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Environmental protection and long term in-service sustainability of preserved wooden poles is secured by non-toxic barrier protection system – History and case studies in South Africa
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50340
Non-toxic flexible sheeting systems have been developed to encapsulate the ground contact regions of preserved wooden poles and prevent their premature failure in South Africa since 1992 but the technology also has a long history of resistance by individuals with vested interests in the built-in redundancies of such poles. The concept has, however, been simultaneously validated by many independent research institutions worldwide and IRG itself formed a Working Group in 1997 to examine the role of the technology in wood protection. This paper reviews the work done over the past 25 years to validate butt-encapsulation of preserved wooden poles with inert impermeable materials as a proven technology that prevents the loss of preservative from, and subsequent decay of, the protected poles. The paper also presents the findings of four case studies to that effect in South Africa.
A A W Baecker

Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory

Granitgard used as a partial and perimeter barrier in the protection of buildings against subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10114
The graded granite subterranean termite physical barrier, commercially marketed as Granitgard, has a Certificate of National Accreditation issued by the Australian Building Codes Board, and is included in Australian Standards. After several years in developing the specifications and installation techniques for Granitgard, it may be used to protect almost all footing designs. Granitgard can be simply placed around slab penetrations and buildings perimeters to provide a durable, long-life subterranean termite barrier. This paper discusses the development of partial and perimeter applications of Granitgard around buildings, and the advantages of using a termite barrier that removes the need for costly and dangerous chemical retreatments.
D M Ewart, J R J French

Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. The role of baiting systems in prevention of termite damages and long-term structural protection, however, is more controversial than their use in remedial control. We discuss three lines of evidence in support of the use of baits for long-term structural protection: (1) successful control of termite populations with baits in remedial studies allows a conceptual leap to preventative efficacy, since baits target colonies and populations and cannot be evaluated directly for prevention in the manner of soil insecticide barriers; (2) field and laboratory studies demonstrate that termite colonies feed on multiple resources and continue to radiate outward from each of those resources in search of additional food, increasing the likelihood of rapid bait discovery; and (3) results of our long-term field studies over the past decade demonstrate that newly invading termites will reuse existing galleries in the soil left by earlier colonies that lead to monitoring stations, were detected in monitoring stations, and were subsequently eliminated without any noticeable evidence of structural infestation or damage.
J K Grace, N-Y Su

Termite and decay protection - A superficial barrier field test
1983 - IRG/WP 3257
Samples of Pinus radiata were given a superficial barrier treatment and installed in the ground at two sites for five years to observe termite and fungal attack. The three best treatments of the series were Denso petroleum tape, Koppers hot dip tar enamel, and Arquad 2C/75 alkyl ammonium compound. As new fungicides and insecticides become available they are being added to the test using the same system of treatment and exposure.
R S Johnstone, W D Gardner

Evaluation of Barrier Wrap Systems after 71 Months of Exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40631
A 71 month study of the performance of booted samples in ground contact was conducted in AWPA hazard zone 4. Data indicated that excellent performance of wrapped systems, even over untreated wood, could be obtained. Instances of decay colonization or termite attack could all be attributed to some breaking of the integrity of the barrier system. Good performance for treatment below ground contact threshold was demonstrated.
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, C McIntyre

Utilization of plasma treatments in the field of wood protection
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40912
Plasma treatments have been used for modification of surfaces of wood and wood-based materials for some decades and solutions were developed to apply it for wood protection. This contribution aims to present the background, introduce the available plasma technology, and to give an overview on the typical applications and benefits.
S Dahle, H Militz

