). The paper describes the basic formulation of copper linoleate and the reaction and possible fixation mechanisms of copper linoleate with wood lignin. The paper moves on to describe further work on an emulsifiable version of copper linoleate for use as a water borne wood preservative. The performance of this product is evaluated in accelerated trials to obtain comparative performance data. The emulsion-based product addresses a need for a low-toxicity, waterborne, heavy duty wood preservative. The paper also considers some of the physical properties of the product and outines the remaining barriers for its industrial commercialisation.
D Conradie, P Turner, W E Conradie, A J Pendlebury, T Pizzi


Hardwood field experiment: Progress report 1977-82
1982 - IRG/WP 3200
The international hardwood field experiment was planned in 1976 and set up in some 30 different sites around the world. The test stakes include 4 reference species common to each site and in most cases at least 2 species of local importance. It was hoped that a picture of performance of a range of economically important species would be built up and at the same time provide vital background information for people currently engaged in hardwood and soft-rot research. It is felt that these aspirations are more than being achieved and that as time proceeds this trial will prove invaluable in developing our knowledge of wood preservation on a world wide basis. Obviously it proved impossible to set up such a large trial simultaneously. Different sites also inspect their trials at different times and so the data presented is for different periods dependant on the site. For the reference species table 1 gives the latest data from each site and should be considered with report IRG/WP/3164 which gave information at earlier dates. Table 2 gives the performance of the other species for each site and, where stakes were available, for the master site (33) at Imperial college. No attempt has been made to analyse or comment on the results at this time. It is felt that this is a progress report for comment on by the sub-group. However, it is felt that together with the comments received these results should be duly considered for publication elsewhere.
D J Dickinson, J F Levy


Trial to determine a suitable schedule for radial and longitudinal treatment of plug samples by comparison of changes in the fluid retention and the treated area
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40211
A full-cell process was carried out using different treatment schedules for radial and longitudinal samples because of the anisotrophy of flow. When timbers are impregnated with preservatives much better penetrations are obtained via the end grain than laterally (across the grain). Therefore, suitable schedules for radial and longitudinal flow directions were determined in an trial experiment using locally grown Sitka spruce, Queen Charlotte Islands (QCI) provenance, from Beddgelert Forest in North Wales. The full cell experimental schedules used were: initial vacuum 15 minutes at -0.84 bar and various pressure periods that was 5 bar pressure in radial flow direction for 15, 45, and 60 minutes, 3 bar pressure in longitudinal flow direction for 3, 6, and 9 minutes. No final vacuum was applied. After the treatment, the fluid uptake was calculated, and the fluid retention was determined on a whole-block basis. After fixation, plugs were dried and cut longitudinally through the centre and copper penetration was determined by spraying a 1% solution of Chrome Azurol-S on the cut surface and observing the blue colour indicative of copper. The preservative penetration was then measured by image analyser as depth (mm) and as total treated area (%). From the experimental data, it was concluded that the suitable schedules are 5 bar pressure for 45 minutes for the radial flow direction, and 3 bar pressure for 7 minutes for the longitudinal flow direction. Therefore these schedules are suggested to be used to examine the permeability of the different seed origins in both radial and longitudinal flow directions.
I Usta


Preliminary results from the field experiment to determine the performance of preservative treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. The four reference timber
1980 - IRG/WP 3164
The results given in the Tables 1-4 each refer to one of the four reference species treated with four solution concentrations of CCA as recorded from each test site. The species are: Alstonia scholaris, Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris. The treatments were: Untreated, 0.66% CCA, 1.53% CCA, 3.01% CCA, 5.60% CCA. Each figure is an average of the ratings recorded for each replicate of the species at a particular treatment and a particular inspection. The agreed ratings were: Sound - no attack (Condition): 0 (Rating); Slight and superficial decay (attack): 1; Evident but moderate decay (attack): 2; Severe decay (attack): 3; Failure - almost complete loss of strength: 4. Detailed instructions were set out in the IRG Document No: IRG/WP/367 of 1976.
J F Levy, D J Dickinson


