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Di-sodium fluorophosphate, a new fluorine containing, water-borne wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 3373
The physical, chemical properties of Di-sodiumfluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are compared with those of a trade-mark SF-salt. The opposition of biological activity and toxicological data showed that Di-sodiumfluorophosphate may be a suitable alternative to SF-salts ( based on MgSiF6).
D Seepe, W Metzner


Discussion of diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for wood preservatio
1987 - IRG/WP 3425
The effectiveness of diiodomethyl-p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for preservation of wood is supported by a discussion of results from the literature and current research programs.
J M Stamm, K J Littel, F M H Casati, M B Friedman


Chlorodioxines dans le pentachlorophénol
1975 - IRG/WP 346
H Alliot


Tebuconazole - Efficiacy, toxicity, physical properties
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30093
An overview ahout the physical properties and toxicology of tebuconazole as well as an update of efficacy data of this triazole are given.
H-U Buschhaus


Fipronil - le nouvel insecticide de Rhone Poulenc pour la preservation du bois
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30078
After the 3rd International Symposium in Cannes '95. More trial results and practical information on FIPRONIL, this new insecticide from Rhone Poulenc for Wood Preservation and PCO.
M G E J Van Maanen


Tolylfluanid - fungicide against blue stain in service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3736
Physical and chemical properties and efficacy of Tolylfluanid are compared with the properties of Dichlofluanid. Whereas the difference in the molecular structure influences the physical properties significantly, the efficacy of both fungicides is comparable. The toxicological and ecotoxicological profile of Tolylfluanid is summarised.
H-U Buschhaus


Chlorodioxins in pentachlorophenol
1975 - IRG/WP 346 E
At the 6th meeting of the IRG/WP plenary group held on 20 June, 1974, in Vienna, Mr Richardson expressed some concern about dioxins which might be contained as impurities in pentachlorophenol and in sodium pentachlorophenoxide or which might be formed during the combustion of treated wood. He mentioned the malformations that have been noted in Vietnam due to the teratogenic action of the 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contained in certain preparations of the 2, 4, 5 trichlorophenol used in defoliants. He also raised the question about analogous risks that might come from the presence of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in pentachlorophenol. I specified that work has been carried out on this subject and that the octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin could in no way be compared to tetra and presented practically no danger considering the doses at which it could be found in pentachlorophenol; consequently no action needed to be taken against it. As stated in point 31 of the minutes of the plenary group meeting, it seemed necessary to me to take stock of the question and to evaluate the possible influence of the presence of chlorodioxins in pentachlorophenol or its sodium salt or even in the combustion products of treated wood. This is the subject of this communication. It is seen that the conclusions are reassuring and they can be summarised in 3 points: (1) Pentachlorophenol does not contain 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin which is by far the most toxic and dangerous chlorodioxin. (2) The chlorodioxins that might be found in pentachlorophenol are the octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin which has no teratogenic action and is practically non-toxic at the doses at which it is found in pentachlorophenol, and, in much smaller quantities the hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin which is 1,000 to 100 times less toxic and less teratogenic than the 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (3) The combustion of wood treated with pentachlorophenol or with sodium pentachlorophenoxide does not lead to the- formation of chlorodioxin, but on the contrary, tends to decrease the quantity in relation to that contained in the wood before burning.
H Alliot


The Chemical and Biological Properties of Polymeric Betaine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30512
Didecyl polyoxyethyl ammonium borate (DPAB), also known as Polymeric Betaine, was developed as a co-biocide for chromium-free copper based wood preservatives in Europe in the 1980’s. DPAB as a wood preservative has been reported previously. This paper summarizes the chemical, physical, and biological properties of DPAB.
H Härtner, S Schmitt, Futong Cui, H M Barnes


Heat treated timber in Finland
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40158
Heat treatment permanently changes the physical and chemical properties of wood by means of high temperatures (150 - 240°C). Heat treatment darkens the colour of the wood. Heat treatment improves the equilibrium moisture content of the wood and the shrinkage and swelling of the wood is reduced. Very high temperatures improve the resistance to rot and also reduce the susceptibility to fungal decay. At the same time the strength properties of the timber are reduced: the bending strength can fall by 30%, depending on the treatment conditions and the cleavage strength (tensile strength perpendicular to fibres) may be reduced to a half, which makes heat treated timber split easily. The improved characteristics of heat treated timber offer the timber product industry many potential and attractive new opportunities. Also wood species having no commercial value as such can be heat treated and in this way new uses can be found for these species.
T Syrjänen, E Kangas


