IRG Documents Database and Compendium


Search and Download IRG Documents:



Between and , sort by


Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 39 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma


Estimation of oral toxicity of boron as a bait toxicant and the trophallactic effects between individual members of termite colonies.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10495
In recent years, because of the favourable environmental characteristics of boron, researchers in the wood preservation industries have refocussed on the use of boron as a major wood preservative against wood-destroying insects. Currently the greatest use of boron compounds is in remedial treatments. Boron has been found to have slow-acting toxicity against subterranean termites. Because of this characteristic, boron compounds may also be used as termite bait toxicants. The effect of boric acid on an individual donor termite was investigated in laboratory bioassays Trophallactic transfer of boron by these individual termites to other orphaned group of termite workers was conducted and the effects on the recipient groups recorded. It was believed that, this sequence of tests would provide a greater understanding of the carrying ability of ‘bait toxicant’ by individual termites, and allow estimates of the threshold toxicity of boric acid and termite survival rates to be determined. The bait matrix was Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell sawdust impregnated with various formulations of boric acid solutions in the laboratory. The result suggests that the toxicity of boron is dose dependent and it critical for the termites to ingest sufficient amounts of boron. But the mode of toxicity of boron has not yet been fully explained.
B M Ahmed


Acceleration of boric acid uptake into the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki using steamed larch wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10353
Laboratory tests were done to measure the efficacy of addition of steamed larch (Larix leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Gord.) heartwood extracts for the uptake of boric acid against the termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Paper discs were treated with the water-soluble fraction obtained from hot-water extracts of steamed larch wood (S-Water) with or without 0.01-2.0% boric acid, followed by exposure to this of termites, C. formosanus. The consumptions of the discs, termite mortalities, and boron contents in the termite bodies were measured. The S-Water significantly accelerated the consumptions of the discs at the retentions of boric acid below 0.1% (w/w) (p<0.01). However, regardless of the addition of the S-Water, the termite mortalities were almost the same at all the retentions of boric acid examined after 21 days of exposure. When the paper discs treated with the S-Water and 2.0% boric acid were given to workers and soldiers, boron contents in workers were lower than those of the same experiment without soldiers (p<0.01). This is because ingested boron was incorporated into soldier bodies from workers by trophallaxis. In the experiment using only workers, boron contents of termites fed with 2.0% boric acid plus the S-Water were larger than those of the termites fed without the S-Water. From the result, it was supposed that the S-Water inhibited the excretion of boron from the termite bodies or increased the accumulation of it in the termite bodies.
W Ohmura, S Doi, S Ohara


Laboratory evaluation of JB-TB003 as potential bait toxicant against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis in Australia. subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis in Australia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10214
In this laboratory evaluation, Coptotermes acinaciformis actively attacked in the first week of testing Pinus radiata wood blocks (50 x 25 x 15 mm3) treated with concentrations of JB-TB003 (i.e. 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm); the blocks with highest concentration were the most attractive. Results were similar whether blocks were leached or unleached. The earliest mortality occurred in the 400 ppm treatments between the fifth and sixth week of testing. All levels of JB-TB003 treatments proved toxic to C. acinaciformis, within 8 weeks. Termite mortality over the test period in the water treated and solvent treated controls was 10 per cent. JB-TB003 stimulated active termite feeding and tended to override the termites&apos; tendency to &apos;mud-up&apos; their food source and surroundings. This suggests a strong &apos;attractancy - feeding-response&apos; induced by JB-TB003. Since there was no significant difference between toxicity levels in the leached and unleached blocks it may be concluded that JB-TB003 was firmly bound to the wood substrate of the timber specimens. These laboratory results strongly indicate that JB-TB003 has a role as a potential termite bait toxicant, particularly against Coptotermes species. Field trials are currently in progress.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, A R Valcke, P Blunt


Efficacy of hexaflumuron as a bait-toxicant in the field using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10379
A natural nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was transferred into the field test site, and monitoring stations were installed around the nest buried back in the ground in January, 1995. Following estimation of foraging populations [271,200o}49,600 (July - October, 1996); 142,600o}19,600 (April - July, 1998)], bait applications were conducted twice. Termites came back to the stations in spring, 1998 , although termites were not present at any monitoring station at the end of the first application (November, 1996 - December, 1997). Second baitings started from October, 1998 and ended in July, 1999 when no termites were found at the stations. The nest was then recovered, and careful examination clearly demonstrated that the colony was completely eradicated after 419 mg of hexaflumuron was consumed by colony members.
K Tsunoda, Y Hikawa, T Yoshimura


