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Study on the thickness swelling of mould-resistant chemical treated bamboo strand woven outdoor flooring
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40489
To prevent bamboo strand woven flooring from mould, several preservatives were chosen to treat bamboo strand before dipping into adhesives and pressing. The thickness swelling and mould resistant effect of the finished board were studied. Results showed that different preservatives had different influences on the thickness swelling of BSWF, and in order to reduce the thickness swelling of the finished board, bamboo strands should be dried to certain moisture content after treated with preservatives. Water-based organic fungicide preservative (ZJFC-Ⅰ) and the compounds of CCC and Propiconazole (PPA) (ZJFC-Ⅱ) when dried to certain moisture content, had no or little influences on the thickness swelling of BSWF, which were 14.5% and 14.7%, respectively, a little higher than water treated controls (13.3%), and much lower than ACQ treated ones (20.7%). But if the treated strands were simply air-dried, the thickness swelling of manufactured board were very high. Laboratory mould resistant test showed that ZJFC-Ⅰ and ZJFC-Ⅱ were the most prospect preservatives for BSWF. But a lot of test should be carried out in the field for outdoor application.
Fangli Sun, Binfu Bao, Shenyuan Fu, Anliang Chen

Evaluation of an optimized industrial process aiming to improve the natural durability and mechanical behavior of bamboo for outdoor use
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40554
Mao Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is characterized by high contents of sugar and starch and by high hygroscopicity, which makes it susceptible to biodegradation, and specifically to fungal decay. Still, many bamboo based products regularly enter the European wood construction market, competing with traditional solid wood products used for outdoor decking and cladding. The performance of a heat treated woven bamboo material developed by the French company GB Négoce (member of the DM Création brand) was assessed with the aim of enhancing its use for exterior decking and cladding. Water uptake and swelling properties of bamboo decks were evaluated after 28 days of full soaking conditions according to adapted standardized tests. As the results demonstrated a highly reduced water uptake ability of the tested bamboo products when compared to solid wood, additional tests were run to evaluate their resistance to fungal decay. Laboratory tests were performed in order to assess the resistance of heat treated woven bamboo against Basidiomycete fungi, which usually degrade wood both in use class 3 (e.g. cladding) and use class 4 (e.g. decking). These tests were carried out before and after applying different accelerated ageing procedures (ageing cycles traditionally applied to wood based panels, exposure to UVs, water spraying and temperature variations). The resistance of heat treated woven bamboo against wood decaying fungi was comparable to “durable” wood species. The relevance of using severe ageing procedures to predict how weathering processes affect the chief mechanical and physical properties of composite decking for outdoor applications (such as bending strength or density) is also discussed.
F Simon, M Kutnik, I Le Bayon, G Moisset, V Gatimel

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Oriented Strand Board Treated with Copper-based Preservatives
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40482
Oriented strand board (OSB) has been gradually accepted, used and developed in China. Bamboo is a renewable and potential non-wood fibre resource for making OSB. But the nature of bamboo makes its products including bamboo OSB (BOSB) more prone to decay and mold. Protection BOSB from biodegradation is the key both to efficiently using bamboo resource and to improving the durability of the final products. This study evaluated the physical and mechanical properties of BOSB experimental panels treated with 3 different copper-based preservatives. Strands were prepared from the culms of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) with age of 4-5 years, and phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin was used as the binder. Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ), Copper Azole (CuAz) and Copper Naphthenate (CuN) were selected as preservatives. Each of 3 preservatives was sprayed at three loading levels onto the dried strands during blending. The BOSB panels were evaluated for properties including thickness swelling after 24-hour water soaking, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond strength. The results indicated that the experimental panels had excellent mechanical properties and extremely low thickness swelling. According to the China Standard LY/T 1580-2000 ‘Oriented strand board’, all panels treated with CuAz and CuN met the specifications for grade OSB/4. The panels treated with ACQ also met the specifications for OSB/4 with the exception of the panels treated at the loading level 2. The panels treated with CuAz and CuN generally had better properties than those treated with ACQ. There were no trends to indicate that preservatives used had adversely affected the bonding of PF resin, and no clear trends were found that the properties of BOSB panels decreased with increasing the loading level of each preservative.
Juwan Jin, Daochun Qin