Investigation of some technical properties of heat-treated wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40266
The objective of this study was to investigate some technical properties of heat-treated wood. Wood heat-treated according to a process intended for wood in above-ground end-uses (European hazard class 3) was subject to the following: · A delamination test according to EN 391 with glulam beams made of heat-treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) laminations, assembled with PRF and PVAc adhesive respectively. · Determination of the withdrawal load for screws and nails. · Determination of the emission factor for VOC and the identification of major compounds. Results: · PRF adhesive performed very well whereas PVAc adhesive showed an unacceptable percentage of delamination and thus seems to be unsuitable for gluing heat-treated wood. · There is an indication that the withdrawal load for heat-treated wood is generally lower than for untreated wood. However, the number of tests carried out was quite small and definitive conclusions are difficult to draw. · The emission factor for the heat-treated wood, expressed as TVOC, was less than 10 µg/(m2 x h) and this was less than for untreated reference.
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, A Clang, B Ek-Olausson


The use of TCMTB in applications other than sapstain prevention: A review
1990 - IRG/WP 3606
The efficacy of TCMTB against staining fungi and surface moulds has been thoroughly investigated during the last decade. As a result, the chemical is used as an alternative to the chlorinated phenols in various parts of the world for the preservation of freshly sawn timber. Less known are the data obtained against brown rot, white rot and soft rot fungi. The termite repellent and bactericidal properties of the chemical widen the scope of application possibilities. The objective of this article is to report on the data actually available.
R Van der Eynde


Bifenthrin, a new insecticide for the control of termites and wood-boring insects
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30076
Bifenthrin, a new insecticidal compound Bifenthrin has been extensively tested, to determine its potential use to control termites and other wood destroying insects. Bifenthrin is effective at extreme low rates which can minimize human and environmental exposure to the product. Results of tests carried out by several research institutes and by FMC in different countries will be presented. The physical and chemical properties of bifenthrin, such as chemical stability, compatibility with fungicides, odour, vapour pressure, solubility in solvents, as well as pH-independency are favourable. In addition, several formulations are available for bifenthrin, some of which are tested in these tests. Extensive toxicological, eco-toxicological and product chemistry files have been compiled in accordance within OECD and EPA guidelines. The achieved results confirm that bifenthrin offers potential as a valuable tool for protecting wood against these pests.
G Rustenburg


Effects of a formaldehyde and sulphur dioxide treatment on decay and mechanical properties of aspen waferboard
1983 - IRG/WP 3242
Aspen wafers were sequentially treated under vacuum with formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide gas and pressed into waferboard bonded with powdered phenol formaldehyde resin. Decay resistance and strength properties were determined before and after simulated weathering. The water resistance of the phenol bonding system was lost in board made from the gas-treated wafers. This white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor was unable to decay treated waferboard in a soil block test, but the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria placenta decayed the samples as severely as untreated controls.
E L Schmidt


Evaluation of chlorpyrifos as an insecticidal component of a wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3301
After two years of laboratory and field testing, chlorpyrifos is showing excellent potential as an insecticidal treatment to wood. In laboratory termite tests, retentions as low as 1-2 parts-per-million or approximately 0.0008 kg/m³ (0.00005 lbs/ft³) are effective against the Coptotermes formosanus. Laboratory leaching tests have shown no significant effect on the concentration of the retained chlorpyrifos. Pressure treatments and dip treatments, as an aqueous emulsion or oil solution, have resulted in good penetration of effective concentrations. Combinations of chlorpyrifos and various fungicides are being evaluated.
K Rose, J Kozuma, P Sparrow