Environmental situations on wood preservation industries in Japan
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-21
Because of environmental civil oppinions, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Japan, reviesed "the standards for sawn lumber" in 1994. For the possibilities of the use of preservatives out of CCA, by the using of the hazard levels, new products like ACQ, DDAC and emulsified zinc-naphthenate can be used in the standards. Since 1994, the permitable limit of the arsenic in the waste water become severe to 0.1 mg/l, but untill Fev. 1997, it's possible to allow the level of 0.3 mg/l. The Wood Preservers Association in Japan considers the possibility by accerlated fixation of CCA for decreasing the level of the arsenic in waste water of wood preservation industries.
K Suzuki


Three-year field trials of polymeric formulations which provide a new basis for the invention and design of non-toxic wide-spectrum wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40029
Three types of non-toxic polymeric formulations invented using a new approach to wood preservation were challenged with termites and fungi in three-year ground-contact field trials in the sub-tropical climate of Natal. These formulations were copper soaps of carboxylic acid groups of unsaturated fatty acids of waxes and edible vegetable oils; of resin acids of rosin, and, of synthetic unsaturated polyester resins. The formulations self-polymerise within lumena of wood elements after pressure-impregnation and also co-react with carbon-carbon double bonds and aromatic nuclei of lignin. The biocidal mechanism is based on the release of copper by hydrolysis under humid conditions and on the reformation of the same bond on redrying of the treated timber in service. All formulations tested were effective and durable. Rosin formulations at retentions of 0.91 kg/m³ and polyester formulations at retentions as low as 0.4 kg/m³ each out-performed creosote at 37.5 kg/m³.
A A W Baecker, A Pizzi


Genome-wide survey of cellulase related genes of white rot fungus,Pleurotus ostreatus
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10627
A white rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a important edible mushroom, has received much attention to apply to bioremediation and bioconversion because it has both cellulase and ligninase. To confirm copy number of cellulase-related genes encoded in P. ostreatus genome, we attempted to genomic Southern hybridization of P. ostreatus. The draft genome sequence and a large quantity of EST and cDNA information are now available for a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete crysosporium. To obtain sequence information of the cellulase-related genes in the white rot fungi, we also carried out public data base search. These genome-wide studies of P. ostreatus that consist of experimental and bioinformatical approach will provide meaningful advances to exploration of molecular mechanisms underlying wood decay.
T Tamenori, S Horisawa


Wood boring species present in the Tagus Estuary and the severity of their attack on wooden piles exposed in the area: a case study
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10664
Wood exposed in the marine environment is subject to degradation by wood boring organisms. This is probably one of the reasons why wood has been substituted by concrete and steel in maritime structures in many European coastal areas. Wooden piles obtained from a wharf exposed in the Tagus Estuary, Porto Brandão (Almada, Portugal) provided an opportunity to understand the main agents of biodeterioration of wood, as wooden structures in the area are rare. The examination of the piles revealed severe deterioration by wood boring organisms. Major destruction caused by limnoriids was observed in the outer layers of the piles. The species was identified as Limnoria quadripunctata but a field survey in wooden structures nearby the area where the piles were obtained, revealed also the presence of Limnoria tripunctata. Thus, it is possible that this last species was also responsible for the degradation observed. The piles were also attacked by teredinids but the severity of their attack was less extensive than that by limnoriids. Two terenid species were identified, Lyrodus pedicellatus and Nototeredo norvagica. N. norvagica was previously reported from test panels exposed in the Tagus in the 1980’s. However, this was the first time L. pedicellatus was reported in this area. The increase in water temperature surface due to global warming might be responsible for the increased activity in southern European waters of L. pedicellatus, a warm water species. The higher activity of limnoriids in the Tagus Estuary in later years might be related not only with warmer water temperatures but also with an increase in salinity in the area, as limnoriids appear to be restricted to waters with salinities close to that of seawater. The development of adequate methods of wood protection requires accurate identification to define the borer hazard at various sites. In this study the Tagus Estuary is used as a case study. Species identification also assisted in the documentation of the activity of particularly damagin species, which enabled biodeterioration to be related with defined organisms.
L M S Borges, L Nunes, A A Valente, P Palma