Effect of 4 Preservatives on Physical, Mechanical and Mold-Resistant Properties of Bamboo Oriented Strand Boards
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40483
This study investigated the effects of 4 preservative systems on physical, mechanical and mold-resistant properties of bamboo oriented strand board (OSB) panels bonded with urea formaldehyde resin. Preservative A (Zinc Borate), B (IPBC), C (AAC+Borate) and D (carbendazim + prochloraz) were incorporated with strands during blending at three loading levels. The results showed that the mechanical and physical properties of bamboo OSB experimental panels met the requirements for OSB/2 specified in the China Industrial Standard LY/T 1580-2000, with the exception of 24-hour water soaking thickness swelling properties of panels containing preservative C. The panels containing preservative A had the most excellent physical and mechanical properties while those containing preservative C presented the lowest quality, which indicated that addition of preservative C did have detrimental effects on the quality of panels. Of the 4 preservative systems, preservative B(IPBC) was proven to be the most promising as it fully inhibited the mycelia growth of the 3 experimental molds at the loading level of 0.5% and still provided the OSB panels with satisfactory physical and mechanical properties. Preservative A (Zinc Borate) and Preservative C (AAC+Borate) were tested to be only effective against the growth of Trichoderma lignorum at their corresponding highest loading levels, while preservative D showed no protection against the molds within the limit of this study.
Juwan Jin, Daochun Qin, Wanshu Wei, Kuan Fan

Nondestructive Evaluation of Oriented Strand Board Exposed to Decay Fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20243
Stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being used in our laboratory to evaluate the performance properties of engineered wood. These techniques have proven useful in the inspection of timber structures to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. But no information exists concerning NDE and important properties of wood composites exposed to decay fungi. For our pilot study on several types of wood composites, we examined the relationship between nondestructive stress wave transmission, decay rate and the bending properties of OSB exposed to the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum (MAD-617). The following measurements were taken: stress wave transmission time (pulse echo test method), static bending test (ASTM D3043-95), and decay (expressed as percent weight). Stress wave measurements correlated with strength loss and with increasing rate of fungal decay. Stress wave NDE has great potential as a method for inspection of wood composite load-bearing (in-service) structures, detection of decay in laboratory tests, assessment of chemical additives to improve wood composite durability, and prediction of long term composite performance.
B Illman, V W Yang, R J Ross, W J Nelson

Manual of a mini treating plant for waterborne preservative treatment of timber and bamboo
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40130
This contributional article includes machinaries and equipments necessary for a small wood treating plant for the pressure treatment of tim bers with waterborne preservatives along with the cost and design. The preservative treatment limitations, treatment schedules and specifications for different products have been described. The cost of a mini treating plant will be 6,00,000 Tk. (13,000 US$), suitable for preserving timber and bamboo products for indoor and outdoor uses and will out last teak wood. The additional durability of timber and bamboo will create economically and environmentally safe conditions.
A K Lahiry

A medium for mass culturing of a bamboo boring beetle Dinoderus minutus Fabricius
1983 - IRG/WP 1182
The bamboo is a traditional product of Japan. But its susceptibility to insects is one of the most important problems. The author has found that for the determination of the effectiveness of insecticides it is very easy to obtain sufficiently numerous adults of Dinoderus minutus by using Buckwheat Cake. The Buckwheat Cake is prepared with buckwheat flour and thin paper. The author has previously found that Buckwheat Cake is suitable for the culturing of Lyctus brunneus and these results were presented in 1981. In culturing Dinoderus minutus, Buckwheat Cake has been found to be also easier and fasting in bringing forth the adults than natural bamboo.
K Suzuki

Treatment of fresh green round bamboos culms (Dendrocalamus strictus) by sap-displacement (wick) method
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40311
Sap displacement method has great potential for treating short length bamboos as it does not require any technical equipment. The process is simple and large nos. of bamboos can be simultaneously treated in relatively short period. There is no wastage of chemicals as the remnant solution reused. Bottom ends and middle portion had better treatment in compared to lop end portion. With increasing length of the flow of preservatives is impaired. The method culms can conveniently 3m length.
R Lal, C N Vani

