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The iron reduction by chemical components of wood blocks decayed by wood rotting fungi
2021 - IRG/WP 21-10979
Brown-rot fungi, a group of wood rotting fungi, is well known to be one of major microorganisms that cause the deterioration of wooden buildings in Japan and have been considered to use chelator-mediated Fenton (CMF) reaction in concert with hydrolytic and redox enzymes for degradation of wood cell wall. CMF can be described as a non-enzymatic degradation system that utilizes hydroxyl radicals pro...
R R Kondo, Y Horikawa, K Ando, B Goodell, M Yoshida

The effect of a chelator mediated fenton system on activation of TMP fibres and decolorization of synthesized dyes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50223
The purpose of this work is to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in the brown rot degradation of wood, but also to study the potential applications of a chelator-mediated Fenton system in activation of wood fibers and decolorization of synthesized dyes. In this work, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spin-trapping techniques were used to study the generation of hyd...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell, J Jellison

Chelator-Mediated Fenton Chemistry in Wood Degraded by Fungi
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10618
Wood specimens were colonized by individual isolates of brown rot, white rot, soft rot and blue (sap) stain fungi. Ethyl acetate extracts of the ground wood were analyzed for their iron-reducing capabilities using a ferrozine-based assay. Extracts from wood colonized by brown rot fungi showed a significantly greater iron-reducing capability than extracts from wood colonized by white rot fungi or n...
B Goodell, G Daniel, J Jellison, Yuhui Qian

Chemical mediated depolymerization of cotton cellulose for the understanding of non-enzymatic fungal decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10731
Small, low molecular weight non-enzymatic compounds have been linked to the early stages of brown rot decay as the enzymes involved with holocellulose degradation are found to be too large to penetrate the S3 layer of intact wood cells. The most pronounced of these which were analyzed in this study are hydrogen peroxide, iron, and oxalic. The compounds related to the Fenton reaction: the combinati...
A C Steenkjær Hastrup, B Jensen, F Green III

The Chelator Mediated Fenton System in the Brown Rot Fungi: Details of the Mechanism, and Reasons Why it has Been Ineffective as a Biomimetic Treatment in some Biomass Applications – a Review
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10828
The chelator-mediated Fenton (CMF) reaction requires the action of two types of chelating compounds. The first chelator, oxalate, solubilizes and then sequesters iron, and the second chelator reduces iron. Iron reduction must be controlled near the fungal hyphae to prevent damaging Fenton chemistry from occurring in that location. Similarly, iron reduction must be promoted within the wood/plant ce...
B S Goodell, M Nakamura, J Jellison

Possible targets of wood modification in brown rot degradation
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40676
Wood modification protects wood from fungal degradation in a non-toxic manner. However, the mechanisms behind the decay resistance in modified wood are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to discuss the i) colonisation, ii) nutrient recognition, iii) transcription, iv) depolymerisation and v) hydrolysis steps in the brown rot degradation progress and explore whether they are inhibited by ...
R Ringman, A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, B Goodell, K Richter

Controlling the sapstain fungus Ceratocystis coerulescens by metabolites obtained from Bjerkandera adusta and Talaromyces flavus
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10024
Sapstain causes severe damage to wood and wood products, posing a major economic problem for the wood industry. The purpose of this study was to determine if metabolites from Bjerkandera adusta and Talaromyces flavus would (1) decolorize stain in wood caused by Ceratocystis coerulescens and (2) prevent sapstain by Ceratocystis coerulescens. We studied the interaction of the sapstain fungus Ceratoc...
S C Croan, T L Highley

Oxalic acid quantification, oxaloacetase assay and ESI localization of P, C, and Fe from the brown rot fungus Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10063
The mechanism by which brown-rot fungi initiate depolymerization of holocellulose in wood remains unknown. Recently, oxalic acid (OA) has received considerable attention in cellulose breakdown by brown-rot fungi. The OA could serve as a proton donor for hydrolytic or an electron donor for oxidative (Fenton's reaction-H2O2/Fe2+) cleavages of cellulose. The acid may originate via oxaloaceta...
C R Jordan, W V Dashek, T L Highley

The long road to understanding brown-rot decay. A view from the ditch
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10101
Interest in understanding how brown-rot fungi decay wood has received increasing interest in recent years because of a need to identify novel targets that can be inhibited for the next generation of antifungal wood preservatives. Brown-rot fungi are unique in that they can degrade holocellulose (cellulose and hemicellulose) in wood without first removing the lignin. Furthermore, they degrade holoc...
F Green III, T L Highley

Targeted inhibition of wood decay (Using everything but the kitchen sink)
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10203
Low molecular weight oxidative decay agents have been implicated in the degradation of wood by brown-rot decay as evidenced by chemical analysis of brown-rotted wood and detection of oxalic acid and hydroxy radicals. Fenton chemistry (H2O2 / Fe++) is often proposed as the mechanism for generating hydroxy radicals. Previous authors have shown iron to enhance the brown-rot hydrolysis of wood, while ...
F Green III, T A Kuster, T L Highley

The role of oxidation in wood degradation by brown-rot fung
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1562
Brown-rot fungi are suggested to degrade cellulose by oxidation with hydrogen radicalsformed eg. in the conversion of hydrogen peroxide in the Fenton type reactions. The stuctural changes in the holocellulose in wood induced by Fenton's reaction on wood components are very similar to those caused by brown-rot fungi. In this work the effect of the Fenton reaction on wood components was stu...
A-C Ritschkoff, J Pere, J Buchert, L Viikari

