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Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris by cerium chloride technique
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10299
Cerium chloride (CeCl3) was used to localize H2O2 cytochemically for studying relationship between ultrastructural and functional characteristics of cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi. This technique proved very useful in localizing discrete electron-densereactionproducts at high resolution with minimal nonspecific deposition. The cytochemical localization of extracellular H2O2 by CeCl3 usin...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi


Immunogold labelling of size marker proteins in brown rot-degraded pine wood
1990 - IRG/WP 1428
Pine wood degraded by Fomitopsis pinicola was infiltrated with a mixture of ovalbumin (45 kDa) and myoglobin (16.7 kDa). After crosslinking of the proteins with glutaraldehyde and preparation for electron microscopy ultrathin sections were labeled with gold-conjugated antibodies. Simultaneous labeling of both proteins on the same section showed that at 50-70% weight loss ovalbumin did not penetrat...
E Srebotnik, K Messner


Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in wood decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi
1985 - IRG/WP 1256
To gain further understanding of the role of H2O2 in wood degradation by brown- and white-rot fungi, we studied the following: (a) extracellular H2O2 production, (b) effect of various hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet O2 (1O2) quenching agents on wood and cellulose degradation, (c) intracellular H2O2 production and catalase activity, and (d) cytochemical localization of H2O2 with diaminobenzidin...
T L Highley, L L Murmanis


The preliminary characterization of ß-1,4-xylanase of the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1990 - IRG/WP 1447
The extracellular ß-1,4-xylanase of the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, was isolated from crude extract by chromatofocusing method (PBE 94 column chromatography). The isoelectric point was estimated to 4.2-4.8 by cromatofocusing and 4.5 by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to 37,000 dalton by SDS-PAGE. The optimal temperature for the crude extrac...
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, L Viikari


Wood degradation mechanisms by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10229
A mechanism for the degradation of wood by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum is outlined. The mechanism includes the function of redox-cycling, low molecular weight phenolic derivatives which sequester and reduce iron in acidic environments. The role of oxalate for the sequestration of iron (hydr)oxides and the pH dependent transfer of iron to the G. trabeum phenolic chelators, as well as ...
B Goodell, J Jellison


Identification of terminal structures in cellulose degraded by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1389
To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism employed by brown-rot fungi to depolymerize cellulose, we identified the end-groups of chemically pure cellulose that had been depolymerized by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta. The depolymerized cellulose was acid hydrolyzed and the anion fractions isolated by ion chromatography. Sugar acids were identified by gas chromatographic and mass spectr...
T K Kirk, T L Highley, R E Ibach, M D Mozuch


The effect of hemicellulose degradation on the mechanical properties of wood during brown rot decay
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20219
Incipient decay of wood by brown rot fungi causes measurable strength losses in wood before measurable weight loss occurs. Previous studies have shown that the high levels of strength loss that occur during incipient brown rot decay may be related to loss in hemicellulose. This paper investigates the effect of decay on hemicellulose composition and the relationship to the mechanical properties of ...
S F Curling, C A Clausen, J E Winandy


Moisture requirements and wood degradation of pine and spruce wood by some Basidiomycetes-fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1406
The minimum moisture requirements for the growth of the brown rot fungi, Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula lacrymans were near or above the fibre saturation point of pine and spruce, sap and heartwood, during 160 days incubation according to the standard method EN 113. The moisture of wood for the optimum growth of Coniophora puteana and Serpula lacrymans was about 35-80% and fo...
H Viitanen, A-C Ritschkoff


Production of exraxellular hydrogen peroxide and oxalic acid by brown-rot fungus Poria placenta
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10112
Hydrogen peroxide and oxalic acid have been suggested to be essential in the degradation of wood carbohydrates by brown-rot fungi. Hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to be one of the diffusible low molecular weight agents produced by brown-rot fungi for the degradation of wood carbohydrates by generating highly active radicals. The production of hydrogen peroxide and oxalic acid by Poria placent...
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, J Buchert, L Viikari