Biofouling and bioresistance of bamboo in marine environment
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10482
Proudly known as “green gold” and popularly called as “poor man’s timber”, bamboo is closely interwoven with the life of scores of people around the globe because of its versatile qualities and desirable strength properties as a structural material. It is used for innumerable purposes both on land and in water including seas and brackishwater bodies. "Presently, bamboos constitute an important raw material, and are vital to the economy of many countries" (John et al, 1995). In the words of Hanke (1990), "it is difficult to exaggerate the importance of bamboo as a structural raw material for most of human kind". "The 500-plus species are scattered throughout the warmer parts of the world, but the family achieves greatest abundance and most impressive luxuriance around the southern and southeastern edge of Asia, from the Indian monsoon region through China and Japan to Korea". Annually, about 4.56 million tons of bamboo from 30 genera comprising of 136 species is exploited in India alone (Anonymous, 1989). A vast quantity of it is used in the marine sector as fishing rods, sail masts, stakenet poles, mariculture cages and poles, fishing screens, fishing net supports, fish traps, fish baskets, floats for nets, floating rafts, floating fenders, floating platforms, etc., right from conventional capture fisheries to the most modern mariculture operations (Purushotham, 1963, Suri and Chauhan, 1984 and Santhakumaran and Sawant, 1993). Use of 30 lakh culms of bamboo per year for strikingly large screens of up to 10 Km and several other devices was reported by Satyanarayana Rao et al (1992) from Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh, India, where brackishwater conditions prevail during certain seasons/in certain pockets. Similarly, bamboo cages of varying dimensions from 4 x 4 x 5 m to 50 x 5 x 5 m are reported to be employed for open ocean culture of fishes in Kampuchea, Indonesia and Thailand (Nayak, 2001). In all these utilities, bamboo is mostly used in untreated form. Yet, precise data on biofouling and bioresistance of different species of bamboo under marine conditions are not available except for isolated reports like that of Santhakumaran and Sawant (1993). Therefore, studies in this direction were taken up. Initially three widely used commercial Indian species of bamboo were tested and their performance is presented in this paper.
M V Rao, M Balaji, V Kuppusamy, K S Rao

Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bamboo than into green one.
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam

Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry

Heat treatment of bamboo
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40216
Bamboo is a fast growing material with remarkable mechanical properties. In many tropical and subtropical countries bamboo is available in suitable dimensions for a reasonable price. Therefore it is used for many purposes which range from the basket production up to the industrial production of parquet or paper. However, bamboo is known as susceptible to fungal or insect attack and it is difficult to treat with preservatives. Therefore BFH investigated the possibility to protect bamboo by other methods and tested the application of a heat treatment. European grown bamboo (Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens) and Asian grown bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were heat treated and were subsequently inoculated with the basidiomycetes Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor and Schizophyllum commune in an agar block test. Further the durability of treated specimens against soft rot fungi was tested. The changes of the mechanical properties (MOE and shock resistance) caused by the heat treatment were determined too. The application of temperatures above 200°C caused a clearly enhanced durability against a basidiomycete as well as against a soft rot attack but the shock resistance was intensely reduced. Further investigations are still ongoing. The study has been carried out with financial support from the Commission of the European Communities, specific INCO programme INCO-DC 961344.
H Leithoff, R-D Peek

An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain

Effect of felling time related to lunar calendar on the durability of wood and bamboo -Fungal degradation during above ground exposure test for 2 years- (Preliminary report)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20311
Current study was carried out to know whether the felling time of trees and bamboos based on lunar calendar affects natural durability of felled wood-bamboo or not. Each of one sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) tree of 28 years old and one Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) of around 3 years old was cut 12 times between February and December in 2003. Six sets of sugi tree and bamboo were felled in a day during “Hassen” period and the other 6 sets of them were also felled in a nearby non-“Hassen” day. There is a belief that “Hassen” should be avoided to perform destructive works such as cutting trees. “Hassen” lasting 12 days based on lunar calendar appears 6 times every year. After felling sample trees and bamboos, these specimens were subject to outdoor exposure at above ground level for 2 years. Properties of specimens such as moisture contents, mould and fungal resistance were examined periodically for 2 years. There was no clear difference in the degree of mould growth on the surface between specimens felled in a “Hassen” day and those felled in a non-“Hassen” day in the same month. The felling seasons, however, influenced the growth of mould on the surface of wood and bamboo clearly, which has been traditionally known in many cases. Fungal degradation evaluated by visual observation and the depth of pin penetration using Pilodyn during 2 years exposure was not affected by not only “Hassen” or non-“Hassen” also seasons when tree and bamboo felled.
K Yamamoto, S Uesugi, K Kawakami

Bamboo preservation in Vietnam
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40457
This paper presents the current state of bamboo preservation in Vietnam. The report focuses on the importance of bamboo preservation in relation to the bamboo resource and utilization, the major methods for preservation (such as non chemical und chemical methods), and emphasises the today’s pressing problems of research, standards as well as information for the bamboo preservation industry in Vietnam.
Tang Thi Kim Hong

Non Toxic Remedial Treatment of Bamboo Structures/Furniture
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40516
Molds and beetles often attack bamboo furniture and structures when used in untreated or inadequate preservative treatment. Remediation or eradication of infestation often involves expensive chemicals (fumigants) and specialized methods, which are not available in villages. Novel inexpensive methods using easily available chemicals were developed for controlling such infestations. Whereas application of common baking soda can be used to prevent molds, fumigation with ammonia or localized heat treatment can get rid of beetles in fixed structures.
S Kumar

