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Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is d...
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton


Wood decay in Danish buildings
1985 - IRG/WP 1261
At Technological Institute identification of fungi and advisory activity concerning repair of damages has taken place since 1935. Statistical analyses based on material from 1982 and 1983 are compared to earlier investigations worked out by L. Harmsen. The material shows that building traditions influence the diversity and frequency of fungal species. Many fungal damages in the last decade have sh...
A P Koch


Timber Preservation and Sustainable Construction in Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-14
Sustainable development has been described as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meeting their own needs. (Bruntland 1987) To achieve the sustainable development goal therefore, the maximum performance has to be obtained from existing resources (timber) so that the remaining resource is protected from over-exploitation. Clearly, wood preserva...
J Norton


Termite barriers for new construction
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10341
Subterranean termite protection in Australia has traditionally relied upon the creation of a zone of poisoned soil under and around the structure to prevent termite attack from the ground. The transition away from persistent soil poisons which began with the withdrawal of cyclodienes in 1995 provided market opportunities for innovative barrier systems. The new barrier systems currently being used ...
D M Ewart


An investigation to assess the feasibility of developing an accelerated laboratory test to determine the abrasion resistance of lesser-used timber species for use in marine constructio
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20317
The paper describes the evaluation of a laboratory-accelerated test to compare the shingle abrasion resistance of current and potential timbers for use in marine construction. Useful results were achieved in 47.5 hours, but identified a number of issues to be resolved for the test to be refined and the subsequent results to be interpreted correctly....
G S Sawyer, J R Williams


A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservat...
E F Baines


Study on the treatment of construction timbers by diffusion methods
1983 - IRG/WP 3252
Several species of timber that could be used for constructional purposes have to be pressure impregnated before such use. Pressure impregnation requires expensive equipment, and needs specialized trained operators, etc, which is not possible in most parts of India. Some timbers cannot be pressure impregnated, but can be treated by diffusion. Diffusion treatments could protect these timbers with si...
V R Sonti, B Chatterjee


Disposal of Pressure Treated Wood in Construction and Demolition Debris Landfill
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50235
Pressure treated wood is often disposed in landfills in the US, very frequently in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills. C&D debris disposal facilities in many states are not equipped with liner systems to protect underlying groundwater. In this paper, issues associated with the disposal of metal-containing treated wood in C&D debris landfills are discussed. C&D de...
T G Townsend, B Dubey, J Jambeck, H M Solo-Gabriele


Risk reduction from curative treatments, restoration and maintenance of building and individual housing - simple precautions that make the difference
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-15
This document explores the potentialities of risk reduction, from activities of remediation in construction, developped at small scale by professionals or individuals on targets like moulds, rots, termites and other wood destroying insects, with products distributed for professional or do-it-yourself purposes. At the first stage, an inventory of the type / interest of products / processes is carri...
G Ozanne


Leaching of Arsenic from Mulch Made from Recycled Construction and Demolition Wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50232
Mulch made from recycled construction and demolition (C&D) wood has been reported to contain chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and potentially release arsenic in the leachate by rainfall. Such recycled wood mulch is commonly masked with iron-oxide colorant, which is known to combine with arsenic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic leaching from C&...
T Shibata, H M Solo-Gabriele, T G Townsend, B Dubey


The possible role of mobile CCA components in preventing spore germination in checked surfaces, in treated wood exposed above ground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30263
Untreated check surfaces are often exposed in CCA-treated lumber of refractory species used above ground since, during weathering, some checks develop beyond the preservative penetrated zone. However, decay is seldom observed in these checks even after many years of exposure. It is hypothesized that minor amounts of mobile CCA preservative components redistribute during weathering into checks, and...
S Choi, J N R Ruddick, P I Morris


Construction of dhows in Kuwait
1981 - IRG/WP 465
To most people Kuwait means oil and the opulence associated with it, but to the seafarer, Kuwait means Dhows. There are as early references to the Kuwaiti Dhows as the 17th century. The Danish explorer Nebuhr in 1756 described Kuwait as having a work power of 10,000 people and 800 wooden boats involved in fishing, pearl diving, and trade. Dhows might well have been the original carriers of "The Pe...
A S Zainal, M A Ghannoum


New approaches to practical evaluation method of bio-degradation of wooden construction - Non-destructive detection of defects using radar technique
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20214
There have been a number of researches and developments on the techniques and apparatus for the nondestructive evaluation of the biological deterioration in wood and wooden constructions, such as decay or insect attack in house, public buildings or in historically important architectures. As for the detection of the decay in wood, techniques using sound in audible or in ultrasonic frequency ranges...
Y Fujii, Y Komatsu, Y Yanase, S Okumura, Y Imamura, M Tarumi, H Takiuchi, A Inai


