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Community-wide suppression of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin – Search for the Holy Grail
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10674
In 2006, the Forest Products Laboratory, in collaboration with Alternative Pest Solutions Inc. and the UW-Madison Entomology department, developed a strategy for sustained suppression/elimination of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin. Our commitment includes a minimum of five years of active treatment followed by at least one year of monitoring. The Whitmire Micro-Gen Advance baiting system (a.i. 0.25% diflubenzuron) was chosen to be the main method of termite treatment in the Village as the collaborating pest control company had access to this system. The efficacy of these baiting treatment cartridges were assessed in field and laboratory situations. Initial results after the first treatment season suggested a significant effect of the active ingredient on R. flavipes populations as activity in the buildings located in the central treatment zone appeared to be eliminated. However, the two following treatment seasons seemed to show reduced effectiveness of the baiting cartridges in controlling termite populations. In order to improve the efficacy of the commercial bait system, supplementary termiticidal dusts were tested including: borates, N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine, zinc and boron oxide (nanoparticles) as well as dusting with the Micro-Gen cartridge itself. Liquid fipronil was also examined. Although preliminary laboratory tests involving dusting with N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine did not show the dust to transfer to undusted termites, subsequent field and laboratory tests support this compound for used with commercial systems in treatment of northern colonies of R. flavipes.
F Green III, R A Arango, G R Esenther

Coding scheme for samples for IRG world-wide co-operative field experiment
1975 - IRG/WP 360
Each sample has been given a number containing six digits (eg 16 23 05). The first 2 digits indicate the country and person supplying the timber, the second 2 digits indicate the species of timber, and the last two digits indicate the treating concentration. All samples which end with the numbers 26 to 50 are to be placed in one site in the United Kingdom, probably at the Imperial College site at Silwood. All the other samples will be returned to the persons in the following list according to the code number indicated.
R Cockcroft

A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented.
W E Conradie, A Pizzi

IRG WG III - World-wide co-operative field experiment
1977 - IRG/WP 383
R Cockcroft

The first two years of an area wide management program for the Formosan subterranean termite in the French Quarter, New Orleans, Louisiana
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10357
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, is a serious pest in several parts of the world and is the most destructive insect in Louisiana. The density of the Formosan subterranean termite in the French Quarter, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA is very high. A large area pilot test for area wide management of this insect was begun in 1998 in the French Quarter to reduce densities of termites and demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach of treating all properties in a large area using area wide management. The pilot test is a cooperative effort between the LSU Agricultural Center, USDA-Agricultural Research Service and New Orleans Mosquito and Termite Control Board. All but four of 323 properties in a contiguous 15 block area in the French Quarter were treated using commercially available baits or non repellent termiticides selected by property owners and applied by professional pest control operators. Properties were inspected for conducive conditions and proper treatment after treatments were made. Data on termite activity were collected using glue boards for alates and in ground monitors for foraging activity. Alates were sampled two to three times weekly during the flight season (May through July 15) in both 1998 and 1999 using glue boards hung near lamps on street lights. Monthly monitoring of foraging activity began in January, 1999 to determine the number of stations with termites and amount of wood consumed. Reductions in densities of alates between years were not found; probably as a result of the limited time treatments had been in place. The percentage of in ground monitoring stations with termites was lower in the treated zone than outside the treated zone after September 1999. Continued treatment and monitoring are required to determine the extent of and the long term effects of the area wide management program.
D R Ring, A L Morgan, W D Woodson, A R Lax, X P Hu, E D Freytag, L Mao

Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans

Albumin borate: A new non-toxic, wide-spectrum, long-term wood preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30167
Boron, widely recognized for its broad range of activity towards both fungi and insects and for its low mammalian toxicity, can not provide long term protection to treated timber due to its high leachability. Boron, in the form of boric acid, can be partially fixed to timber by the formation of an association with egg albumin, which is insolubilized by heat-induced coagulation. Chemical investigations on fixation mechanisms of boric acid by egg albumin indicated that both acid-base salt formation occurs, as well as the formation of boric acid-albumin complexes, depending on the boric acid/protein ratio. In treated timber, a chance in protein conformation in presence of boric acid, has been shown by scanning electron microscopy. These mechanisms, partly reversible, while greatly retarding its leaching, leave small amounts of boron free to exercice its activity when needed. Boron leaching as a function of time, appears to tend to an equilibrium value, which one differs in the case of an albumin coagulum alone from what is obtained by leaching treated wood samples. Accelerated biolocical tests using such treated timber have shown that albumin borate used as wood preservative has effectiveness against wood decay, and have durability performances comparable to those obtained with CCA.
M-F Thévenon, A Pizzi, J-P Haluk