Properties of hot oil treated wood and the possible chemical reactions between wood and soybean oil during heat treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40304
Thermal treatment with hot oil as the heating media based on the original idea from oil-heat treatment in Germany was investigated. The treatment was mainly carried out at 200ºC and 220ºC for 2 hours and 4 hours, and the wood species were mainly spruce and fir. This paper focuses on the difference between soybean oil and palm oil and the possible chemical reactions between wood and soybean oil. Generally palm oil was slightly better than soybean oil in improving the moisture resistance properties of heat-treated wood. But soybean oil treated wood appeared to have better decay and mould resistance. The mass loss of wood treated in soybean oil at 220ºC for 4 hours was below 20 % after exposure to Gloeophyllum trabeum in a soil block test, so the treated wood can be classified as “Resistant” according to ASTM D 2017 standards. Natural weathering exposure also shows that soybean oil treated wood is more mould resistant than palm oil treated wood. In order to investigate the effects of absorbed oil on the properties of treated wood and the possible reactions between wood and oils, extraction of different vegetable oil treated wood with chloroform and other solvents was carried out. The results suggest that part of the soybean oil could undergo chemical reactions with wood that renders it of low extractability.
Jieying Wang, P A Cooper


Effects of alkali treatment on some mechanical and chemical properties of creosote treated oaks
1991 - IRG/WP 2366
To date, there is a lack of information on the effects of chemical treatment on the performance of creosote preservative treated oak sleepers. This factorial experiment was designed to analyze three main effects: species (Quercus alba and Quercus rubra) creosote treatment (treated and untreated), and alkali (NaOH) soaking (0, 1, and 10 percent). The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and fiber stress at proportional limit in compression perpendicular to grain, hardness modulus, surface hardness, alcohol-benzene extractives, hot-water extractives, 1% NaOH extractives, lignin, pentosans, holocellulose, and alpha-cellulose content were determined on specimens. The test results indicated that species, creosote treatment, and alkali soaking significantly affect both the mechanical and chemical properties of the oak sleepers.
P Chow, A J Reinschmidt, E J Barenberg, L C Chang


Suitability of cyfluthrin in wood protection
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3735
Cyfluthrin, a well-known and in agriculture and household widely used insecticide based on synthetic pyrethroides, is evaluated now concerning its suitability as insecticide in wood protection. An overview about the physical and chemical properties is given. Test results in accordance with European standards show the high efficacy and broad-spectrum activity of Cyfluthrin against wood rotting insects and termites. Important toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are summarised and a list of compatible, typical fungicides is given.
H-U Buschhaus


The effects of chemical modification on the physical properties of alder and spruce particleboards
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40300
In this paper, it was aimed to improve some physical properties of chemically modified particleboard, made from spruce and alder species, spreading widely at Black sea region in Turkey. Spruce and alder chips were reacted with acetic, succinic, maleic and phthalic anhydrides at constantly heat for 3 hours then, hot pressed at 150 °C by using Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin. Target board density was 650 kg/m3. Density, moisture content, thickness swelling and water absorption rate were determined on the chemically modified boards, reacted with four different anhydrides. Results were compared with control boards. Chemical modification of boards reacted with anhydrides resulted in improved thickness swelling and water absorption values. The best results were determined boards reacted with acetic and succinic anhydride treatments than the others.
E Dizman, Ü C Yildiz, H Kalaycioglu, S Yildiz, A Temiz, E D Gezer


Oxine copper (NYTEK® GD) for the control of mould and sapstain on lumber in North America
1989 - IRG/WP 3517
NYTEK® GD is a new, water-based, micro-dispersible formulation of oxine copper registered in the United States and Canada for control of mold and sapstain-causing fungi. NYTEK GD is noncorrosive and of low hazard to applicators and people handling treated lumber, when used according to the label. The product is an effective wood protectant applied as a dip or spray treatment at concentrations of 0.32-0.63% ai (by wt.) on major species of lumber including hem-fir and southern pine. The duration of activity is 4-6 months on artificially inoculated wood incubated in environments that encourage fungal development. Shorter duration control may be observed on Douglas fir. Efficacy is improved by a tank mixture with 2% borate. The unique combination of safety, noncorrosiveness, and efficacy make NYTEK GD a sound alternative to penta-and tetrachlorophenates for wood protection.
D F Myers, J M Fyler, C H Palmer, G D Rosebery