Laboratory evaluation of termite resistance of five lesser-known Malaysian hardwoods used for roof and ceiling construction
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10398
The general laboratory procedure of AWPA E1-97 was used to evaluate the termite resistance of 5 lesser- known species (LKT) of Malaysian hardwoods: Kekatong (Cynometra sp.), Kelat (Eugenia spp.), Mempening (Lithocarpus spp.), Perah (Elateriospermum tapos) and Pauh Kijang (Irvingia malayana) against the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus over 28 days. Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and ...
A A H Wong, Kee Suan Cheok, J K Grace


Prevention of Termite Tubing Over Non-Wood Construction Materials Using Glycol Borate
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30358
Glycol borates have been demonstrated to prevent termite tubing and attack of wood materials and are extensively used as termite preventative applications in new construction in the USA. This study evaluated the ability of such systems to prevent Formosan subterranean termite tubing over non-wood materials. Concrete was selected as a common inert construction material and tests were carried out ...
W R Smith, J D Lloyd


Valid scientific names of wood-decaying fungi in construction timber and their vernacular names in England, Germany, France, Sweden, Norway and Denmark
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1546
The valid scientific names of 100 species of wood decaying fungi in construction timber are listed, the citation of authors' names is standardized, and an index of the most commonly used synonyms is compiled. For each species vernacular names used in England, Germany, France, Sweden, Norway and Denmark are listed. The list of names is an attempt to update the current use of the most impor...
F Rune, A P Koch


Rubber wood for fishing canoe construction
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40319
The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is cultivated for its latex and the wood comes as a by-product from the rubber plantations. The highly perishable nature makes it unsuitable for boat building. The Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin conducted laboratory and field studies with chemical preservative treated rubber wood and found that the durability of the wood increased considerabl...
L Edwin, S N Thomas, B Meenakumari


Variable chlordane residues in soil surrounding houses in Louisiana
1989 - IRG/WP 1404
Eight soil samples from each of 30 houses in greater New Orleans, Louisiana were collected in October, 1986 and analyzed for chlordane residues (ppm). All houses had reportedly been treated in the late 1960's or early 1970's. Chlordane occurred in all samples, and the overall mean (+ SEM) was 870.6 + 96.5 ppm. Residue levels were unaffected by construction type (slab, crawl, craw...
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane


Wood durability in the light of recent trends and research on the durability of building materials and components
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20195
Building-related research of today demonstrates a clear shift in focus from the design and production phases to usage and to the entire life time. A consequence is that the performance criteria of materials, components and of the entire building must be regarded over the life time rather than at the time of production or delivery. As one example can be mentioned the Building Construction Directive...
K Ödeen


Specifying preservative-treated resistant timber: Conforming to European Standards
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20235
The most common construction timbers used in the UK are of low natural durability and, generally, resistant to preservative treatment. These include species of spruce, hemlock and fir. However, their characteristically limited and non-uniform uptake of preservatives may still confer sufficient protection to give satisfactory durability performance in terms of biological resistance. This paper desc...
E D Suttie, A F Bravery, T B Dearling


Compatibility of deltamethrin with wood-finishing and construction materials
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30010
Under normal use conditions, treated wood comes to close contact with the structural components of a buiLding, and/or receives finishing, forming a new interface, which can affect the performance of a new product such as deltamethrin. To study this possibility, block-tests of Parana-Pine (Araucaria angustifolia), measuring 12 x 24 x 0.5 cm³ (with the largest dimension parallel to the wood-grain),...
E S Lepage


How to win friends and influence the market — Service Life Prediction and performance-based durability assessments of wood products in construction
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20348
Due to direct and implied demands from the market and from e.g. the EU Construction Products Directive, the need to supply service life estimates for building products is growing. For several years, a development of Service Life Prediction (SLP) methodologies has been going on, but the awareness of this development has hitherto reached only a very limited extent in the wood sector. For materials w...
F Englund


A Prediction of Arsenic Groundwater Concentrations Influenced by Construction and Demolition Debris Landfills in Florida Containing CCA-Treated Wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-50242
Groundwater fate and transport models can provide an indication of the potential impacts of arsenic from the infiltration of leachate from unlined C&D debris landfills containing CCA-treated wood. A solute transport model, Migration of Organic/Inorganic Chemicals (MYGRT), was chosen to predict groundwater contaminant concentrations at specified locations from a hypothetical source (C&D lan...
J Jambeck, T Townsend, H Solo-Gabriele


A roadmap for performance-based specification of wooden components based on service life prediction
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20351
The need for an unified and harmonised system for performance classification and specification of wood and wood-based products in Europe emanates from requirements of users and the European Construction Products Directive, CPD. A road to a feasible specification system is outlined. Exposure-related performance prediction was worked out as a key task on the way to product specification. Therefore s...
C Brischke, A O Rapp


Construction of an ITS sequence database for the identification and classification of wood rot fungi
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10626
Developing a database that contains information about wood rot fungi is important in improving technologies about wood preservation as well as advances in understanding wood decay. On the other hand, with rapid spread of the Internet, establishment of a system for the swift precise access to information are required for the computerization of the research information. In the present study, genetic...
S Horisawa, Y Honda, S Itakura, S Doi


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