Immuno-electron microscopic localization of extracellular metabolites in spruce wood decayed by brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1990 - IRG/WP 1441
Degradation by Postia placenta in spruce and birch wood was shown to occur not only in the wood cell wall but also in the middle lamellae region. Middle lamellae was often found to be degraded along the centerline so that cells could separate along this line. Extracellular membrane structures were found surrounding the hyphae and this matrix labelled positively with antisera produced to Postia pla...
Y S Kim, B Goodell, J Jellison


Premature failure of CCA treated vineyard posts from brown rot
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10016
A survey of CCA (AWPA Type C) treated posts used as grape vine trellis supports, to determine the extent and type of decay was carried out at a terraced vineyard in the Hawkes Bay region of the North Island of New Zealand. Of 357 posts examined out of a total of 970 in the vineyard, 47% had moderate to severe decay or had failed, 20% had established decay, 10% had a trace of decay and 23% had no s...
R N Wakeling, A P Singh


Relationship between degradation of wood, cellulose or lignin-related compounds and production of hydroxyl radical or accumulation of oxalic acid in cultures of brown-rot fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10062
The degradation activities of brown rot fungi against wood, cellulose, and lignin-related compounds were measured in cultures containing glucose or wood as a carbon source. Also the activities of one-electron oxidation and hydroxyl radical production and the amount of oxalic acid present in the cultures were measured. The degradation activities of the fungi against wood, crystalline cellulose and ...
S Itakura, T Hirano, H Tanaka, A Enoki


The role of oxidation in wood degradation by brown-rot fung
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1562
Brown-rot fungi are suggested to degrade cellulose by oxidation with hydrogen radicalsformed eg. in the conversion of hydrogen peroxide in the Fenton type reactions. The stuctural changes in the holocellulose in wood induced by Fenton's reaction on wood components are very similar to those caused by brown-rot fungi. In this work the effect of the Fenton reaction on wood components was stu...
A-C Ritschkoff, J Pere, J Buchert, L Viikari


Differences in pH, electrical resistance, cation composition and NIR spectra of red spruce wood during early stages of brown rot degradation
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10449
Red spruce sapwood was exposed to degradation by the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula lacrymans for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks using a modified soil block assay design. Average weight losses over time ranged from 0-8.9% during this time period. Detectable changes in pH, electrical resistance and cation compostion were observed in the wood as early as 1 ...
J Jellison, S Kelley, B Goodell, D Hui, A Ostrofsky


Properties of cellulose degraded by the brown rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1350
To gain further understanding of the nature of the cellulose depolymerizing agent or agents of brown-rot fungi, brown-rotted cellulose was chemically and physically characterized. Various culture conditions, such as low nitrogen and elevated oxygen levels, did not induce degradation of cellulose by Postia placenta in liquid cultures. Therefore, brown-rotted cellulose for analysis was prepared by a...
T L Highley, R E Ibach, T K Kirk


Targeted inhibition of wood decay fungi: degradation of cotton cellulose
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10321
Brown-rot decay is responsible for 80% of the damage and replacement of wood in service. For nearly thirty years, researchers have postulated a one-electron oxidase system combining Fe+2 oxalic acid, and H2O2 in the production of hydroxy radicals which ultimately oxidize cellulose in situ. Recently, researchers have been investigating antioxicants, in combination with biocides (Schultz, et al.,199...
F Green III, T A Kuster


Application of non-destructive techniques (durometric and ultrasonic) to evaluate the degradation of woods in service by Gloeophyllum trabeum
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20220
In order to establish the degree of degradation of wood used in construction, it is necessary to employ non-destructive methods (ultrasonic, durometric, densitometric). In this study, ultrasonic and Pilodyn durometric techniques have been applied to try to establish parameters of relationship between the values obtained by both, for their immediate application to wood in service. As a method of re...
M T De Troya, L Palaia, A Navarrete, V Galvañ, R Molina, A Guijarro, J Camacho