A non-pressure method of protection based on hurdle theory to control the spectrum of internal environmental factors which affect the decay of poles in soil contact
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20005
A field trial was conducted to establish whether superficial barrier linings on poles in soil contact could function as environmental hurdles against the growth of biological agents and thus provide preventative methodology to preclude premature failure of vineyard poles under flood-irrigation. Assessment after 52 weeks exposure to the prevailing conditions and sub-tropical environment showed that open-ended cylindrical linings of biologically inert heat-shrink polyethylene applied to the vertical soil-contact surfaces of Eucalyptus grandis poles unequivocally prevented termite-induced failure of untreated poles, basidiomycete decay of creosote-treated poles and fungal colonisation of CCA-treated poles. The success of the liners in prevention of incipient decay of these poles was explainable on the basis of hurdle theory and was therefore attributed to the ability of the former to control essential growth factors and create internal conditions inimical to the proliferation of decay agents in the poles. Consequently, sub-optimal conditions of Aw, Eh, and nitrogen content were considered to have arisen to function as environmental hurdles which decay agents could not overcome at wood-soil interfaces.
A A W Baecker

Protection of buildings, other structures and materials in ground contact from attack by subterranean termites with a physical barrier - a fine mesh of high grade stainless stee
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10014
A new type of physical barrier for the prevention of attack by subterranean termites on buildings, other structures and materials in ground contact - a fine mesh of highalloy (originally 304, now 316) stainless steel - has recently been developed and patented worldwide by industry in Australia. The termite resistance of the material was assessed by CSIRO in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory over a 12 week period 25 g groups of Coptotermes acinaciformis from three colonies, kept on a limited supply of food, were unable to breach a barrier of the steel mesh that separated them from a supply of highly susceptible wood. Timber enclosed with mesh was buried below ground at one site in tropical, and one site in southern inland Australia. A variety of species of termite, including Mastolermes darwiniensis, Coptotermes acinaciformis, and several species of Schedorhinotermes and Heterotermes were unable to reach and damage the wood despite making intensive contact with the mesh surface (two years data). The very high resistance of the 304 or 316 stainless steel to corrosion ensures that the mesh barrier will remain effective far beyond the expected life-time of a building. The size of the mesh openings can be varied to exclude the smallest representatives of the termite fauna at a given site. Examples of the range of applications for the stainless steel mesh in protecting structures and materials from termite attack are given.
M Lenz, S Runko

A novel chemical barrier system, KORDON® TMB, for the protection of buildings against subterranean termites using a synthetic matrix as carrier for the chemical
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10264
Kordon TMB is a new chemical barrier system for installation beneath concrete slab-on-ground constructions using a matrix other than soil as carrier for the termiticide. The product consists of a synthetic foraminous web (blanket) carrying the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin. The blanket is laminated on the upper side to a standard 0.2mm thick moisture vapour membrane of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and on the other side to a sheet of black 0.05mm UV-stabilised LDPE. Installation of the barrier follows existing building practice of setting down and sealing the vapour barrier, as required, during site preparation for building. Results of the evaluation of component materials and key features of the Kordon TMB system, which has been ongoing for the past eight years, are briefly discussed in this paper. Experiments simulated the use of treated webbing with or without LDPE under concrete slabs at sites near Griffith (New South Wales) in a semi-arid part of eastern Australia and near Darwin (Northern Territory) in the wet/dry tropics of northern Australia. In these trials timber has been protected from subterranean termite attack for more than seven to eight years at rates of 0.25 -2.50 g/m2 deltamethrin. In another series of studies, samples of wood protected by the webbing with LDPE were exposed to termites using a below-ground exposure method. To date, these trials have demonstrated successful protection of timber from termite attack for periods of six months to two years for rates from 0.01 - 1.00g/m2 deltamethrin. Laboratory studies have been conducted to simulate the Kordon TMB seals around service penetrations through the concrete slab. The first trial was conducted at incubation temperatures optimal to termite requirements, while a second series investigated the effectiveness of seals at lower temperatures more closely resembling conditions under a concrete slab. Based primarily on this work, Kordon TMB has been developed in Australia for approval by regulators.
M Lenz, P Morrow, S Runko