Case histories involving attempts at identifying infestations, determining the source and controlling the Formosan subterranean termite in Atlanta, Georgia USA
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10342
The University of Georgia Department of Entomology and the Georgia State Department of Agriculture have been involved in identifying and working with Pest Control Operators and homeowners dealing with Formosan subterranean termite infestations in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since 1993. Our involvement with seven separate infestations is outlined in this paper in the form of case histories to highlight the need for the development of community-based action plans to deal with the inevitable introduction of this economically important insect pest to other non-endemic areas.
B T Forschler, J Harron, T M Jenkins

Copper linoleate: A new low toxcity wide spectrum, heavy duty wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30082
Copper linoleate, a "fixed" copper soap has been developed and evaluated in South Africa over a 30-year period. The initial product, an organic solvent based preservative has been tested in pine poles against termites and fungi. Results indiate that the product has performed well against existing heavy duty wood preservatives such as CCA and creosote in long term field trials (30 years). The paper describes the basic formulation of copper linoleate and the reaction and possible fixation mechanisms of copper linoleate with wood lignin. The paper moves on to describe further work on an emulsifiable version of copper linoleate for use as a water borne wood preservative. The performance of this product is evaluated in accelerated trials to obtain comparative performance data. The emulsion-based product addresses a need for a low-toxicity, waterborne, heavy duty wood preservative. The paper also considers some of the physical properties of the product and outines the remaining barriers for its industrial commercialisation.
D Conradie, P Turner, W E Conradie, A J Pendlebury, T Pizzi

Hardwood field experiment: Progress report 1977-82
1982 - IRG/WP 3200
The international hardwood field experiment was planned in 1976 and set up in some 30 different sites around the world. The test stakes include 4 reference species common to each site and in most cases at least 2 species of local importance. It was hoped that a picture of performance of a range of economically important species would be built up and at the same time provide vital background information for people currently engaged in hardwood and soft-rot research. It is felt that these aspirations are more than being achieved and that as time proceeds this trial will prove invaluable in developing our knowledge of wood preservation on a world wide basis. Obviously it proved impossible to set up such a large trial simultaneously. Different sites also inspect their trials at different times and so the data presented is for different periods dependant on the site. For the reference species table 1 gives the latest data from each site and should be considered with report IRG/WP/3164 which gave information at earlier dates. Table 2 gives the performance of the other species for each site and, where stakes were available, for the master site (33) at Imperial college. No attempt has been made to analyse or comment on the results at this time. It is felt that this is a progress report for comment on by the sub-group. However, it is felt that together with the comments received these results should be duly considered for publication elsewhere.
D J Dickinson, J F Levy

Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study the microbial community structures of untreated and treated (with brine) English oak timbers of a vessel which apart from the occasional dry-docking, has remained afloat since 1824. The spatial structure of the keelson and sister keelson areas will be described as will the decay abilities of isolates and the decay status of core samples. The results will be discussed in terms of the development of community structures under different moisture content regimes.
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith

Fouling assemblage development on copper-chromium-arsenic-treated timber submerged in European waters
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50181
The effect of the anti-marine-borer timber preservative CCA on community development of non-target marine fouling animals was investigated. Panels of Scots pine treated to target retentions of 12, 24 and 48 kg CCA per m3 of wood, plus untreated controls were submerged at seven coastal sites (Portsmouth, UK; La Tremblade (2 sites), France; Ria Formosa, Portugal; Sagres, Portugal; Kristineberg, Sweden; Athens, Greece). Inspections were made after 6, 12 and 18 months exposure and the fouling community on the surface of the panels was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Multivariate statistical methods were used to compare community structure between panel treatments. Results showed that panels treated to the three CCA loadings supported very similar fouling assemblages which, in most cases, had higher numbers of taxa and individuals compared to assemblages on untreated panels. There were no detectable detrimental effects on epibiota community development caused by the presence of CCA preservatives within the matrix of the wood at any of the treatment levels. Similar trends were found at all seven exposure sites. This indicates that the range of environmental conditions at the sites had no bearing on preservative impact on fouling biota. Differences in community structure between CCA-treated and untreated panels may be due to enhanced larval settlement on CCA-treated timber by some species as a result of modifications to the surface properties of the timber by the CCA preservative. Possible reasons for the higher numbers of certain species on the surface of CCA-treated panels are discussed.
C Brown, R J Eaton, S M Cragg, P Goulletquer, A Nicolaidou, M J Bebianno, J Icely, G F Daniel, T Nilsson, A J Pitman, G Sawyer

