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A case study of investigating fungi that affect traditional Japanese shake roof with/without copper plates
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10810
A Japanese traditional shake roof is made from split logs. To keep the roof long, copper (Cu) plates are often inserted between the shakes. It has been thought that Cu elements from copper plates would flow out when a shake roof is exposed to rain and inhibit growth of wood rotting fungi. Actually there are some examples where the Cu plates seem to be effective in preventing fungal damage, but on ...
T Wada, Y Fujiwara, Y Fujii, R Kigawa


Evaluation of wood treated with copper-based preservatives for Cu loss during exposure to heat and copper-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20155
Copper-based wood preservatives need to be effective against exposure to all types of microorganisms. Wood treated with six copper-based preservatives was exposed to 121°C and 20 psi pressure for 15 minutes under standard autoclave conditions and the copper-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis CC01, for 10 d at 28°C and 150 rpm. Sixteen to 37 percent of the copper was released from the woo...
D M Crawford, C A Clausen


EPR investigations of interactions between ammoniacal Cu(II) octanoate and wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30110
Ammoniacal solutions of copper(II) octanoate [ C u . h l f . 2 . r h l f.(O2CC7H15)4], interactions of these solutions with wood and wood components, and leaching of copper(II) octanoate from impregnated wood samples, have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. It is still not clear if in the Cu(II) octanoate - water - ammonia system, Cu(II) remains in a (copper(II) octanoat...
F Dagarin, M Petric, F Pohleven, M Sentjurc


The course of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives
1972 - IRG/WP 307
Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservatives in contact with wood result in an instant extensive increase of pH, because of ion-exchange and adsorption reactions with the wood. During precipitation of the active elements the pH continuously increases but reaches a maximum, when all chrome is consumed. Some of the early reaction products are unstable and slowly convert via dissolution into stable comp...
S-E Dahlgren


Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 1: Screening of the metal adsorption potential
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 a
In treatment plants, spillage of wood preservatives onto soil may be of environmental concern. This potential soil contamination served as an objective for a screening study. Three different mineral soils, a mineral substrate and two horticultural substrates are examined for their sorptive potential of copper through mixing with wood preservative solutions. Depending on the soil/substrate charact...
G M F Van Eetvelde, J M Mwangi, F Tack, R Hartmann, M Stevens


Microwave digestion of preserved wood for the determination of Cu, Cr, As, B and P in quality control
1991 - IRG/WP 2364
A microwave digestion method for the determination of copper, chromium, arsenic, boron and phosphorus in preserved woods is described. Samples were digested with nitric acid in pressure-relief type teflon PFA vessels by microwave heating in a commercial laboratory microwave oven. Fast, efficient and complete digestion was achieved within 29 min for 12 samples. The digestion time compared favourabl...
N Bernth, L B Sheard


Weathering of copper-amine treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40155
Copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated southern pine (SP) were artificially weathered with a QUV Weathering Tester. The weathering regime was composed of a continuous UV-light irradiation for 2 hours followed by a water spray for 18 minutes for a total time of 1200 hours. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis,...
J Zhang, D P Kamdem


Microwave treatment to Accelerated fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40271
This study evaluated the use of microwave post-treatment to accelerate fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated 19 mm southern yellow pine sapwood cubes. Cubes were pressure treated at 3.2 and 6.4 kg/m3 Cu retention target, after which they were microwave post treated during different duration periods. An accelerated AWPA leaching test was conducted during 300 hours to determine the amount...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem


Studies of the mechanism of chromated-copper preservative. Fixation using electron spin resonance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3701
Two softwoods and one hardwood species were treated with chromium trioxide, copper sulphate, chromated-copper wood preservative (CCA). The treated wood samples were analyzed during fixation by electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR spectra indicated that more than one Cr(V) species was generated from Cr(VI) soon after CCA treatment. The Cr(V) signal became strong within increased several hours followe...
K Yamamoto, J N R Ruddick


The content and mobility of copper, chromium and arsenic in the soil of a wood preserving plant using CCA
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50122
Analyses were carried out on soil and water samples obtained from a wood preserving plant using CCA-type preservatives. The plant has been in operation since 1969. The soil samples were obtained on 8 points from 4 different depths. The estimation of the type of soil was followed by investigations of copper, chromium and arsenic contents, and the mobility of these elements. The soil samples were al...
N Erdin, S N Kartal, A Dilek Dogu, M O Engür


Microdistribution of Copper in Copper-Ethanolamine (Cu-EA) Treated Southern Yellow Pine (Pinus spp.) related to density distribution
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40270
The relationship between copper absorption and density distribution in wood cell walls was investigated in this study. The density distribution on layer level was obtained from two approaches: (1) calculation by using data obtained from literature; (2) microdistribution of carbon and oxygen atoms in the wood cell. The microdistribution of carbon and oxygen in untreated southern yellow pine (Pinus ...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem, E Pasek


Determination of bis-(N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper in different matrices by photometer, thermal energy analyzer and HPLC
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20179
For the quantitative analysis of bis (N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper (Cu-HDO) three analytical methods are used. The employment of the different methods depends on the matrices involved. For several years now, the colorimetric determination of Cu-HDO by photometer has been applied to solutions and concentrates of wood preservatives. In principle, the technique consists of a quantitative conve...
J Wittenzellner, W Hettler, M Maier


FTIR characterization of copper ethanolamine - wood interaction
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20154
The interaction of copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) and wood components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In Cu-EA treated wood, significant reduction was noticed on the band attributed to carbonyl vibration from carboxylic groups at 1735±5 cm-1 and an increase in band intensity was obtained from carbonyl in carboxylate at 1595±5 cm-1. The same observation was made ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem


Copper leaching from copper-ethanolamine treated wood during exposure to terrestrial microorganisms
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30621
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives are still the most important solutions for protection of wood in ground applications in Europe. Wood in ground is exposed to variety of organisms, which can act synergistically. In order to simulate these conditions in laboratory, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) specimens impregnated with copper-ethanolamine preservative of three different concentrations ...
M Humar, N Thaler, B Lesar


Removal of nano- and micronized-copper from treated wood by chelating agents
2013 - IRG/WP 13-50294
Micronized and nano-copper (Cu)-based and arsenic and chromium-free systems have received much attention for wood protection in recent years. Because they have different fixation, and micro-distribution properties, such copper systems may be more or less subject to release using known remediation methods than soluble forms of Cu. This study evaluated Cu recovery from wood treated with micronized- ...
S N Kartal, E Terzi, B Woodward, C A Clausen, S T Lebow


Measurement of copper concentration in Cu-HDO treating solutions by handheld XRF
2022 - IRG/WP 22-20685
Copper based preservatives diluted in water dominate the wood preservative industry around the world. Periodically measurements and adjustments of the concentration of treating solutions must be performed as a part of the quality control at the treatment plant to achieve desired quality of the preservative treated wood. Many analytical methods are time consuming and must be performed under laborat...
P O Flaete


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterran...
J R J French


Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211...
J K Carey, J G Savory


Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley


Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen


Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > ...
M Petric, F Pohleven


Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungu...
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph


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