Evaluation of tropolone as a wood preservative : activity and mode of action
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30282
The fungicidal activity of 2-hydroxy cyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone (tropolone) analogue of b-thujaplicin a natural product responsible for the durability of heart wood of several cupressaceous trees was investigated in vitro on growth of white and brown rot fungi. Results obtained show that tropolone, easily prepared from commercially available products, possesses strong fungicidal activity similar ...
P Gérardin, M Baya, N Delbarre, P N Diouf, D Perrin, P Soulounganga, E Gelhaye, J P Jacquot, C Rapin

Degradation of wood veneers by Fenton’s reagents: effects of low molecular weight phenolic compounds on hydrogen peroxide decay and tensile strength loss
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20400
Pine wood (Pinus sylvestris) veneers strips were incubated in acetate buffer containing hydrogen peroxide and iron to mimic mechanisms of brown rot decay and assess the degradation of cellulose through analysis of the tensile properties of the decayed wood. The tensile properties of thin wood strips treated with Fenton system reagents or precursors were determined and correlated to weight loss as ...
Yanjun Xie, R Well, Zefang Xiao, B Goodell, J Jellison, H Militz, C Mai

The Use of Micro-Tensile Testing to Assess Weathering Decay and Oxidative Degradation of Wooden Items
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20433
This paper presents a method to study the weathering performance of wooden items and to assess the oxidative degradation of wood via the Fenton reaction. Weathering resistance and photo-stability of wood was tested using pine wood (Pinus sylvestris) veneer strips measuring approximately 60 µm in thickness. The veneer strips were treated using a reactive chemical to impart surface protection. The ...
C Mai, Yanjun Xie, Zefang Xiao, P D Evans, H Militz

Antifouling wood matrix with natural water transfer and micro reaction channels for water treatment
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40853
Wood with abundant nutrition transport channels could be considered as a kind of natural water purifier due to quick and effective passages for separation. Nevertheless, microporosity as main porous structure of initial wood are not enough to effectively separate small molecular, such as organic dye pollutants. Meanwhile, like most filters the fouling resulting in blocking and poor water flux will...
G Liu, D Xu, S Chang, J Hu, Xianjun Li5, Y Liu

Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi

Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning,...
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri

A discussion of current theories concerning CCA fixation
1983 - IRG/WP 3238
The understanding of the fixation mechanism of CCA and related preservatives in wood has been greatly improved by a significant series of recent scientific papers. In view of recent concerns in New Zealand regarding the long-term efficacy of CCA in high decay-hazard situations, it was considered appropriate to review this recent work and to contrast it with theories presented by previous workers....
D V Plackett

Synergistic effects between 2-HPNO, Irganox 1076 and EDTA on the inhibition of wood degradation by Coriolus versicolor
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30331
The efficiency of 2-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (2-HPNO) as wood preservative has been investigated. As shown using classical experiments as well as using response surface methodology, the efficiency of 2-HPNO as wood preservative is strongly improved in presence a chelator like EDTA and/or of Irganox 1076 an industrial antioxidant. In these conditions, wood preservative efficiency of the mixture the ...
A Mabicka, S Dumarçay, N Rouhier, M Linder, J P Jacquot, P Gérardin, E Gelhaye

Environmental issues: Messages for the wood preservation industry
1985 - IRG/WP 3353
A review of the origins and structure of environmental legislation throughout those territories of the world where wood preservation is a major industry is given. The implications of media, industry and legislation interaction is discussed and suggestions made as to the key issues the wood preservation industry should concentrate its attentions on in the immediate future....
D G Anderson, P Waldie

CCA Chemistry
1983 - IRG/WP 3268
A Pizzi

Copper binding capacity of modified wood flour
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3709
Wood flour was modified by reaction with oxidising agents and CCA preservative. The copper chromium and arsenic were removed from the CCA treated wood flour by an acid leaching procedure. The modified wood flours were allowed to react with copper acetate solution and the level of copper fixation achieved was determined. The modified wood flours had greater affinity for copper ions present in solut...
N C Milowych, W B Banks, J A Cornfield

Non-enzymatic Gloeophyllum trabeum decay mechanisms: Further study
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10395
Information will be presented on the mechanisms involved in, and potential application of, non-enzymatic wood decay by brown rot decay fungi. Specifically, the hypothesized role of low molecular weight phenolate derivatives will be discussed in relation to non-enzymatic degradation of wood. The mechanism of binding of iron by cellulose, and binding and reduction of iron by fungal derivatives and m...
B Goodell, J Jellison

A fixation model, based on the temperature dependence of CCA-C fixation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40163
A model was prepared for the fixation of 1% CCA-C in red pine that allows the prediction of extent of fixation based on the temperature history of the treated wood following pressure treatment. The reaction kinetics of the rapid initial reaction and the slower main reaction were characterized using the Van t'Hoff equation. The initial reaction could be represented by a 10th order chemical...
P A Cooper, K M F Kazi, Jianbin Chen, Y T Ung

Testing a diffusion and reaction model for the leaching of CCA components from unfixed CCA-treated wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50193
A previously described physical model applicable to the leaching of any substance undergoing a first-order fixation reaction with wood is applied to the leaching of CCA components from unfixed wood. Using this model and laboratory leaching experiments with small wood samples immersed in water, the diffusion coefficients and reaction rate constant of Cr6+, total Cr, Cu and As in unfixed CCA-treated...
L Waldron, P A Cooper

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