Immunolocalization of extracellular metabolites from Poria placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1361
Polyclonal antisera produced to Poria placenta extracellular metabolites was used in immuno-fluoresence microscopy and immuno-gold TEM studies. In the fluorescence work, labelling of Poria placenta hyphae in wet fixed wood material was observed but not in infected wood which was oven dried prior to sectioning and immunolabelling. TEM studies provided better resolution, with gold labelling detected...
B Goodell, G F Daniel, J Jellison, T Nilsson


Micromorphology of oak wood degraded by brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10356
To characterize the degradation of hardwood by brown rot fungus, Coniophora puteana was incubated on the wood blocks of Quercus accutissima. For comparison, the same fungus was also incubated on the pine wood blocks of Pinus densiflora. In softwood, the shape of the wood cells and thickness of the cell appeared unchanged even the loss of birefringence in the affected areas. In contrast, oak wood d...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kwang-Ho Lee


Extracellular laccase production in brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10391
Coniophora puteana, one of representing brown-rot fungus, was investigated in terms of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production. Three fungal strains of C. puteana were inoculated in liquid culture medium with sawdust of pine and oak wood. Extracellular laccase production was observed in some strains of C. puteana in the culture medium with sawdust of oak wood. The highest activity occurred at...
Kwang-Ho Lee, Seung-Gon Wi, Yoon Soo Kim


Gypsum effects on ‘dry rot’ wood degradation as a function of environment
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10624
‘Dry rot’ fungi are a unique group of brown rot fungi that can degrade wood away from ground contact where other fungi fail to colonize. Successfully occupying this niche is partially due to efficient water and nutrient transport, but mobilizing elements, notably calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe), from adjacent building materials has also been implicated in their success. Here we report a series of t...
J Schilling, J Jellison


Degradation of wood veneers by Fenton’s reagents: effects of low molecular weight phenolic compounds on hydrogen peroxide decay and tensile strength loss
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20400
Pine wood (Pinus sylvestris) veneers strips were incubated in acetate buffer containing hydrogen peroxide and iron to mimic mechanisms of brown rot decay and assess the degradation of cellulose through analysis of the tensile properties of the decayed wood. The tensile properties of thin wood strips treated with Fenton system reagents or precursors were determined and correlated to weight loss as ...
Yanjun Xie, R Well, Zefang Xiao, B Goodell, J Jellison, H Militz, C Mai


Fungal Attack on Lignin and Cellulose: Elucidation of Brown- and White-Rot Mechanisms Comparing Biomimetic and In-Vivo Degradation Patterns
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10714
This paper examines research and hypotheses that have been developed over several years on wood degradation mechanisms. This information is combined with new data and analyses to explain why wood decay patterns caused by brown-rot fungi and specific types of white-rot fungi are different. New data, including work with both biomimetic studies on low molecular weight compounds, degradative enzymes, ...
V Arantes, B Goodell, A M F Milagres, Yuhui Qian, T Filley, J Jellison, S Kelley


Protein extraction from wood decay fungus Postia placenta
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10827
Wood decay fungi (often distinguished as white rot and brown rot) belonging to the basidiomycetes, are common inhabitants of forest litter, where they play an important role in carbon cycling. Brown rot fungi are perhaps the most important organism involved in the degradation of wood products, and of considerable economic importance. Brown rotted wood loses strength very early because of the rapid...
A Pilgård, P Arnold, K Richter


Possible targets of wood modification in brown rot degradation
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40676
Wood modification protects wood from fungal degradation in a non-toxic manner. However, the mechanisms behind the decay resistance in modified wood are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to discuss the i) colonisation, ii) nutrient recognition, iii) transcription, iv) depolymerisation and v) hydrolysis steps in the brown rot degradation progress and explore whether they are inhibited by ...
R Ringman, A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, B Goodell, K Richter


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