Standard and accelerated testing of boron-additive wood protection systems
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30381
The main objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of boron-additive protection systems for above ground applications by means of field testing. The two field test procedures used are based on the L-joint test described in the European standard EN 330. For the first set up the boron treated timber was coated in accordance with the standard EN 330 system. The second set up is based on an accelerated test simulating uncoated applications and includes an additional moistening of the jointing area. After three years of aboveground exposure, boron preservatives are still providing an adequate protection to coated L-joint specimens. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that boron-based compounds still provide good protection after three years of natural weathering when protected by a three-coat finish. Similar uncoated L-joints treated the same way show rapid deterioration under the accelerated exposure conditions applied. The mass loss data revealed a significant level of decay for the uncoated specimens even when treated with boron-additive formulations. This is attributed to the high leaching hazard related to the accelerated exposure method used. The latter proves to be too aggressive for all tested boron-based preservatives when unprotected by surface coatings. A treatment with 1 % CCA under the same conditions was still performing adequately after 3 years even under accelerated L-joint exposure of uncoated test samples.
A Mohareb, J Van Acker, M Stevens

A hypothesis on a second non-biocidal property of wood extractives, in addition to toxicity, that affects termite behavior and mortality
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10638
While it is has long been recognized that heartwood extractives affect termite behavior, the exact cause and relationship between total extractives, extractive types, and termite resistance remains unclear. Generally, researchers have proposed that the extractives are toxic and/or repel termites. We propose, based on the well known fact that many extractives have excellent antioxidant properties in addition to some termite toxicity, that: 1) the antioxidant properties of wood extractives interfere with the termite and symbiotic microbial digestion of lignocellulose; 2) thus, over time termites have learned to recognize and avoid wood with high levels of antioxidants; and 3) consequently, termites will also avoid wood treated with artificial and nontoxic antioxidants. Use of an artificial and nontoxic antioxidant will allow one to definitively test our hypothesis, while tests with natural extractives would be confounded by natural extractives often having both toxicity and antioxidant properties. We conducted some initial tests employing a man-made and benign antioxidant, BHT. In outdoor field trials, ground-contact stakes treated with only the antioxidant had less termite degradation than the control stakes at up to three years of exposure. An initial termite choice experiment using Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar (Eastern subterranean termite) was run with an untreated and 1- or 3%-BHT treated wafer in each jar, along with control jars that contained two untreated wafers. No termite feeding occurred on any of the BHT-treated wafers, indicting that the non-biocidal antioxidant was a strong feeding repellent. Furthermore, while only about 2% termite mortality occurred in the jars that contained two untreated wafers, in every jar that had an untreated wafer and a second BHT-treated wafer 100% mortality occurred. Recent no-choice laboratory tests with two subterranean termite species, R. flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Formosan subterranean termite), and an exterior test with BHT-treated wood with Formosan termites, confirmed our initial results.
T P Schultz, K Ragon, D D Nicholas

Whole-of-house protection from subterranean termite attack and damage after four years of field exposure
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10665
This study reports the condition of the whole-of-house termite protection test in tropical Australia after four years. The study was designed to provide maximum protection to whole-of-house timbers in a natural situation posing the highest hazard from subterranean termite populations. The houses were constructed either on concrete slabs or suspended floors using untreated and treated timber framing. Termite foraging behaviour and the various termite control measures used to prevent termite attack and damage of the simulated houses were examined. Although many termite species are known to be present in this field site, the five major economic termite species found attacking either the bait stations or the structural timbers were: Coptotermes spp., Heterotermes spp., Nasutitermes spp., Schedorhinotermes spp. and Mastotermes spp. The results obtained after four years of field study suggested that an integrated pest management (IPM) approach based upon ecological knowledge of termites and minimisation of environmental impact of treatments enhanced the protection of the whole-of-house timber framing structures. This IPM approach includes adopting a mix of alternative strategies in termite control including chemical and physical barriers, combinations of treated and untreated timber framing and emphasise on building practices that are designed to build out termites and ensure whole-of-house protection of timber in buildings against termites for the reasonable life of the building.
B M Ahmed (Shiday), J R J French, S R Przewloka, P Vinden, J Hann, C Y Adam