Control of Reticulitermes grassei as a pest in Spain: Termite distribution in an urban area
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10719
The European subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei Clément, 1978, has been an important pest in Palenciana, a locality in the southern province of Cordoba (Spain) for a long time. The different stages of the pest elimination process have been studied and are presented here. Firstly, a through inspection of all town dwellings was conducted in order to determine a theoretical affected area of ca 65,836 m2. That area was monitored by installation of 2200 baiting (monitoring) devices provided by Dow AgroSciences Iberica S.A. (Dow). The inspections conducted during the pre-treatment and treatment phases, have allowed us to estimate the real extent of the pest (58,881 m2). Particular attention was given to the distribution of termites in Palenciana dwellings in houses where the level of destruction of the wooden beams might have increased significantly the risk of collapse.
E Alcaide, R Molero, J Diz, M Gaju


The influence of log soaking temperature and thermal modification on the properties of birch veneers
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40749
In veneer manufacture the logs are routinely soaked in heated water baths in order to soften the wood prior to peeling. The temperature of the water may vary greatly between batches; however, the influence of log soaking temperature on veneer properties has had little research attention. Uncontrolled moisture is known to cause problems in wood-based materials, while thermal modification offers a method to control the interaction between wood and water. Therefore it might be beneficial to utilise thermally modified veneers in plywood manufacture. Yet, thermal modification is expected to also change other wood properties which might influence the possibility to utilise thermally modified veneers for wood-based-panels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of log soaking temperature (70 °C and 20 °C) and thermal modification (8h in steam conditions) on selected properties of birch veneers, which are relevant in plywood manufacture. The surface area and surface free energy was studied with inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The surface free energy was found to be slightly higher for the unmodified veneers, however, no major difference was found in the dispersive part of the surface free energy between the log soaking temperatures or between unmodified or thermally modified veneers. The wetting of the veneers was investigated with the Wilhelmy plate method utilising the multicycling technique. It was found that lower log soaking temperature produced veneers with more hydrophobic nature. Also, thermal modification increased the hydrophobicity of the veneers. The bond strength was measured with an automatic bond evaluation system (ABES) using phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin. In general, the lower log soaking temperature resulted in slightly higher bond strength (however, the result was statistically insignificant), while thermal modification slightly lowered the bond strength. Based on these initial results thermally modifying the veneers prior to plywood manufacture might be useful.
S Källbom, K Laine, M S Moghaddam, A Rohumaa, K Segerholm, M Wålinder


Study on “Washing” used in Traditional Wooden Building in Japan -Survey in KawaraMachi Area, Gifu Prefecture
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10948
This study is about the actual method of Japanese lattice washing on the traditional buildings of KawaraMachi area, based on interview survey. KawaraMachi area is located on the river side of the Nagaragawa River, so since long years ago it flourished as a center of economic activities, by river transportation. Many wooden buildings influenced by these backgrounds exist in the city. These streets are designated as "Important Cultural Landscapes (Japan)". People in this area wash the Japanese lattice and timber parts of the house facing street with water. This custom keeps a distinctive townscape with yellow-brown wood surface that have dropped old colors. It is highly valued as a valuable historical cultural asset. Therefore, the actual method of “Japanese lattice washing” was investigated. As a result, follows were confirmed. 1. Japanese lattice washing is a custom since at least two or three generations ago from now. 2. Each house hold has handed down the each method of Japanese lattice washing custom.
K Tanaka, H Ishiyama