Preliminary results from the field experiment to determine the performance of preservative treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. The four reference timber
1980 - IRG/WP 3164
The results given in the Tables 1-4 each refer to one of the four reference species treated with four solution concentrations of CCA as recorded from each test site. The species are: Alstonia scholaris, Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris. The treatments were: Untreated, 0.66% CCA, 1.53% CCA, 3.01% CCA, 5.60% CCA. Each figure is an average of the ratings recorded for each replicate of the species at a particular treatment and a particular inspection. The agreed ratings were: Sound - no attack (Condition): 0 (Rating); Slight and superficial decay (attack): 1; Evident but moderate decay (attack): 2; Severe decay (attack): 3; Failure - almost complete loss of strength: 4. Detailed instructions were set out in the IRG Document No: IRG/WP/367 of 1976.
J F Levy, D J Dickinson

Three-year field trials of polymeric formulations which provide a new basis for the invention and design of non-toxic wide-spectrum wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40029
Three types of non-toxic polymeric formulations invented using a new approach to wood preservation were challenged with termites and fungi in three-year ground-contact field trials in the sub-tropical climate of Natal. These formulations were copper soaps of carboxylic acid groups of unsaturated fatty acids of waxes and edible vegetable oils; of resin acids of rosin, and, of synthetic unsaturated polyester resins. The formulations self-polymerise within lumena of wood elements after pressure-impregnation and also co-react with carbon-carbon double bonds and aromatic nuclei of lignin. The biocidal mechanism is based on the release of copper by hydrolysis under humid conditions and on the reformation of the same bond on redrying of the treated timber in service. All formulations tested were effective and durable. Rosin formulations at retentions of 0.91 kg/m³ and polyester formulations at retentions as low as 0.4 kg/m³ each out-performed creosote at 37.5 kg/m³.
A A W Baecker, A Pizzi

Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP I: Accelerated laboratory decay study
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20332
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and BHT is being evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. Results from an accelerated decay test will be presented. The accelerated decay test evaluates the performance of wood preservatives in conditions optimized to promote accelerated microbial degradation. This study is evaluating six retentions in two different soil mixtures (with and without compost), resulting in a total of twelve treatments. Each month, one box (containing three sticks) per treatment was removed to provide thirty-six samples per sampling period. Biomechanical stress testing is being utilized to determine modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a measure of microbial degradation. TRFLP data is being analyzed to determine significant differences in patterns of microbial colonization over time due to wood preservative treatment in southern yellow pine (SYP) both in and out of soil contact. Soil samples have also been collected to observe changes in soil microbial community due to contact with preservative treated wood. Wood preservative retention is being analyzed using HPLC. Initial results show decreases in fungal and bacterial phylotype diversity for both soil contact and non-soil contact portions of preservative treated SYP wood samples compared to untreated controls. Characterization of these pattern shifts will provide a better understanding of the biology and ecology of wood decay microorganisms, the effects of biocides on the microbial community in treated wood and in the soil, and the effects on microbes on biocide breakdown and wood failure.
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl

Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP II: Results from field studies
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30429
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and the non-biocidal BHT was evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. ACQ-C was a positive control and untreated SYP stakes were negative controls. Tests were installed at two separate field sites in MS that represent two different AWPA hazard zones. Samples were taken every 3 months over a 15 month period and visually evaluated for termite attack and decay. Samples were processed and whole genomic DNA was extracted for molecular analyses. Upon initial amplification of DNA using both specific and general primers, the presence or absence of target fungi was confirmed using gel electrophoresis. We are currently using T-RFLP to analyze the patterns of microbial colonization over time and in response to external stimuli (i.e., wood preservative treatment) to identify potential shifts in microbial community. Preliminary results indicate that the presence of non-basidiomycete fungi (i.e. molds, stains, and soft rots) are uniformly distributed throughout the samples regardless of treatment, while basidiomycetes are less common and severe decreases in overall basidiomycete populations occurred during periods of drought at both test sites.
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl

Genome-wide survey of cellulase related genes of white rot fungus,Pleurotus ostreatus
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10627
A white rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a important edible mushroom, has received much attention to apply to bioremediation and bioconversion because it has both cellulase and ligninase. To confirm copy number of cellulase-related genes encoded in P. ostreatus genome, we attempted to genomic Southern hybridization of P. ostreatus. The draft genome sequence and a large quantity of EST and cDNA information are now available for a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete crysosporium. To obtain sequence information of the cellulase-related genes in the white rot fungi, we also carried out public data base search. These genome-wide studies of P. ostreatus that consist of experimental and bioinformatical approach will provide meaningful advances to exploration of molecular mechanisms underlying wood decay.
T Tamenori, S Horisawa