Review of candidate graded particle barrier testing methods in Australian Standard (AS 3660.3 – 2000): Assessment criteria for termite management systems
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20417
The Australian Standard (AS. 3660.3 – 2000) for assessment of candidate graded particle termite barriers is reviewed and suggestions for amendments are made. Areas requiring amending in light of current biological knowledge involve the inclusion of proprietary or patented systems rather than generic types; selection of test termites in the genus Coptotermes; duration of test periods; and inadequate detail proffered in the experimental design section (2.4.5) to ensure that all evaluators are conducting bioassays under similar standard conditions of temperature and relative humidity to ensure compliance with the performance criteria; and emphasise laboratory procedures that will accurately predict field performances.
J R J French, B M Ahmed (Shiday), B L Schafer

Moisture protection and performance during 5 years exposure of 19 wood coating systems on a cladding in Vienna
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40561
A cladding with vertical boards of Norway spruce (Picea abies) comprising different coating systems had been exposed to natural weathering oriented south west in Vienna for 5 years. Weathering behaviour of the boards was assessed in intervals and wood moisture content was measured over the first 22 months of exposure. The moisture protective properties of the coating systems were assessed using laboratory methods. The results of weathering behaviour indicated higher coating durability with higher dry film thickness and lower transparency of the coating systems. The coating systems provided a certain degree of moisture protection that was influenced by paint colour, water permeability and surface roughness. Panels with low permeable coatings showed a better performance in natural weathering.
G Grüll, I Spitaler, M Truskaller

Use of the durable species Coast Redwood as a reference system for field testing of Wood Protection systems
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20486
Data is provided and discussed for a number of field exposure tests where the naturally durable wood species Coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens, was included along with untreated pine and standard preservative treatments. In general, there is potential for higher variability of results with this naturally durable species, but it does suggest that redwood can be a useful reference material for testing systems for above ground applications, especially where long-term decay performance may not be as critical as overall product quality. Comparative performance of products to redwood heartwood at test sites with different climate indices and with different test methods may provide additional useful data on the relative performance of systems than when compared to only untreated pine sapwood and standardized preservative systems.
A Zahora, A Preston, L Jin

Performance of Wood Protection Systems at Multiple Field Test Sites Using the Ground Proximity Test Method
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20499
A series of preservative systems were used to treat southern pine ground proximity test samples which were then exposed at a range of test sites located throughout the world. The sites were chosen on the basis of having vastly different Scheffer Climate decay indices. After almost 14 years exposure, distinct differences are apparent in how different preservative systems perform at the different sites, as well as how their relative performance is impacted at different retentions.
A Zahora, A Preston, L Jin

Laboratory investigation of fire protection coatings for creosote-treated timber railroad bridges
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30639
As the incidence of timber railroad bridge fires increases, so has the need to develop protective measures to reduce the risk from accidental ignitions primarily caused by hot metal objects. Of the six barrier treatments evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to protect timbers from fires sourced with ignition from hot metal objects only one intumescent coating provided adequate fire protection. The intumescent barrier treatment also met environmental, performance (e.g. bond durability) and application criteria set forth in this study. These criteria also dictated the development of a flammability test, called the hot metal test that is compatible with the fire scenario specific to this study. The hot metal test evaluates protective materials on creosote-treated timber against ignition of gases generated by an 1100ᴼC heat source.
C A Clausen, R H White, J P Wacker, S T Lebow, M A Dietenberger, S L Zelinka, N M Stark