Study of the degradation caused by micro-organisms in Pinus sp. waterlogged wood
1989 - IRG/WP 1411
So far, the different Centers are trying the restoration and the conservation of wood structures, coming from subaquatic archeological deposits, with interest from the historic - artistic point of view. The main objective of this paper has been the determination of the decay level of Pinus sp. wood coming from a roman ship (approximately 2000 years old), where we have analyzed their physical properties, their chemical composition and the marine microorganisms (microfungi and bacteria) within.
M T De Troya, M C Escorial, J Garcia, A Cabanas


Improvement of intrinsic properties of wood by chemical wood densification - Hydrophobic aspects and durability aspects
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40149
To improve the intrinsic properties of Scot pine wood ((1) hydrophobic surface and (2) durability), two ways of chemical modification have been tested. The first one is the chemical modification of hydroxyl groups by active substances like diisocyanate compounds with a copolymerization step. The second way is a densification by an impregnation of resins and a gamma polymerisation. This second way is described and discussed in this paper The measured parameters are (1) the hydrophobic properties of the surface based on permeability measurements and (2) the biological durability against wood decaying fungi and (3) the weathering behaviour. Significant results are presented and discussed to promote another way of wood preservation based on densification by resins.
G Labat, Q K Tran, I Le Bayon


Tebuconazole - A new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 3629
The main cause of economic damage to timber and millwork worldwide are Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot). After testing a wide range of triazole derivatives for their effectiveness against decay fungi, Tebuconazole, a triazole compound, was selected. The physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological data of this substance are described. Tebuconazole is unleachable, light-stable, heat-stable and suitable for use in both solvent-borne and water-borne formulations. Tests carried out by official institutes show that Tebuconazole is resistant to both leaching and evaporation. Toxic values measured in accordance with EN 113 and EN 73 (e.g. Gloeophyllum trabeum: 0.03-0.08 kg/m³ a.i.) reveals the great potential of Tebuconazole to protect treated wood against decay fungi.
R Gründlinger, O Exner


IPBC - A new fungicide for wood protection
1984 - IRG/WP 3295
3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) is presented as a potential low toxic alternative to pentachlorophenol and the sodium chlorophenoxides. Data on its effect against basidiomycetes is shown. Tests according to both the European standard method, EN-113, and American, ASTM D-413, have shown its potential. The chemical gives protection against both the wood destroying fungi, blue stain, mould and algae. It is possible to have it formulated in both water-based and organic solvent-based products. Treatment of wood out of ground contact (vac-vac products, pretreatment products, primers, stains, etc.) and sapstain control are some of the most potential end use areas within wood protection. Besides wood protection, the IPBC is used as a fungicide in paint, adhesives, caulks and sealants, cement, leather, paper, cutting oil, ink and in different roofing materials.
J Hansen


Evaluation of the effectiveness of defence anti-stain in the control of sapstain in laboratory and field tests
1990 - IRG/WP 3593
The anti-sapstain product Defence Anti-stain (DAS) has been evaluated internationally in laboratory and field tests during the years 1988 and 1989. Results of tests carried out by institutes and by own companies in countries like Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and Spain will be presented. In the several tests Defence Anti-stain showed a high fungicidal activity to sapstain and mould fungi on wood. The product is a promising alternative to sodium pentachlorophenoxide from biological and other product characteristics point of view.
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver


Suitability of propiconazole (R 49362) as a new-generation fungicide
1989 - IRG/WP 3529
Propiconazole (R 49362), an anti-fungal triazole-compound of Janssen Pharmaceutica, has been extensively tested to determine its potential use as a wood preserving fungicide. Various tests in both private laboratories and official institutes indicate a good activity against Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot) and Ascomycetes (blue stain-in-service). The active ingredient seems very resistant to weathering (leaching and evaporation). The compound shows a good lateral penetration into wood. Following mean toxic values (kg a.i./m³ wood) can be given: Coniophora puteana: 0.27-0.39, Gloeophyllum trabeum: 0.37-0.49, Poria placenta: < 0.22 and Coriolus versicolor: 0.25-0.33. Propiconazole does not break down in solventborne and waterborne formulations when exposed to various temperatures. The fungicide is stable in treated wood and can be traced back by using HPLC-or GC-methods. An extensive toxicological and ecotoxicological file has been composed according to OECD and EPA guidelines
A R Valcke


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