Microbial Community Analysis Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis: Field Study Results
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20377
The effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the fungal community in southern yellow pine (SYP) were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Field stakes treated with 0.25% and 0.37% ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ-C), 0.1 and 0.25% CTN, and 0.1 and 0.25% CTN combined with 2% BHT were installed with untreated controls in field sites in Mississippi. Stakes were sampled at 90 days intervals and rated for decay damage. Microbial DNA was extracted from wood and amplified using non-specific (bacteria and fungi) and specific (basidiomycete) primers. Alpha diversity (richness and diversity), species composition, and beta diversity, were all calculated using T-RFLP data. Results indicate the presence of wood preservatives containing biocides: (1) increases initial colonization by bacteria that decreases over time, (2) slows the initial colonization of field stakes by fungi resulting in lower richness and diversity that increased over time, and (3) increased richness and diversity of basidiomycetes. Preservative treatment also changed the community composition of bacteria, fungi, and basidiomycetes found in wood, that became more similar over time to untreated controls for fungi and basidiomycetes, but not bacteria. The beta diversity of treated samples was less similar in early stages of exposure (3-9 months), but coalesced over time into stable populations that were similar to fungal and basidiomycete communities in untreated controls, but still bacteria remained different. Correlations were found between depletion of 0.1% CTN and increasing bacterial and fungal diversity.
G T Kirker, S V Diehl, M L Prewitt, W J Diehl

Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20404
Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fungal community structure in a ground-proximity-test located in Hilo, Hawaii. Fungi were recovered in culture after 6, 12, or 18 months, yielding 178 unique DNA sequences that represented 85 taxa. Sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region showed the taxa represented 56 ascomycetes, 17 basidiomycetes, 1 zygomycete and 10 unknowns. Basidiomycetes were mainly found in samples treated to the lowest biocide concentrations or non-treated samples, while there were no consistent isolation patterns with ascomycetes. Overall, treatment did not appear to affect community structure. Our results highlight (i) the need for caution in designating taxonomic units (species) based on culture or ITS BLAST matches, (ii) the utility of fungal culturing followed by molecular identification but the limitation of the sampling process, (iii) the remarkably high diversity of fungi colonizing wood in a ground proximity test under these tropical conditions.
Y Cabrera, C Freitag, J J Morrell

Seasonal shifts of fungal community structure at the interface of treated or untreated wood and soil
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10721
Many wood species are degraded rapidly in soil by the fungal community. In order to preserve wood and structures in which it is used, chemical preservatives are used. Little is known about the interaction of treated wood and the surrounding soil fungal community. For this work, presented at IRG 41, wooden specimens (Pinus sylvestris sapwood, sizes 25 mm x 50 mm x 500 mm (longitudinal)) were treated with a formulation of chromium-copper-arsenic-(CCA) at two concentrations. Untreated wood of the same dimensions was used as controls. After drying and an appropriate fixation period, the specimens were buried in soi1 up to half of their length at the BAM test site in North East Germany. The interface of the wooden specimens and soil were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2008 and the nucleic acids were extracted. The structure of fungal community was assessed by T-RFLP analyses (terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism) of the fungal ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region. In addition, samples were sequenced to identify fungal community members. Significant differences in the fungal community composition were detected in response to the presence (and concentration) of wood preservatives and to the season. The species identified were predominated by ascomycete fungi, and only at the actual interface of the non-preserved wood and the soil were basidiomyecte fungi detected. The interface to CCA preserved wood was composed of sequences affiliated to the genera Phoma, Peziza and Cladosporium. Patterns of the fungal communities were highly reproducible and the spatial sampling at the test site had only a minor effect on their composition.
M Noll, I Stephan

Towards Understanding the Biology of Wood Decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10739
Our previous research has focused primarily on ways to identify the wood decay fungi and microbial community. We continue to explore this complex and dynamic community and its interactions through microbial community ecology studies, gene expression interactions and proteomics. However, in order to better understand the mechanisms of fungal decay, we have sequenced the genome of a copper tolerant brown rot fungus, Antrodia radiculosa. To advance our goals, we will be using structural and comparative genomics to identify novel genes and functional genomics and transcriptomics to systematically discover what genes are activated during wood decay under different environmental conditions.
J Tang, K Jenkins, L Parker, S V Diehl