Chapter 1 - Introduction to bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-01
In this introductory chapter the botanical position, distribution, utilization, outlooks, production, research, importance, propagation, natural durability, preservative treatment, importance of preservative treatment, treating principles, research on preservative treatment of bamboos and the objectives of this book have been described briefly under individual caption.
A K Lahiry

Chapter 2 - Introduction to world bamboo
2007 - IRG 07-10635-02
In this chapter the bamboo species of the whole world along with local name, bamboo type, flowering type, locality and uses have been presented in 20 different Tables.
A K Lahiry

The use of image analysis to quantify soft rot decay
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2410
Image analysis techniques can provide quantitative information from visual images. As part of a wider interest in decay assessment methods we have investigated the application of image analysis techniques for quantifying soft rot decay by Chaetomium globosum in transverse sections of birch wood and bamboo. A method for reducing contamination of the section (and image) by the fungal hyphae and of staining prior to image analysis was developed. Decay cavities could be accurately detected and the extent of decay expressed in several different forms, with decay as a proportion of the wall area under analysis being the standard notation. Using a thin section exposure system it was found that, after a four day lag phase, soft rot decay in bamboo fibres increased at a constant rate, reaching 60% of wall area after fourteen days. The image analysis technique is rapid and straight forward to use, enabling the collection of both quantitative and qualitative data from the same area. It also allows different regions of a sample to be analysed separately. Further work with the technique is in progress to quantify decay in a wider range of timbers and to assess the effect of preservative treatments.
P J Wickens, R J Murphy

Treatability and retainability of two important bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40248
Preservative treatment has been carried out with five different concentrations, i.e. 3%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 7% and durations, i.e. 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, 8 days and 10 days, at different moisture content, i.e. green and air-dry, and different direction of penetration, i.e. radial and both radial and cross-section for jawa and borak. It has been observed that retention of CCB is always higher in jawa bamboo than borak, which is a clear indication to consider jawa bamboo a more permeable and diffusible bamboo species for dipping process. Adequate retention of preservative for indoor use has been obtained in most of the cases. It has been observed that 6% concentration of preservative with 8 to 10 days duration of dipping provides the best results.
M N Islam, A K Lahiry, M O Hannan

Mapping soft rot decay distribution using image analysis
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20011
Image analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for the assessment of soft rot decay caused by Chaetomium globosum in birch and bamboo (Wickens and Murphy, 1992). The technique can permit assessment of decay in individual or small groups of cells and this has been used to undertake soft rot decay mapping in thin sections of bamboo. Assessments were made of the extent of soft rot decay with time in different fibre areas within individual vascular bundles. Comparisons were also made between bundles in different parts of the culm wall. The observations made indicated differences in the soft rot susceptibility of fibres depending upon their location in, and the age of, the culm wall. The location of fibres of different soft rot susceptibility could be mapped accurately using image analysis and this distribution compared with the known variation in fibre wall structure and composition. The advantages of image analysis techniques for such research are discussed.
P J Wickens, R J Murphy, G F M Watts

Upright capillary absorption behavior of five important timbers and one bamboo species of Bangladesh
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40273
The upright or vertical capillary absorption rate of five different timber and bamboo species namely mango (Mangifera indica), kalajam (Syzygium cumini), kanthal (Artocarpus heterophyllus), sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), mahagoni (Swietenia macrophylla) and mulibamboo (Melocana baccifera) were measured in relation to their specific gravity and duration of immersion. It has been observed that there was significant relation between increase of capillarity and timber species. From the analysis of data it was found that the rise of capillarity is more or less similar in case of bamboo, jam and kanthal but the values were comparatively lower than that of mahagoni, sissoo and mango. The value of the capillarity has been found the highest in mangowood. There was no significant relation with the rise of capillarity and advancement of time. Initially, the soaking rate of bamboo has increased at an increasing rate, but it soaks the solution at more or less same rate with time. It has been also observed that the absorption height has changed with the specific gravity of wood and absorption height has increased gradually with the increase of immersion time.
M A Islam, A K M A Bosunia, A K Saha, A K Lahiry

Chapter 6 - Preservatives of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-06
Almost all currently available oil-borne, water-borne and compound types of preservatives suitable for the preservation of bamboo or wood have been described along with their classifications, applications, formulations, merits and demerits, history of invention or discovery and development. The preservatives suitable for wood are also considered suitable for bamboo.
A K Lahiry

Chapter 9 - Preservation of borak bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-09
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB have been obtained in pre-dried Borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb. See Fig. below), abundantly grown in Bangladesh, with full-cell pressure process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials; the sufficient treatability ensured its long-term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. This will keep the environmental and socioeconomical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry

Chapter 16 - General references
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-16
A K Lahiry

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