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Your search resulted in 41 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


In-service performance of wood depends upon the critical in-situ conditions. Case studies.
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20382
Wood is a unique building material, but is by nature designed to deteriorate. A detailed understanding of the factors and interactions involved are important when working with service life prediction of wooden components in buildings. Wood may experience exponential fungal degradation caused by variation in the climatic factors within a small limited area and by minor imperfection in the wooden ...
L Ross Gobakken, J Mattsson, G Alfredsen


Effects of climatic factors and material properties on mould growth on untreated wooden claddings
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10884
Mould growth is an important contributor to colour change of untreated wood exposed outdoors. Predicting the development of mould growth is therefore important to ensure successful use of untreated wood as a façade material. More knowledge about the factors affecting mould growth on outdoor exposed wood is required to give better predictions. In this study, climatic factors and material propertie...
S Karlsen Lie, G I Vestøl, O Høibø, L Ross Gobakken


Occurrence of synanthropic beetles (Coleoptera Ptinidae) and checkered beetles (Coleoptera Cleridae) in relation to climatic factors in historical buildings from North-Eastern Germany
2021 - IRG/WP 21-10980
Predatory checkered beetles occur in many historical buildings. Thus, it is essential to learn more about the ecology of these beetles, specifically for their further use as suitable beneficial organisms in biological control of wood-destroying insects. In this study, indoor climatic conditions were examined as a major factor influencing their occurrence and that of their prey Anobium punctatum an...
C Baar, C von Laar, M Willert, H Bombeck


Factors affecting leaching of preservatives in practice
1978 - IRG/WP 3113
At the 7th Meeting of the IRG in Poland in May 1975, the findings of collaborative laboratory leaching techniques were discussed, and the dangers inherent in using such results to predict the behaviour of preservative-treated components in service were emphasised. In order to improve our understanding of the factors governing leaching of preservatives in practice, and to identify areas where furth...
R Cockcroft, R A Laidlaw


The present classification of wood degradation factors
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10071
The revised version of classification of wood degradation factors is presented after discussion and remarks sended by IRG-Members. The classification contains the biotic and abiotic factors in two aspects: etiological and symptomatical....
J Wazny


Factors affecting the sorption of preservative during diffusion treatment of wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3500
The sorption of preservative into wood during soaking in aqueous solution was found to comprise absorption as well as diffusion of solute. Absorption was increased by partially seasoning the wood prior to soaking and was characterised by (a) a very rapid initial rate of uptake and (b) an extended period of slow uptake, the rate of which varied with prior conditioning. It was concluded that some pa...
P Vinden


The present classification of wood degradation factors
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10031
Contemporary classification of biotic and abiotic wood degradation factors is presented in two aspects: etiological and simptomatical one....
J Wazny


Influence of abiotic factors on the production of Basidiocarps by lignocellulolitic Hymenomycetes from native forest and plantations of Pinus elliottii Engelm in the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo, Brazil
1991 - IRG/WP 1469
A report on the influence of abiotic factors on the production of basidiocarps by lignocellulotic Hymenomycetes of native forest and Pinus elliottii. It was concluded that the climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, microhabitat) and the decay stage of the logs affected the production of basidiocarps by Hymenomycetes....
M Aparecida de Jesus


Controlled fixation technology
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-12
Controlled fixation techniques have been developed and adopted in a number of countries where chromium containing preservatives are predominantly used. The purpose of this technology is to reduce both on-site pollution and holding requirements for freshly treated timber. The fixation mechanism is complex and the time taken to complete the reaction is dependent upon a number of factors. A number of...
M Connell, W J Baldwin, T Smith


Chemical, physical and biological factors affecting wood decomposition in forest soils
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20281
Organic matter (OM) decomposition is an important variable in determining the potential of forest soils to sequester atmospheric CO2. Studies using OM from a particular location gives site-specific decomposition information, but differences in OM type and quality make it difficult to compare results among soils and forest ecosystems. By using a “standard” OM in decomposition studies, OM qual...
M Jurgensen, P Laks, D Reed, A Collins, D Page-Dumroese, D Crawford


Moisture uptake and volumetric swelling as probable factors also affecting leaching in CCA-treated wood. A preliminary study of treated Eucalyptus saligna sapwood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30318 IRG/WP 03-30318
A number of factors affecting leaching of CCA from treated wood have been variously investigated and discussed. However, the possible effects of moisture movement in treated timbers on leaching have not received attention yet. The present study examines and compares moisture uptake and volumetric swelling in CCA-treated and untreated sapwood of Eucalyptus saligna, and tries to establish a correl...
R Venkatasamy


Investigation on different variation factors in the results of mycological test and means to reduce and avoid them
1986 - IRG/WP 2264
In order to clarify the causes of the dispersion observed in the results obtained with mycological tests made in accordance with standard EN-113, different factors assumed to be sources of the variations were studied. These included the moisture content of the test samples during the test, the influence of certain technological properties of the wood, the virulence of the fungus strains, the metho...
D Dirol


Attractive factors of steam-treated larch wood to termite feeding
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10256
The hot water extractives from steam-treated Japanese larch wood were studied to understand the chemical properties of attractive factors of the treated wood to feeding behavior of a subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus. Hot water extractives were fractionated and analyzed using chromatography, gel filtration, and NMR methods. The stimulants yielded by the steam treatment were comprised o...
S Doi, Y Kurimoto, W Ohmura, M Aoyama, S Ohara