Profiling fungal community in wood decay ecosystem by Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20443
A DNA-based fingerprinting technique, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC) was developed to profile fungal communities colonizing indoor timber. Molecular fungal diversity was assessed using amplification based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1) rDNA of 74 wood samples collected from infected buildings in France. Due to its high sensitivity, the PCR-DHPLC technique was optimised for the detection and identification of wood rot fungi as well as ubiquitous contaminants. Serpula lacrymans was the most the widespread indoor wood-decay fungi and its occurrence accounts for 64% of total wood rot Basidiomycetes detected. The common cellar rot Coniophora spp. was detected in 9 environmental samples. White rot fungi like Donkioporia expansa and Heterobasidion annosum were also found in buildings. Whereas Basidiomycetes like Phlebiopsis gigantea, and Schizoporia radula were detected for the first time in the built environment. Ascomycetes responsible for wood decay were Guignardia vacinii and Oidiodendron griseum. The most prevalent moulds and Blue stain fungi found belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium species. The identification of indoor fungi based on a molecular typing technique has provided useful data in community profiling of wood-decay ecosystem, without prior fungal isolation step and most of all put into evidence the coexistence of different wood rot fungi within the same microbiotope.
S Maurice, G Le Floch, M Le Bras-Quéré, J P Rioult, G Barbier

Biodegration of treated wood waste by native fungal communities of tropical soil in French Guiana
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50285
Woods have been protected with fungicides for a long time, and the effects of these fungicides on soil after being leached into the ground have turned out to be a true environmental issue. It is in this perspective that we are proposing to study fungal communities of these contaminated woods in a purpose of bioremediation. Most of precedent studies have focused on ability of some Basidiomycetes and white rot fungi to degrade these biocide products. Treated and reference (non-treated) woods samples have been incubated in containers of forest soil in Guyana. The first two samplings of these woods and soils have been realized five months apart. A crop and molecular study allowed us to isolate and identify forty strains of Ascomycetes able to develop on wood and resist xenobiotics. Until now, no Ascomycete was known to resist xenobiotics. Furthermore, a study of fungal communities of the woods and soil were done by D-HPLC and SSCP, and then analyzed by ACP. According to these analyses, biocides are leached in the soil and have an impact on these fungal communities, which are different depending on time of sampling and the way wood is processed.
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, F Chaffannel, J Beauchêne, G LeFloch

Succession after Fire of Fungal Fruiting Bodies in Mediterranean Pinus pinaster Stands in Spain
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10789
In this study we present the results of a 4-year survey aimed at describing the succession of fungal communities following fire in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Northwest Spain, dominated by Pinus pinaster Ait. After a large wildfire in 2002, six 2 x 50 m study plots were established in burned and unburned areas corresponding to early and late succession stages. During the autumn seasons from 2003 to 2006, fruiting bodies were collected and identified. We also collected information about dry and fresh weight, the saprotrophic or mycorrhizal status and the edibility of every species. During the four-years sampling, a total of 115 fungal taxa were collected (85 in the late stage and 60 in the early stage) from which only 30 appeared along the whole succession. Mycorrhizal population not only increased the number of species from early to late stage but also shifted in composition. After fire, pyrophytic species such as Pholiota carbonaria, Peziza violacea, Rhizopogon luteolus and Rhizopogon sp. appeared. The effect of fire on fungal fruiting body’s production was opposite depending on the saprotrophic or mycorrhizal status of the species: mycorrhizal decreased 6-fold, while saprotrophic increased 4-fold. Production of edible species was negatively affected by fire, decreasing significantly the potential of rural populations to harvest marketable mushrooms. The provided results can be useful to forest managers for optimization of management and harvest of these increasingly appreciated non-wood resources. Management may also prevent or alleviate stand-replacing wildfire in these Mediterranean forests.
P Vásquez Gassibe, M Hernández-Rodriguez, R Fraile Fabero, J A Oria-De-Rueda, P Martín-Pinto

Changes in bacterial gut community of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis banks after feeding on termiticidal bait material
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10819
In this study, 454-pyrosequencing was used to evaluate the effect of two termiticidal baits, hexaflumuron and diflubenzuron, on the bacterial gut community in two Reticulitermes flavipes colonies and one Reticulitermes tibialis colony. Results showed two bacterial groups to be most abundant in the gut, the Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes, both of which do not appear to be adversely affected by bait treatment according to analysis conducted to date. Other major bacterial lineages present included Actinobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, TM7, Verrucomicrobia and unclassified species, which matches closely with other studies examining termite gut bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis examining similarity among treated groups versus controls showed a treatment effect in both R. flavipes colonies, but no effect on R. tibialis samples. Overall community analysis also showed treatment groups were separated by their collection location indicating a distinct bacterial community within a colony. Future analysis will focus on the types of bacteria affected by bait treatment and the role of these changes in overall termite fitness.
R A Arango, F Green III, K F Raffa

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