Your search resulted in 26 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Effects of a chitin synthesis inhibitor on spore germination of the decay fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria tenuis
1986 - IRG/WP 2253
This study sought to determine the effect of a chitin synthesis inhibitor - Polyoxin D, on spore germination and early hyphal development of a brown rot and a white rot fungus in-vitro. Polyoxin D is a competitive, substrate-analogue type of chitin synthtase inhibitor (2). The drawbacks to use of such a compound as a wood preservative tie. cost - $20,000/g, possible leaching or degradation) might ...
E L Schmidt
Evaluating the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System in Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20267
The Exterraä Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex Inc., Fayetteville, NC) was evaluated in a field experiment near Townsville, Australia. Cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% weight/weight (w/w) or 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron (Requiemä) was tested for its efficacy in eradicating colonies of the mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Thirte...
B C Peters, S Broadbent
How predictive are laboratory experiments for assessing the effects of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) on field colonies of terrnites? - A comparison of laboratory and field data from Australian mound-building species of termit
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10143
A singular advantage of using mound building species of termite is their directly accessible nest. This allows evaluation of control methods by accurate assessment of the effects at the colony level. The mound building species Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) were used to test the CSI, hexaflumuron, in laboratory and field trials. Laboratory results showed tha...
M Lenz, P V Gleeson, L R Miller, H M Abbey
Intrigue Dust - A new method of eradicating subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colonies
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10396
Arsenic trioxide is used by pest controllers in Australia to eradicate subterranean termite colonies. In 2000 Bayer Australia introduced Intrigue Termite Dust as a more environmentally acceptable alternative. Intrigue, containing 80% triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, disrupts the moulting process in termites. Dusted termites return to the nest and pass around triflumuron via mutual groomi...
Insect growth regulators: modes of action and mode of action-dependent peculiarities in the evaluation of the efficacy for their use in wood preservation
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30155
Up to now, the insecticides used in wood preservation are either of more or less non-specific mode of action - like boron - or of neurotoxic mode of action - like chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbamates and pyrethroids. The active ingredients actually used are primarily mirroring the progress in active ingredient research in plant protection. The methods of testing of the insecticidal efficacy of woo...
Efficacy of triflumuron dust against Schedorhinotermes intermedius (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30226
Insecticidal dusts have been used against termites for decades, with arsenic dust being the standard in Australia. While fair success over the years has been achieved against genera such as Coptotermes and Nasutitermes, Schedorhinotermes has been much more difficult to control. This genus has nests which are very difficult to locate and thus it is problematic to determine whether a treatment has b...
W Madden, P Hadlington, M Hill
Laboratory evaluation comparing three commercial termite baits based on chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSIs) against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10625
This laboratory bioassay report describes laboratory evaluation undertaken to compare the efficacy, and palatability of Requiem®, Nemesis® and Sentricon® AG as candidate bait toxicants against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt. The laboratory bioassay results confirmed palatability and efficacy differences between the three comm...
Laboratory Evaluation of Flurox, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, as a Bait Toxicant Against Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri ) (Isoptera: Termitidae)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30477
Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) is the most economically destructive termite in structures in southwest, Iran . One sustainable control strategy that usually help in reducing the subterranean termite damage in buildings , which is safe to the user and the environment is the use of IGRs in a suitable bait matrix. In the laboratory assays described here, the delayed toxicity of Flurox (a Chitin...
The potential of 2-deoxy-D-glucose as an active ingredient in wood preservation
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30205
2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) is a potential active ingredient against wood decaying fungi. When dissolved in water, it can be used in pressure treatment of wood. Thereby the wood is protected from attack by wood decaying fungi. A concentration of 1.5% (mean retention 9.7 kg/cubic meter sap-wood) is adequate for brown rot fungi, and 3% (mean retention 19.5 kg/cubic meter sapwood) will also provide protection against white rot fungi. 2-DOG is easily soluble in water, and is therefore easily leached from the wood upon completion of the preservation process. Different types of fixa-tion methods have been tried and evaluated. It is possible to produce 2-DOG by the hydrolysis of chitin, a constituent of the exterior skeleton of shellfish and insects. There is a potential for exploita-tion of this waste product provided by the crab and shrimp industry. The yield of 1 kg of fresh shrimp is 75 g of 2-DOG.