Some factors affecting the treatability of spruce roundwood with ammoniacal preservative solutions
1976 - IRG/WP 371
Permeable wood species for use in preservative-treated commodities are becoming depleted in Canada. Spruce can be a convenient replacement for them from local resources provided it can be treated to levels adequate for protection of commodities in ground contact. Basically, two approaches were taken to improve treatability of difficult-to-penetrate softwood species; first, to improve the permeabil...
J Rak


A Review of the Factors Affecting Permeability in Softwoods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40278
This paper reviews the literature discussing some of the qualities and properties of softwood that characterise its refractory nature and influence its treatability. This review covers mainly the period of 1954 to 1997. Literature prior to this period is included where it is thought that existing reviews have not adequately reported the subject matter or alternatively to provide background informa...
I Usta


Biostatic film as a primary treatment against pole failure in soil
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40053
Field liners of low density polyethylene (LDPE) film applied as primary treatment of soil-contact surfaces of creosote-treated poles prevented their detoxification and premature failure by establishing hurdles against microbiological colonisation. These hurdles include low water activity, low oxygen tension and nutrient limitations. Moreover, under conditions of high soil moisture, field trials sh...
A A W Baecker, M Behr


Factors affecting resistance to sapstain infection in freshly felled softwood logs
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10467
Previous studies in the UK have shown a marked difference in the susceptibility of logs of five softwood species to infection by sapstain fungi over a 4 month field trial. Recently this result has been confirmed and the rank order of greatest to least susceptibility in these commercially important species is lodgepole pine > Scots pine > Norway spruce > Japanese larch > Sitka spruce. C...
E J Young, R A Eaton, J F Webber, M A W Hill


Field test design for service life prediction of wooden components
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20308
Wood is predominantly degraded by organisms. Thus, compared to other building materials, service life of wooden material is influenced by many more factors, which are divided into direct and indirect factors. Climate, geographical position, and construction criteria count to the indirect decay factors. Besides material inherent properties (natural durability, wood preservatives), wood temperature...
A O Rapp, C Brischke


A non-pressure method of protection based on hurdle theory to control the spectrum of internal environmental factors which affect the decay of poles in soil contact
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20005
A field trial was conducted to establish whether superficial barrier linings on poles in soil contact could function as environmental hurdles against the growth of biological agents and thus provide preventative methodology to preclude premature failure of vineyard poles under flood-irrigation. Assessment after 52 weeks exposure to the prevailing conditions and sub-tropical environment showed that...
A A W Baecker


Factors affecting decay rates in a fungus cellar II
1986 - IRG/WP 2259
Tests were initiated to investigate the influence of various factors on the decay rate in a "Fungus Cellar". Birch and pine stakes treated with chromated copper arsenate and didecyldimethyl ammronium chloride, as well as untreated control stakes, were incubated in two soils in a Fungus Cellar test and installed at two field sites for comparative purposes. The visual rating vs actual stake weight l...
P A McKaig


Effect of climate, species, preservative concentration and water repellent on leaching from CCA-treated lumber exposed above ground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50178
Few studies have examined leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) from treated wood in above ground exposures due to the assumption that leaching is less severe compared to wood in continuous contact with soil or water. However, a significant portion of CCA treated wood is used for above ground applications, exposing considerable volumes of the preservative to precipitation and potential leach...
J L Taylor, P A Cooper


An investigation of the factors influencing the rate of deterioration of timber samples due to microfungi in laboratory tests
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20116
An investigation was performed into the comparative performances of test 1 (vermiculite burial) and test 2 (soil burial) as described in ENV 807. Two test preservatives were used - copper naphthenate and propiconazole. Copper chromate was included as a reference preservative. The wood species used was beech (Fagus sylvatica). Test 1 was performed using both a mixed inoculation of the five stipulat...
I J Herring, D J Dickinson, S M Gray, J K Carey


Industrial fixation systems: key factors, limitations and optimisation through the use of computer simulation modelling. Discussion paper
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40026
This paper briefly describes four fixation operative in the Netherlands, namely: circulating and non-circulating steam fixation cylinders, steam fixation chambers and controlled climate rooms. The general limitations of industrial practice are reviewed against the background of established fixation theory. The controlling variables, both material and process-related, for fixation processing are sp...
A J Pendlebury, M Riepen, M J Boonstra, W Gard


Working plan: Second international collaborative field trial
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20056
This paper describes the scope, objectives, and approaches to be used in the second international collaborative field trial approved by the Scientific Programme Committee for partial funding in 1994. The trial is designed to develop a broad data base on causal mechanisms, interactions, and factor affecting the performance of treated wood in ground contact. The trial encompasses 12 different field ...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey


An analysis of the effects of some factors on the natural durability of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies Karst.)
1986 - IRG/WP 1279
The effects of some factors on the natural resistance of pine and spruce sapwood against fungal decay and against attack of house-longhorn beetle larvae have been studied in laboratory tests and the results are evaluated by analysis of variance and regression analysis. Following conclusions were reached: Wood from summer-felled trees did not have a lower inherent natural durability against fungal ...
J B Boutelje, T Nilsson, S Rasmussen


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