CreoSub – New protection technology to substitute creosote in railway sleepers, timber bridges, and utility poles
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30644
Creosote oil is one of the oldest industrially used wood preservatives. Due to its toxic profile, the European Commission has restricted the use of creosote specific applications, but it is highly controversial within the European Commission. Its approval for use after 2018 is very questionable and may depend on derived research results until then, i.e., the viability of alternatives developed to replace creosote as a preservative of wood products in heavy-duty applications outdoors, like railway sleepers, timber bridges, utility poles, and piles in marine applications. The overall objective of the three year WoodWisdom research project CreSub is the development of a new protection technology to substitute creosote in railway sleepers, timber bridges, and utility poles. The technological objective is to develop production processes for railway sleepers, timber bridges, utility poles, and piles treated with new wood protection systems from laboratory to industrial scale and test the products under real conditions in the field. This implies to individually consider process-related, economic and environmental aspects for each of the three different product groups mentioned above. Alternative products to creosote have to be hydrophobic and biocidal effective, particularly with respect to soft rot and copper tolerant fungi. Last-mentioned are mainly responsible for that conventional impregnations with solely copper-based salts do not provide sufficient protection of products in heavy-duty applications outdoors. In addition, alternative protection technology must be economically viable. In this regard, one-step treatment processes, which preferably can be carried out in existing creosote plants, are desirable. Last but not least, new technologies should have better human toxicological as well as environmental toxicological profiles than creosote technology.
U Hundhausen, K-C Mahnert, A Gellerich, H Militz

Bio-friendly preservative systems for enhanced wood durability - the first periodic report on DURAWOOD
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30677
The objective of the paper is the DURAWOOD scientific project carried out within Polish-Norwegian Research Programme, which lasts from September 2013 till August 2016. The aim of the project concentrates on the developing of a new, eco-friendly and biocide-free wood protective systems as an alternative to traditional, commonly used preservatives or coatings, containing biocides. Several wood preservatives containing traditional biocides are no longer desired on the market, due to the stricter toxicological requirements and an increasing ecological awareness of consumers. Therefore, formulating new wood protective systems, based on natural compounds, harmless to humans and the environment, is of the principle interest. On the other hand, it will also facilitate a longer period of carbon capture in wood, which will limit the greenhouse effect. Life cycle assessment (LCA), which is planned to perform for the selected model formulations, is a good example for an attempt to explain the interest. Besides, the implementation of novel solutions in wood protection will make it possible to use low quality wood material to manufacture high quality products (e.g. siding or cladding materials). In this manner such eco-friendly wood protection will be also a key factor reinforcing climate protection. The aim of this paper is to present some selected results gained so far. The model wood protecting systems were based on natural (alkaloids, propolis, plant oils) and synthetic (organosilicones, imidazoles) components as well as on neutral inorganic chemical - potassium carbonate. They were used individually or as a formulation for wood treatment. Wood samples made of Scots pine were treated by soaking or vacuum method and were subjected to mycological and fire tests. The so far results show that aminosilanes and mixtures thereof with natural oils are potential wood preservatives against microfungi and wood destroying fungi. Formulations containing aminosilanes, natural oils and potassium carbonate are potential wood fire retardants. It was also found that the most effective alkaloids were cytisine derivatives and caffeine. The highest antifungal activity among tested imidazoles was achieved by AK17 (1,10-di(3-hydroxymethylpyridinium)decanedibromide). The results of chemical analysis present evidence of interactions between compounds of the model formulations and wood chemical components.
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch, L Ross Gobakken, I Ratajczak, G Cofta, W Grześkowiak, A Komasa, A Przybył

Termite Management and the U.S. Experience: A Case for Wood Treatment & Integrated Control
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30678
A brief overview of termite control is given using specific experiences from the U.S.A. Five major types of termite treatment now prevail: soil applied chemical barriers, in-structure chemical barriers (in-situ applied wood and foundation treatments), physical barriers, treated wood and termite baits. In general, ‘stand-alone’ pretreatments or ‘primary’ treatments are often discussed and even required, although in actuality control typically relies on a number of interacting factors. The different termite control systems are discussed as well as some important building code and construction aspects which can help or hinder long-term protection against termites. The control strategies in current use are explained and performance of primary control strategies for various pests and construction types, and possible supplemental treatments are suggested. It was found that no single treatment can perform in all areas and on all construction types and a summary table developed should help specifiers select appropriate protection.
J D Lloyd, K van den Meiracker