O V Frederiksen, A P Koch
Termiticidal chemicals derived from tropical tree resins
1991 - IRG/WP 1477
To test the hypothesis that defensive chemicals protect tropical primary forest trees against biological attack, a bioassay and fractionation program was conducted in Indonesia. Fresh dipterocarp resins were fed in no-choice tests to Neotermes dalbergiae termites on 4.5 cm filter papers, or tested for inhibition of fungal growth. Fractionation of biologically active resins via flash column chromat...
A Messer, K McCormick, D Richardson, Sunjaya, H Hagedorn, J Meinwald
N-tritylmorpholine as a potential marine wood protectant against teredinids and pholads - A preliminary evaluation
1983 - IRG/WP 497
The molluscicide, N-tritylmorpholine, is effective in eradicating certain fresh water snails, the intermediate hosts in the transmission of schistosomiasis in man. This preliminary study shows that N-tritylmorpholine is also active against wood-boring marine mollusks. Fine sapwood impregnated with this morpholino compound was not damaged by teredinids or pholads while exposed at two marine sites i...
J D Bultman, K K Parrish
Remediation of CCA-treated wood by chitin and chitosan
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50229
Chitin and chitosan are naturally abundant biopolymers which are interest of to research concerning the sorption of metal ions since the amine and hydroxyl groups on their chemical structures act as chelation sites for metal ions. This study evaluated the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic elements from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood via biosorption by chitin and chitosan. Expo...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura
Hemicellulosic induction of oxalic acid in Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10060
Most studies suggest that enzymes produced by brown-rot fungi are too large to penetrate sound wood structures, even after decay begins. Thus, nonenzymatic agents have been proposed to initiate brown-rot decay. We have reported that the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-698 initiates a 2-fold decrease in wood pH within 7 days of colonization which is mediated by production of oxalic acid. Strai...
F Green III, M Larsen, T L Highley
Effect of Volatiles from Trichoderma species on the regulation of protein synthesis in Serpula lacrymans isolates
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10440
The growth of wood decay fungi has previously been shown to be inhibited by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Trichoderma isolates. No mechanism of action has however been established for such inhibition. This paper reports the effects of VOCs produced by Trichoderma pseudokoningii, T. viride and T. aureoviride on the growth of four dry rot isolates and corresponding protein synthesi...
S Humphris, R Wheatley, E Buultjens, A Bruce
Chitin synthetase activity in cellular fractions of wood-decay fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1524
This study was an attempt to explain the variability of in vivo sensitivity of wood decay fungi to the chitin synthetase (CS) inhibitor, polyoxin, by comparing CS distribution in cellular fractions. The five species studied were the brown-rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Fibuloporia vaillantii, and the white-rot fungi Schizophyllum commune and Ganoderma applanatum. The CS activi...
B R Johnson, S C Croan, B Illman
Synthesis of boric acid ammonium oleate salt for wood preservation: Leachability and termite resistance test
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30435
A new chemical compound coupling boric acid and oleic acid through a joint of ammonium salt has been produced and its synthesis followed and validated by Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR). This compound named ammonium borate oleate (BAO) combining biocidal properties of boron and water repellence of fatty acids has then been studied as a wood preservative. Synthesis of BAO involved different...
F Lyon, A Pizzi, Y Imamura, M F Thevenon, S N Kartal, J Gril
Wood preservative obtained by recycling – preliminary selection of leaching inhibitor
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50252
Based on recycling of used household batteries, a process was developed to enable the recovery of major manufacturing components, leading to a solution of zinc (32 g.l-1) and manganese (15 g.l-1) salts, free of heavy metals. The potential use of the above solution as wood preservative was demonstrated by means of assays both of fungicidal activity -using white and brown rot fungi- and of insectici...