Laboratory evaluation of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (TIM-BORÒ ) as a wood preservative or a bait-toxicant against the Formosan and eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1991 - IRG/WP 1513
A no-choice bioassay indicated that termite feeding was significantly reduced when wood was treated with TIM-BORÒ at retentions of >3600 ppm and >900 ppm (w/w) for Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes, respectively, and thus these wood preservative retention rates may be considered for these termite species. Results of a choice bioassay suggested retention rates of 450-1800 ppm and 450-900 ppm may be considered for Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes, respectively when TIM-BORÒ is used in a bait-toxicant application.
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


Termite baiting system: A new dimension of termite control in the Philippines
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10608
The performance of a baiting system and efficacy of an insect growth regulator (IGR), chlorfluazuron, was evaluated against three economically important species of subterranean termites in the Philippines i.e., Coptotermes vastator Light, Microcerotermes losbañosensis Oshima and Macrotermes gilvus Hagen. Preliminary tests were conducted on secondary nests of M. losbañosensis and mounds of M. gilvus. In-ground Stations (IGS) baited with IGR were installed around the nests and monitored until the colonies were eliminated. Abundance of termites, mobility of colony, feeding activity and elimination period were observed. Field tests were conducted in selected houses infested with subterranean termites. Above-ground Stations (AGS) and IGS were installed and monitored at regular intervals. The bait was prepared based on the manufacturer’s recommended dosage. Laboratory test showed that populations of M. losbañosensis in IGS baited with IGR were eliminated in 17 to 19 weeks. Termites in IGS baited without toxicant were still active on the 19th week, the last week of observation. On the other hand, M. gilvus were eliminated in 15 to 19 weeks in stations baited with IGR. Termites were still active in Stations provided with bait without IGR. Under field conditions, period of termite interception, period of elimination and bait consumption varied among the termite species. The behavior of termites in stations baited with IGR was similar to those observed in the laboratory. M. losbañosensis were eliminated in 20 to 33 weeks after consuming 1,625 g to 2,820 g of bait. An estimated 1,820 to 8,170 g of termite bait was consumed to eliminate M. gilvus in 8 to 18 weeks. The toxicant was found very effective against C. vastator which were eliminated in 6 to 13 weeks after consuming 500 to 2,370 g of the bait. The three species of subterranean termites, M. losbañosensis, M. gilvus and C. vastator, were eliminated using 0.1% chlorfluazuron. Baiting is a potential subterranean termite control technology and its adoption by local pest control applicators will help reduce the risks brought about by using highly hazardous pest control chemicals.
C M Garcia, M Y Giron, S G Broadbent


Laboratory Evaluation of Flurox, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, as a Bait Toxicant Against Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri ) (Isoptera: Termitidae)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30477
Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) is the most economically destructive termite in structures in southwest, Iran . One sustainable control strategy that usually help in reducing the subterranean termite damage in buildings , which is safe to the user and the environment is the use of IGRs in a suitable bait matrix. In the laboratory assays described here, the delayed toxicity of Flurox (a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor) to M. diversus was evaluated under two-choice and no-choice conditions. Flurox induced workers and nymphs mortality and incomplete ecdysis in nymphs of M. diversus under two-choice and no-choice feeding tests. These adverse effects may cause disruption of the caste balance in M. diversus, leading to the collapse of the colony. These assays determined concentrations of Flurox which can be applicable in bait formulations.
B Habibpour


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. The role of baiting systems in prevention of termite damages and long-term structural protection, however, is more controversial than their use in remedial control. We discuss three lines of evidence in support of the use of baits for long-term structural protection: (1) successful control of termite populations with baits in remedial studies allows a conceptual leap to preventative efficacy, since baits target colonies and populations and cannot be evaluated directly for prevention in the manner of soil insecticide barriers; (2) field and laboratory studies demonstrate that termite colonies feed on multiple resources and continue to radiate outward from each of those resources in search of additional food, increasing the likelihood of rapid bait discovery; and (3) results of our long-term field studies over the past decade demonstrate that newly invading termites will reuse existing galleries in the soil left by earlier colonies that lead to monitoring stations, were detected in monitoring stations, and were subsequently eliminated without any noticeable evidence of structural infestation or damage.
J K Grace, N-Y Su


Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


A method for screening termite baits using Coptotermes lacteus mounds
1984 - IRG/WP 1237
A method with several variations designed to rapidly screen potential bait substrates using Coptotermes lacteus mounds is described. The equipment used in this method is relatively inexpensive, readily prepared in the laboratory, and easily installed into active mounds in the field. Bait substrates are in continuous contact with a &apos;high termite hazard&apos;, and may be monitored with minimum interference to the termites.
J R J French, P J Robinson


Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones


Evaluating the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System in Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20267
The Exterraä Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex Inc., Fayetteville, NC) was evaluated in a field experiment near Townsville, Australia. Cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% weight/weight (w/w) or 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron (Requiemä) was tested for its efficacy in eradicating colonies of the mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Thirteen mounds were used. There was no evidence of repellence, but there was little feeding on replenished bait. Five colonies were eradicated by 0.05% w/w chlorfluazuron and five colonies by 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron: another colony was moribund and eradication appeared imminent. Colony decline was first suspected some 12 weeks after bait application. Colony eradication was confirmed, by destructive sampling, about five weeks later. Indicators used to monitor colony health were reliable. A suite of urban trials, demonstrating the effectiveness of Exterra Requiem Termite Bait in controlling a wide range of subterranean termite species throughout mainland Australia, is presented and discussed.
B C Peters, S Broadbent


Justification for use of mirex in termite control
1988 - IRG/WP 1346
In August 1987, organochlorines were withdrawn in North America from use in termite control. This has left the industry and the community with reduced options in long term protection of wood and wood products. A case is presented to justify the use of the slow-acting stomach termiticide, mirex, under special permit, for use only in the bait-block method of termite control. This method, while not acting like the organochlorines as a chemical barrier around newly constructed and existing buildings will, however, offer an alternative control measure in eradicating subterranean termites when buildings become infested by these insects. Health and safety aspects are discussed.
J R J French


Effects of methoprene on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1987 - IRG/WP 1322
Methoprene affected differentiation and survival of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in laboratory studies. At 5, 9, 13, and 17 weeks, superfluous intercastes and presoldiers were produced when termites were allowed to feed on concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 ppm methoprene in wood blocks. Colony numbers were significantly reduced after 13 and 17 weeks of exposure to the insect growth regulator. Termites are significantly less of the treated blocks than of the controls and sometimes physically sealed off the treated blocks, which suggests that some concentrations of methoprene may have slight antifeedant properties. Colonies varied in their responses to this chemical.
S C Jones


A method to evaluate the effeetiveness of bait application using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20161
Although a survey of monitoring stations can tell us the decline of termite activity after application of baits, it seems questionable to conclude an eradication of a Whole colony of subterranean termites if the termites move out their foraging territory. Only reliable method to ensure the success of bait application is to determine the absence of living termites in their nest in accordance with a survey of monitoring stations. A nest of Coptotermes formosanus was first collected from the field and buried back into the soil with some wooden blocks in a test site. Monitoring stations were installed around the nest to examine termite activity. After termites settled down well, mark-release-recapture was applied to estimate foraging population and then bait application was initiated. When foraging activity ceased, the nest was dug out to find any live termites present. This technique allowed us to draw out a conclusion that baiting eliminated a whole colony of C. formosanus.
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura, H Matsuoka, Y Hikawa


Susceptibility of softwood bait stakes to attack by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20037
Sapwood stakes of Australian-grown Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine), Pinus elliotii (slash pine), Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and North American-grown Pinus sp. (southern yellow pine) were exposed to subterranean termite attack in an in-ground bioassay. Stakes in bait containers and bare stakes were attacked by Coptotermes acinaciformis and Schedorhinotermes intermedius. Basic susceptibility of these timbers was evaluated with regard to potential as termite monitoring devices. Variation between timbers and variation between termite species are described. The relevence of these data to suppressing foraging populations of subterranean termites, in Australia, using insect growth regulators, is discussed.
B C Peters, R T Murray, C J Fitzgerald


Preference of the Formosan subterranean termite for wood previously damaged by conspecifics
1988 - IRG/WP 1338
In a laboratory choice test, groups of termites from five colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were presented with wood blocks which had sustained previous termite damage: 1) by nestmates, 2) by conspecifics from another colony, 3) by another termite species, Reticulitermes virginicus Banks, and 4) no damage. Coptotermes formosanus preferred wood previously damaged by conspecifics over that damaged by Reticulitermes virginicus. Woodfeeding rate was slightly, though not significantly, higher for conspecific treatments than for controls.
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane


Colony elimination of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae) by bait system
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10189
Following a two-year estimation of the foraging populations and territory of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) by triple mark recapture program at Uji campus of Kyoto University, bait stations (commercialized products containing hexaflumuron) were set up in the foraging territory in October 1995 to eliminate the colony. Inspections demonstrated that the number of test stakes with foraging termites decreased after May 1996. No attack was finally observed in July 1996. As a later inspection in October 1996 reconfirmed no termite hits on any wooden stake in the foraging territory, the colony was considered to be eliminated by baits.
K Tsunoda, H Matsuoka, T Yoshimura, K Yamauchi


Field test results for the elimination of subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) colonies by a bait system containing the IGR hexaflumuron
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10222
Field studies were conducted at Chichijima (Ogasawara Islands, Tokyo) to determine the effectiveness of a termite bait system (commercial name: Sentricon* system) containing hexaflumuron (Insect Growth Regulator: IGR) in the elimination of subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) colonies. The level of subterranean termite activity on Ogasawara Islands is high resulting in extensive damage to wooden houses. In this study, 2 houses were established as monitoring/test sites. At each house 6 to 17 Sentricon stations were installed and fitted with monitoring devices made of the sap wood of southern yellow pine. When termites were found in the stations, the wooden monitoring devices were replaced with bait tubes containing a bait matrix treated with the IGR. Bait tube replacement occurred in approximately a 2-week cycle. Following the third replacement of bait tube, termites&apos; feeding stopped and the bait tubes were replaced with wooden monitoring devices. The stations were attacked again by termites from a new colony 4 months after the elimination of the original colony. All feeding activities ceased in an additional 5 months of baiting. This termite reappearance seemed to be due to the high level of termite activity in Ogasawara Islands.
K Suzuki, Y Morita, K Yamauchi


Bait box technique for remedial subterranean termite contro
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10115
The bait box technique, as described in this paper, was first used as a method to apply the dust toxicant, arsenic trioxide, to large numbers of aggregated subterranean termites. Over the last twelve years or so the technique has been refined, and in recent years, gained acceptance as an alternative subterranean termite control measure by members of the Australian pest control industry. This baiting technique is particularly timely in Australia, given that the organochlorine insecticides are to be banned in termite control strategies in all states as from June 1995, except for a period of extension in the Northern Territory. Details of box construction, placement, and application of the dust toxicant are outlined. Suggestions are offered in the use of this technique with other dust toxicants, such as inclusion compounds and microbial spores pathogenic to termites, and bait toxicants.
J R J French, B M Ahmed, D M Ewart


Practical applications of steamed larch wood to a termite bait system using chlorfluazuron
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10464
Less chemical strategies are required for decrease of damages to residents from chemicals such as organic phosphates and carbamates those are usually used to prevent termite attacks on wooden buildings. One of the strategies is a bait system that has already been employed in the termite-infested areas. We tried to use steamed larch wood as a monitor wood and a bait matrix to stimulate feeding actions of Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus on a termite bait system using chlorfluazuron. The results of about 140 field trials indicated that steamed larch wood is a specifically effective wood-feeder for both the termite species.
S Doi, S Shibutani, K Hanada, T Miyahara


Sulfluramid, a new bait concept for the control of termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30075
The annual cost of preventing, controlling and repairing the damage done by termites in the United States of America is in the billions of dollars. Current termite control methodology is generally effective in the control of termite activity. However, new technology (termite foams, termite baits, physical barriers) is emerging which has or will provide new tools to control termites. This report centers on the use of a termite bait to control termite populations both in the laboratory and in the field. The bait toxicant used was sulfluramid, a slow acting stomach poison. Laboratory tests indicated that the termite bait provided 100% control of the laboratory colonies (1,000 and 10,000 termites per colony). Field results indicated that the baits provided 100% control of termite active areas.
J B Ballard, T K Porter


Silafluofen: Novel chemistry and versatility for termite control
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30069
A novel silicon - containing insectizide, HOE 084498 (&apos;Silafluofen&apos;), with a favourable toxicological profile, has shown activity against a broad spectrum of agricultural and environmental health pests. Results from laboratory and field studies around the world have demonstrated that silafluofen is effective at protecting timber from attack by various species of termite and wood-boring beetle. As a termiticide, silafluofen, applied as a dust-toxicant, may suppress/eliminate Coptotermes sp. Ongoing field trials in France, in cooperation with CTBA, indicate that silafluofen, injected directly into masonry, has controlled Reticulitermes santonensis. No signs of termite activity have been observed in the treated part of an infested house since the application was made, 2 years ago.
A J Adams, A Jermannaud, M-M Serment


Next Page