Decay resistance of wood treated with bio-friendly preservative systems
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30698
Due to more restrictive toxicological requirements and increased ecological awareness of consumers, wood preservatives containing biocides are no longer desired on the market. Therefore, research on new environmentally friendly formulations is of great importance. One of the possible solutions is to develop new preservatives based on natural substances, which are harmless to humans, animals and the environment, while biologically active. The aim of the study was to develop new biocide-free preservative systems which increase wood resistance to wood-decaying fungi. The following silanes: [3-(2-Aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AATMOS), (Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTEOS), and (Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMOS); caffeine, natural oils and potassium carbonate were chosen as components of new protective formulations, which were planned to be an alternative for traditionally used biocides. Samples of three different wood species (pine, spruce, and poplar) were treated with the new preservative systems and exposed to brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana and white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor according to EN113 or EN839 standard. The obtained results show that wood treated with the water-based formulation consisting of silanes and caffeine (2% caffeine + 5% AATMOS, 2% caffeine + 5% APTEOS) demonstrated the highest resistance to the test fungi. Wood mass loss after exposure to fungi was 1%. All wood species treated with this formulation achieved index 1 (“very resistant”) within durability class acc. to EN-350 standard.
B Mazela, G Cofta, W Perdoch, L Ross Gobakken, P Kwaśniewska-Sip

Bio-friendly wood protection systems - resistance to mould and blue-stain fungi
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30713
With stricter restrictions on the use of biocides and increasing environmental awareness there is a pronounced need for effective bio-friendly protection systems in the wood preservative and wood coating industry. One of the possible pathways is to exploit and utilize natural substances with active biological effects. Silanes, caffeine, natural oils and potassium carbonate were chosen as compounds in 16 different formulations intended as wood protection systems. The aim of this study was to test the resistance of the selected protection systems against mould growth and growth of blue-stain fungi. Combination of caffeine and amino functional silanes showed good resistance towards blue-stain fungi when applied to pine and the same was found for the combination of linseed oil and amino functional silanes. Some indications of resistance towards mould fungi were also detected for the same chemical combinations.
L Ross Gobakken, W Perdoch, B Mazela, P Kwaśniewska-Sip, G Cofta

Preventivephysical barriers against subterranean termites species for building protection: How to implement innovative materials to reach efficacy requirements
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40845
As the European regulation dealing with the use of biocides (BPR) for preventive protection of buildings against subterranean termites is leading to more and more pressure on physico-chemical barriers currently used (PT18), some existing developments are focusing attention on physical biocides-free barriers. The main target is then to avoid the use of active ingredients, to stay out of the BPR scope and cancel the potential risk of health and environmental issues. Different techniques are already on the market displaying good efficacy on special areas where termites can be strongly aggressive, but are often applied and limited to some special implementation areas or potential paths for the termites. This kind of product is not dedicated to cover the whole surface of the building, contrary to biocides treated plastic films that are representing the core-market in France for example. The aim of this paper is to present two different biocides-free materials and/or techniques, which have been developed and tested recently in the company, and gave very promising results for being resistant to termites’ penetration and potentially protect building from subterranean species once implemented before construction. Two different types of preventive physical barriers were proofed at the lab scale according to NF EN 41-550 standard against Reticulitermes and fulfilled the efficacy requirements, with giving also information on the real behaviour of termites when exposed to this kind of material. Improving surface or mechanical properties of some materials can represent an interesting issue for better resistance of pest damages without using any active ingredients. Then, risks of loss of efficacy or potential contact of insecticide generally used in physico-chemical plastic barriers with users or the ground are minimal.
N Delourme-Fonseca, P Poveda, F Simon

Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen

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