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Climatic impacts on the moisture performance of wooden decking and facades
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20518
In outdoor usage wood is exposed to a variety of influences, which reduce its durability against biological deterioration and wetting. Besides many other factors the service life of wooden facades and cladding is dominated by occurring moisture loads on the one hand and their capability to withstand moisture on the other hand. Hence, climatic factors have a direct impact on the material climate an...
T Bornemann, C Brischke, G Alfredsen

What information can we glean from field testing
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20057
To mathematically compare the performance of preservatives in a field test, equations were formulated to describe the relation between log score and time and between rate of decay and retention. By combining these equations, a model was derived for the performance of a number of waterborne preservatives. Some relations between the estimated parameters for different preservatives were noted and the...
P I Morris, S Rae

Patterns of long-term performance - How well are they predicted from accelerated tests and should evaluations consider parameters other than averages?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20130
This paper is a discussion of whether different service-life distribution patterns of products treated with unlike preservatives can be predicted, modeled, characterized, or even anticipated from accelerated laboratory tests. Graphic displays of data from Forest Products Laboratory field plots with preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated stakes demonstrate the importance of local environme...
R C De Groot, J W Evans

Effect of soil parameters on biocide depletion: laboratory and field studies of water- and emulsion-borne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30234
Two field test sites with different soils were selected. Soil analysis showed that the soil at the two sites had considerable texture, base saturation, acidity, and cation exchange capacity differences. Five sets of field stakes were treated as follows: three with water-borne CCA to about 0.4 pcf (6.4 kgm-3) retention, one with 0.75% DDAC, and one with 0.75% DDAC:0.25% chlorothalonil. The last two...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, D E Pettry, M G Kim

Characterization of checks and cracks on the surface of weathered wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40153
The surface roughness of unweathered and untreated pine; unweathered copper chromium arsenate type C (CCA) - treated pine; weathered CCA-treated pine; and weathered CCA-plus-water-repellent (WR) - treated pine was evaluated by a stylus tracing method. Surface roughness parameters Ra, Rz, Rmax, Rk, Rpk, and Rvk were measured. Ra, Rpk, and Rvk were the most appropriate parameters for describing modi...
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang

Effect of climate, species, preservative concentration and water repellent on leaching from CCA-treated lumber exposed above ground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50178
Few studies have examined leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) from treated wood in above ground exposures due to the assumption that leaching is less severe compared to wood in continuous contact with soil or water. However, a significant portion of CCA treated wood is used for above ground applications, exposing considerable volumes of the preservative to precipitation and potential leach...
J L Taylor, P A Cooper

Status of Work on OECD Test Guidelines for Emissions of Wood Preservatives to the Environment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-3
In April, 2003, OECD published an ESD on wood preservatives that provides guidance on how to estimate emissions: 1) during the wood preservative application processes and storage of treated wood prior to shipment; and 2) from treated wood-in-service. The ad hoc Expert Group that developed the wood preservatives ESD identified the need to develop Test Guidelines to estimate the amount of biocides ...
W Jakob

Influence of different treatment parameters on penetration, retention and bleeding of creosote
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40255
Creosote is an extensively used preservative for transmission poles and sleepers. The purpose of this research was to investigate the treatment parameters necessary to achieve full sapwood penetration and minimum required retention and to avoid bleeding of creosote. It was carried out as a part of the European research project WOODPOLE. Transmission poles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) previo...
Ö Bergman

The influence of different creosote process parameters on penetration, retention and bleeding on glulam
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40368
Different process parameters were used to treat Scots Pine glulam beams with creosote. Parameters like pre-heating, pre-pressure time, pressure and pressure time were changed. Most treatments gave a full or almost full penetration of creosote into the sapwood, but the uptake of creosote in the sapwood varies. All samples, except the one with poor penetration, showed heavily bleeding of creosote ...
F G Evans

In-service performance of wood depends upon the critical in-situ conditions. Case studies.
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20382
Wood is a unique building material, but is by nature designed to deteriorate. A detailed understanding of the factors and interactions involved are important when working with service life prediction of wooden components in buildings. Wood may experience exponential fungal degradation caused by variation in the climatic factors within a small limited area and by minor imperfection in the wooden ...
L Ross Gobakken, J Mattsson, G Alfredsen

Colour change monitoring of photodegradation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) – a short term focus
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40442
Colour change monitoring of photodegradation is a quick and easy method for monitoring rates of photodegradation in timber. A study was undertaken to compare this technique to other monitoring methods, including microtensile strength changes and weight loss. Colour changes due to accelerated sunlight exposure were monitored using a Datacolor check spectrophotometer and compared with a set of contr...
V Sharratt, C A S Hill, D P R Kint

Critical parameters on moisture dynamics in relation to time of wetness as factor in service life prediction
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20555
The concept of natural durability or enhanced durability based on the presence of active ingredients having an impact on both fungi and insects is not the only parameter steering the material resistance. Complementary resistance to getting wet (wetting ability) and consequently the ease of drying afterwards will lead to a parameter related to the time a piece of wood will remain under such wet con...
J Van Acker, I De Windt, W Li, J Van den Bulcke

Effects of climatic factors and material properties on mould growth on untreated wooden claddings
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10884
Mould growth is an important contributor to colour change of untreated wood exposed outdoors. Predicting the development of mould growth is therefore important to ensure successful use of untreated wood as a façade material. More knowledge about the factors affecting mould growth on outdoor exposed wood is required to give better predictions. In this study, climatic factors and material propertie...
S Karlsen Lie, G I Vestøl, O Høibø, L Ross Gobakken

Degradation of Eucalyptus transmission poles varies across regions in Zambia
2018 - IRG/WP 18-30727
Evidence from literature shows that Eucalyptus poles treated with creosote last over 30 years before replacement. However, in Zambia, the life span of such poles has reduced to 5-10 years. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with degradation of treated Eucalyptus poles and how these varied across regions in the country. A total of 1200 poles were assessed in three differen...
P Ng’andwe, D Chungu, E Ncube

Quantifying the effect of microclimatic parameters on the moisture-induced decay risk of wooden structures
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20649
Wood exposed outdoors is prone to fungal degradation. Besides its material-inherent resistance, numerous factors are impacting on its service life with both, climate and design having a major effect. In addition, topography, shading, wind barriers, and other local parameters have an effect on the microclimatic conditions at site and therefore need to be quantified for service life prediction of wo...
L Emmerich, C Brischke

Occurrence of synanthropic beetles (Coleoptera Ptinidae) and checkered beetles (Coleoptera Cleridae) in relation to climatic factors in historical buildings from North-Eastern Germany
2021 - IRG/WP 21-10980
Predatory checkered beetles occur in many historical buildings. Thus, it is essential to learn more about the ecology of these beetles, specifically for their further use as suitable beneficial organisms in biological control of wood-destroying insects. In this study, indoor climatic conditions were examined as a major factor influencing their occurrence and that of their prey Anobium punctatum an...
C Baar, C von Laar, M Willert, H Bombeck

Longitudinal tensile shear properties of polyurethane-bonded preservative-impregnated Eucalyptus grandis laminates subjected to varied simulated climatic conditions
2023 - IRG/WP 23-40967
Bonding process adaptations have yielded improvements in the adhesive bonding of Eucalyptus grandis wood for manufacturing hardwood laminates. However, there are still concerns over the adhesive-bond performance, particularly preservative-impregnated E. grandis laminates, under exposure to varying climatic conditions. These concerns could limit the implementation of E. grandis laminates, especiall...
A A Alade, C B Wessels