Your search resulted in 524 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Dimensional stabilization of wood with dimethylol compounds
1987 - IRG/WP 3412
This study showed that a substantial degree of dimensional stability can be imparted to wood by crosslinking with low concentrations of dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. It was demonstrated that by selecting the right catalyst system the cure temperature can be reduced to the point that strength loss of the treated wood is minimized....
D D Nicholas, A D Williams
The effect of treatment method on CCA efficacy in Corsican pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3723
As part of a study into the influence of application method on preservative efficacy Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) samples (50 x 50 x 400 mm³) were treated with a CCA formulation using Bethel, Steam/Bethel or Lowry processes. Full penetration of the preservative at a gross level was confirmed using a copper disclosing reagent. The preservative was allowed to fix and then samples were converted into...
P R Newman, R J Murphy
Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent wa...
T L Highley, L Ferge
Above ground performance of CCA-treated fingerjointed lumbe
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40003
Studs made from short lengths by finger jointing are becoming more commonly used in North America. Recently Forintek has received enquiries about the performance of such material in a treated form. Treated and untreated nominal 2x4 inch² spruce-pine-fir (SPF) studs exposed above ground for 12 years in southwestern British Columbia were evaluated for evidence of decay. Despite shallow preservative...
P I Morris, G E Troughton
Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and win...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete
Steam conditioning of partially dried radiata and Corsican pine roundwood
1988 - IRG/WP 3499
The effect of partial air drying prior to steam conditioning and its effect on subsequent preservative treatment by the Bethell treatment process was investigated. A high standard of preservative treatment was obtained in both radiata and Corsican pine, irrespective of whether a period of partial drying was imposed before or after steam conditioning....
P Vinden, D R Page, K Nasheri
Study of the natural durability and impregnability of a metropolitan species of tree
1986 - IRG/WP 2261
The current and predictable evolution of construction timber supply conditions is motivating research for a more efficient utilization of native woods. It is now important to determine statistically reliable impregnability values on a national scale, and to evaluate the natural durability of woods recently introduced in France, or economically important native woods....
M E Mathieu
CCA fixation experiments. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3505
CCA fixation in wood was measured by both squeezing solution from treated wood that had not been dried and analyzing the solution for copper, chromium and arsenic, as well as using a chromotropic acid test to detect the presence of chromium VI. Both methods provide useful information on the CCA fixation process and illustrate that chromium VI disappears as CCA becomes fixed within wood....
W S McNamara
Exterior weathering trials on radiata pine roofing shingles
1985 - IRG/WP 3240
A series of test roofs clad with radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) shingles that had been pressure-treated with various water-borne preservative formulations were installed at a Forest Research Institute test site in Rotorua in 1977. A further series of test roofs installed in 1978 included radiata pine shingles pressure-treated with a commercial light organic solvent preservative (LOSP). Evalua...
D V Plackett, C M Chittenden, A F Preston
Performance of surface-treated hardwoods and softwoods out of ground contact
1990 - IRG/WP 3592
A number of fungicides were tested as brush treatments for protection of southern pine, Douglas-fir, maple, and red oak against decay above ground. Cross-brace and L-joint test units were treated just before assembly and exposed from 3-10 years. Untreated Douglas-fir cross-brace units were not decayed at either the Mississippi or Madison, WI, site. Untreated red oak cross-brace units were not deca...
T L Highley
Ultrastructural and TEM-EDAX studies on the degradation of CCA treated radiata pine by tunnelling bacteria
1985 - IRG/WP 1260
An ultrastructural study was carried out on bacterial attacked Pinus radiata stakes treated with a high level (24.7 kg/m³) of Tanalith NCA preservative. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the organism possessed intracellular and/or extracellular detoxification mechanisms in order to overcome the high levels of copper, chrome and arsenic present within the wood fibre walls. ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson
Bacterial wood degradation by a pure culture
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10093
A single-celled bacterium isolated from lake water yielded cell wall degradation in Scots pine sapwood samples. The bacterium attacked all cell wall layers in one month of laboratory culture. It was identified as Aureobacterium luteolum....
Contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30216
The contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine was investigated. Holocellulose, lignin and xylan absorbed significant amount of copper. The amount of copper absorbed by cellulose was almost negligible. The removal of extractive also decreased the amount of copper absorption. This study clearly indicates the importance of lignin, hemicellulose in the absorption of copper amin...
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang
A method for determining boron diffusion coefficients in wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30200
The radial unsteady-state diffusion coefficient for boron in southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) was determined from measured concentration profiles using Egner's solution, a modified form of Fick's second law. The method uses a slicing technique to accurately determine concentration gradients with time in a single direction. The methodology should be applicable to any diffusible s...
J-B Ra, H M Barnes
Antagonism to spore germination in Scots pine
1990 - IRG/WP 1458
Germination of Lenzites trabea and Chaetomium globosum spores was observed directly on wood blocks, on water soluble extracts and on organic solvent soluble extracts from pine wood. In all cases pine heartwood was found to be antagonistic to spore germination but pine sapwood varied in its antagonism according to the method of drying. Chromatography revealed that extracts from antagonistic wood di...
S M Gray
Decay patterns observed in butylene oxide modified ponderosa pine attacked by Fomitopsis pinicola
1983 - IRG/WP 1183
Small blocks of ponderosa pine chemically modified by butylene oxide to three different weight percent gains (WPG) were decayed for 2 months with the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola. Wood substance loss and the type of decay pattern recognised were fairly similar both for control and blocks treated to 8 and 15 WPG. No difference in attack was observed between radial or tangential walls in lat...
T Nilsson, R M Rowell
Chemical investigation of 23-year-old CDDC treated southern yellow pine
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30141
The effect of 23 years exterior exposure on CDDC treated southern yellow pine was evaluated by the application of solid state analytical instrumentation. Analytical methods including environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM),energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic absorption spectr...
D P Kamdem, C R McIntyre
An investigation into the stability of TBTO in LOSP-treated radiata pine
1987 - IRG/WP 3459
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and reverse phase paper chromatography were used to characterise the organotin compounds found in radiata pine treated with bis (tri-n-butyl) tin oxide (TBTO). Preliminary results indicate that the preservative is remarkably unstable in wood after light organic solvent preservative (LOSP) treatment. Significant decomposition of TBTO occurs in a matter ...
K J Archer, R Meder
Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat trea...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff
The Effect of Heat on the Retention of Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ-AB) onto Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40390
In this study, the sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were treated with ammonical copper quat type (ACQ-AB), which is one of the environmentally friendly wood preservatives, by using soaking method as a functions of various temperatures and time. The results indicated that the retention behaviour of ACQ onto the wood was considerably affected by temperature of ACQ solution and treatment t...
M Hakki Alma, A Mukremin Kara
The Effect of Soil on the pH of Untreated Southern Pine in Ground Contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10742
Untreated southern yellow pine samples were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and then one, two, four and eight weeks after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH....
C Vidrine, C Schauwecker, L Jin, A F Preston
The Effect of Soil pH on the pH of Treated Southern Pine in Ground Contact after 12 Months
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50281
Southern pine samples treated with soluble and particulate copper solutions were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and after 6 and 12 months after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH....
L Jin, C Schauwecker, C Vidrine, P Walcheski, A Preston
Evaluation of Barrier Wrap Systems after 71 Months of Exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40631
A 71 month study of the performance of booted samples in ground contact was conducted in AWPA hazard zone 4. Data indicated that excellent performance of wrapped systems, even over untreated wood, could be obtained. Instances of decay colonization or termite attack could all be attributed to some breaking of the integrity of the barrier system. Good performance for treatment below ground contact...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, C McIntyre
Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 5. Treatment of Sitka spruce and Scots pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40136
The suitability of the MPP Process for CCA treatment and accelerated fixation of species other than Radiata pine was assessed by pilot plant trials on UK-grown Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Pressure and vacuum kickbacks of spruce (14 l/m3) and Scots' pine (122 l/m3) were both substantially lower than that generated during treatment of radiata pine (369...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, G Durbin
The effects of heat treament on the specific gravity of beech and spruce wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40254
The effects of heat treatment on specific gravity of beech (Fagus orientalis) and spruce wood (Picea orientalis) naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 2 x 2 x 3 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at four different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C) and three different durations...
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Colakoglu, E D Gezer, A Temiz