C Ibáñez, C Mantero, G Cecchetto, M Rabinovich, M Cerdeiras
Durability and fungal colonisation patterns in wood samples after six years in soil contact evaluated with qPCR, microscopy, TGA, chitin- and ergosterol assays
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20402
There is a need to establish new objective and sensitive methods for early detection and quantification of decay fungi in wood materials. Molecular methods have proven to be a useful tool within wood protection issues, however, this field is still poorly explored and so far relatively few have used these methods within the field of wood deterioration. Among the techniques used in the indirect quan...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, I Børja, C Björdal
Synthesis of a rosin amide and its resistance to wood decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30517
Rosin was reacted with diethyltriamine (DETA) after being modified by acryl acid with the weight ratio of 4.5:1 and a rosin amide (RA) derivative was produced at the conditions as follows: modified rosin and DETA mole ratio of 1:3.5, dimethylbenzene as water carrying agent, reaction temperature of 160-180°C, and reaction time of 8h. The chemical structure of the product as RA was identified by F...
Shuangyue Li, Shujun Li, Jing Wang
Synthesis of novelty borate compounds for wood preservatives: Laboratory test of leachability and decay resistance
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30520
A novel series of ammonium tetraphenylborate (ATB) and borate chemical compounds (BBC) were synthesized as wood preservatives. The leaching rates and decay resistance of boron formulations containing ATB and BBC were conducted. The laboratory leaching results showed that boron leaching rate of treated wood by ATB formulations was from 2.1% - 6.7%, while that of BBC formulations from 23.3% -59.0%. ...
Zhiqiang Li, Mingliang Jiang, Xingxia Ma
Design, synthesis, characterisation and effectiveness of ‘Locked-in-Boron’ chemicals for H3.2 level of wood protection
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30577
Boratrane molecules with five-membered and six-membered molecular ring systems, and with various ring substituents were synthesised, characterised and formulated for wood treatment for accelerated laboratory bioassays using wood decay fungi as test organisms. Six-membered ring boratranes showed lower efficacy in laboratory assays than five-membered ring boratranes. One alkyl-substituted boratran...
R Franich, H Kroese, S Gallagher, S Hill, B Kelly, G Billett, R Meder, W Rae
Using an accelerated laboratory method to evaluate Aureobasidium pullulans colonization on painted surfaces and underlying wood substrate
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20480
Mold growth on painted surfaces can lead to premature paint film failure and is unsightly. Aureobasidium pullulans has been identified as a major cause of black stain on surfaces painted with acrylic or latex paints. In this study, an accelerated laboratory method developed by Zabel and Horner (1981) was used with modifications to the type of agar used and sample evaluation methods. A study was ...
C Schauwecker, L Burns, A Preston
Mold Control for Treated Lumber in Block-Stack Storage Conditions
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30588
The mold development and control for freshly treated and block-stacked wood have been evaluated using a green house mold testing method. The results for the mold resistance of several commonly used water boron preservative treatment systems, such as ACQ, Copper Azole, and borates with and without inclusion of mold inhibitors are presented. The data suggest that the different preservative treatme...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A Preston
Lab-scale termite damage synthesis using least squares generative adversarial networks
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20674
This manuscript investigated the feasibility of least squares generative adversarial networks (LSGAN) to generate synthetic images of lab-scale termite damage based on AWPA E1 standard, to push machine-learning forward into wood science field and to ameliorate the lack of a termite damage dataset. We leveraged LSGAN to learn the distribution of 203 uniquely termite damaged samples from previous ex...
D J V Lopes
A new approach to wood protection: Potential of biologically synthesised CuO and ZnO nanoparticle formulation as a wood preservative
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30758
Even though metal nanoparticles are effective in protecting wood, they are less preferred, as they are synthesised using methods which are expensive and are not environmentally friendly. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using plants, fungi, yeast, bacteria and viruses, has been accepted as an alternative approach and is referred to as green synthesis. Utilization of biologically synthesised n...
Shiny K S, R Sundararaj, N Mamatha