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Wart Morphology can Distinguish White Cypress Pine from the Less Durable Species, Black Cypress Pine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20406
White cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla) wood is durable enough to be used outdoors, but occasionally there are reports of its premature failure in ground contact, which may be due to its substitution by the less durable species, black cypress pine (C. endlicheri). It has been difficult to prove this, however, because the woods of both species are very similar in structure and cannot be separat...
R Heady, R Cunningham, P Evans


Analysis of degradation observed on ancient wooden objects buried underground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10403
Ancient wooden objects were sometimes excavated from the moat of mounded tombs in Japan. Such wooden objects were in the shape of a sunshade, bird, shield, pole, yugi(a bag that holds arrows) among others. Archaeologists discussed the usage of such shaped objects, but no one could clearly explain their use. Some objects were observed using an ordinary microscope. Deterioration by bacteria was foun...
H Sakai


Termite and decay resistance of particleboard composed of white cypress pine and radiata pine
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10200
Phenol-formaldehyde bonded particleboard was manufactured from blends of non-durable radiate pine (P. radiate) and heartwood of the naturally durable species, white cypress pine (C. glaucophylla). Board specimens were subjected to bioassays using two termite species, M. darwiniensis and C. acinaciformis, and the basidiomycete fungi, C. puteana and P. ostreatus, and the durability of specimens was ...
P D Evans, J W Creffield, J S G Conroy, S C Barry


MDF manufactured from blends of cypress pine and radiata pine shows enhanced resistance to subterranean termite attack
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40214
Medium density fibreboards consisting of blends of the naturally durable wood species white cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla) and non-durable wood species were manufactured in a commercial plant and subjected to a bioassay using the subterranean termite species, Coptotermes lacteus. A board composed of 30% cypress pine, 30% slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and 40% of the naturally durable hardwood...
P D Evans, S Dimitriades, C Donnelly, R B Cunningham


Effect of climate, species, preservative concentration and water repellent on leaching from CCA-treated lumber exposed above ground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50178
Few studies have examined leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) from treated wood in above ground exposures due to the assumption that leaching is less severe compared to wood in continuous contact with soil or water. However, a significant portion of CCA treated wood is used for above ground applications, exposing considerable volumes of the preservative to precipitation and potential leach...
J L Taylor, P A Cooper


Permatek IM 30 as a termiticide treatment for veneer-based wood products
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30325
Permatek IM 30 is a termiticide designed for incorporation into wood products during manufacture. Whereas existing approved products in Australia are based predominantly on synthetic pyrethroids carried in solvents, Permatek IM 30 is based on imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide. The formulation has very low mammalian toxicity, is free of VOCs, and has been successfully tested as a glueline ...
J Doyle, K Webb, W R Rae, A F Siraa, J Malcolm-Black


Utilizing Cypress to improve the decay and termite resistance of OSB panels
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10658
OSB panels were manufactured with mixture of pine and cypress heartwood and lignin and tannin based resins in order to propose an eco-friendly wood composite. The resistance of OSB panels was tested against Reticulitermes santonensis according to the EN 118 and EN 117 standards and field tests methods. OSB made from cypress showed more resistance against the tested termite, the resistance decrease...
N Amusant, O Arnould, A Depres, R H Mansouris, T Pizzi, C Baudassé


The durability of natural and thermomodified black poplar wood and Scots pine sapwood after two years of external exposition
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40730
Natural biological durability of many European wood species is considered to be relatively small, particularly in a ground contact conditions. This is due to the exposure of the wood to the range of biological and atmospheric destructive factors. This may to limit the scope of application of the wood of these species, particularly in construction. The biocides are often used for wood protection in...
A Fojutowski, A Kropacz, A Noskowiak


Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh


Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy...
Ö Bergman


Screening potential preservatives against stain and mould fungi on pine timber in Zimbabwe
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30063
The search for environmentally and toxicologically safer chemicals for use in the timber preservative industry against stain and mould fungi has been intensified during the past few years. Results of field tests with two chemicals previously evaluated in the laboratory are presented. The conventional sodium pentachlorophenate was the more efficacious chemical against stain and mould fungi, providi...
A J Masuka


Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional sta...
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto


Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls....
M J Collins, P Vinden


Soil virulence tests using Scots pine sapwood
1973 - IRG/WP 222
Following the tests reported in Document No: IRG/WP/210, in which soils from different laboratories were investigated for virulence, supplementary tests have been carried out using Scots pine sapwood and an extended incubation period....
J K Carey, J G Savory


Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley


Studies on the destruction by marine borers of fishing boats along the north-eastern Black Sea coasts of Turkey
1980 - IRG/WP 451
Marine wood-boring organisms are attacking fishing boats along the northeastern coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. The damage and the intensity of attack of Teredo navalis L in fishing boats were studied....
O A Sekendiz, R Ilhan


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 3: Full penetration of the refractory sapwood of white cypress
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40167
The heartwood of white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla, is renowned for its termite resistance and durability against decay. The sapwood, which can represent up to 30% of log volume, is non-durable and refractory to conventional preservative treatment. Previous work ascribes the lack of permeability to oily deposits within tracheids and ray cells. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was use...
M J Kennedy, L M Stephens, M A Powell


Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6....
J K Grace


Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification...
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson


Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50214
In this study, the main objective was to asses the distribution of Cu, Cr, and As in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Blacksea Region of Turkey (Trabzon, Rize and Artvin ) and determine the influence of soil composition. Surface (0-5cm), subsurface soil samples (30-40cm) were collected near CCA-treated utility poles and control soil samples away from CCA-treated utility pole...
E D Gezer, Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, S Yildiz, E Dizman


Light organic solvent preservative treatment schedules for New Zealand-grown radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3379
The influence of pressure differential and treatment time on preservative uptake and distribution in radiata pine heartwood and sapwood is investigated. Treatment schedules are defined which minimise solvent usage but ensure complete sapwood penetration and optimise heartwood penetration....
P Vinden


Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results....
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada


Light organic solvent preservative treatment of glue-laminated radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3380
The high permeability of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is associated with ray-tissue and in particular the cross-field pits linking ray-tissue to tracheids. This pathway is absent in the tangential grain direction, leading to poor preservative penetration when treatment is restricted to the radial face - for example, timber fabricated into glue-laminated beams....
P Vinden


Performance of Tebbacop in laboratory, fungus cellar and field tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30222
A novel organo-copper wood preservative ("Tebbacop") has been exposed to 12 years fungus cellar testing and 6 years above ground field testing. In the fungus cellar, Tebbacop at a retention of 0.053% Cu m/m oven dry wood out-performed CCA at a retention of 0.55% m/m oven dry wood. In above ground tests, L-joints treated to a Tebbacop retention of 0.012% Cu are performing as well as joints treated ...
M E Hedley, D R Page, B E Patterson


Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated Scots pine exposed in sea water
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50149
A laboratory leaching trial combining a static and a flowing seawater system was carried out to measure the leaching rates of copper, chromium and arsenic from the surface of Scots pine panels vacuum-pressure treated to 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 kgm-3 CCA. Untreated and treated panels were exposed in flowing seawater for up to 8 weeks followed by 2 weeks submersion in static seawater which was taken fo...
C J Brown, R A Eaton


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