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An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins


A Soil Bed Test of the Effect of CCA Penetration on the Performance of Hem-fir Plywood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30332
An accelerated decay test was set up to compare the performance of CCA-treated Western hemlock/amabilis fir plywood treated to meet the preserved wood foundation (PWF) retention standard with various patterns of preservative penetration. Short lengths of treated plywood and comparable untreated material were installed in a soil bed. After eleven years of exposure, the CCA treatments were all sou...
P I Morris, J K Ingram


Sterilization of mango wood (Mangifera indica L.) without heat
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30065
Researches revealed that boric acid can play an important role for sterilizing wood instead of heating. Wet (green) mango boards (Mangifera indica L.) were pressure treated in treating cylinder at initial vacuum of 508 mm Hg for 15 minutes and impregnation pressure of 7 kg/cm² for 4 hours with 5% solution (w/v) of 1:1:1 commercial grade (95% pure) sodium dichromate, copper sulphate and boric acid...
A K Lahiry


Experiences with penetration of copper-based wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20233
In the Nordic countries there is a long tradition of result type based specifications for preservative-treated wood. A common Nordic standard for treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood was published in 1976. After a revision in 1989 this standard, then named INSTA 140, defined four classes of treated wood: M, A, AB and B. Treaters producing according to this standard had to be affiliated to a qualit...
J Jermer, F G Evans, I Johansson


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper/chrome/arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3180
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. The growth characteristics of spruces (Picea spp) make them attractive candidates for forestry schemes. In 1975 the UK Forestry Commission had about 400 000 hectares, about 20% of total UK forest area, planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)...
C R Coggins


Preservative treatment of different thatching materials for low cost housing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40144
Preservative treatment were made in seven different roofing materials with Copper-Chrome-Boron (CCB) at different concentration by soaking process. These were paddy straw, wheat straw, jute stick, sungrass, ulu grass, sugercane leaf and Nipa fruticans. It was observed that retention of preservative chemicals varies from species to species at the same concentration. From the service test it was obs...
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury


Preservative treatment of Golpata (Nypa fruticans) using CCA (Chromated Copper Boric Acid)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40131
Golpata (Nypa fruticans) leaves provide a cheap but practical source of roof thatches. This study was carried out to determine whether the life span of Golpata could be extended by using CCB (Chromated Copper Boric Acid) treatment. Both leaves and midribs of Golpata , with different moisture contents ranging 16.63% to 70.67%, at the start of the experiment were treated with four different concentr...
G N M Ilias, F Abdullah, M O Hannan, S M Feroz


The effect of pretreatments on the impregnation of air-dried sawn Belgian spruce
1988 - IRG/WP 3490
In general the impregnation of airdried spruce results in a variable treatment and limited penetration. This is the result of pit aspiration that occurs during drying of the spruce sapwood and heartwood. Spruce timber is becoming of greater importance in Belgium and hence research for better treatment of this vulnerable wood species is needed. Squared airdried timber of different dimensions were e...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Preservative treatment of two bamboo species Borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb) and Talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb) by Boucherie method
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40262
Bamboo is widely used as a construction material in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. It is perishable in nature and highly susceptible to the attack of borer, termites and fungi. As a result, bamboo products do not last long. This short life of bamboo is increasing demand thereby increasing pressure on our homestead and natural reserve of bamboo. For this reason, it is needed to make the bambo...
M N Islam, A S M A Huda, A K Saha, S M Mithue


Preservative treatment of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) to increase its service life
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40320
Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) possess excellent properties for interior designing, wood working and furniture making. But it is very much susceptible to sap stain and mould fungi which decreases the service life. For profitable uses , it is necessary to increase the service life of rubber wood. To protect the rubber wood from wood degrading agents, the sawn timber were treated with Borax – b...
K Akhter


Microwave modification of Yellow Stringybark (Eucalyptus Muelleriana) posts for impregnation with Copper-Chrom-Arsenic (CCA) preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40185
Yellow Stringybark posts with diameters ranging from 60-100 mm were microwave conditioned using a 60 kW microwave (MW) generator. A substantial improvement in heartwood penetration of preservatives and relaxation of growth stresses was indicated such that there was no split formation following drying of the posts. High preservative absorption of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) was achieved ranging fro...
G Torgovnikov, P Vinden


Preservative treatment of Golla cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana) by pressure process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40379
The feasibility of preservative treatment of golla cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff) Mart). by pressure process has been studied using water borne preservatives CCB (copper-chrome-boron). Cane samples of three different lengths 1m, 2m and 3 m. were treated at different pressure and time period to evaluate the extent of penetration and retention of preservative chemicals. It was observed that t...
K Akhter, M Hoque Chowdhury


Effects of planning and sanding on penetration and retention properties of some softwood species treated with copper azole
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40410
This work investigates the effect of some woodworking treatments on penetration and retention properties of four different (scotch pine—SP, Siberian scotch pine—SSP, Siberian larch—SL, and oriental spruce—OS) heartwood species with the waterborne preservative copper azole (CBA-A). A 2.4% active ingredient solution of CBA-A was applied for use in vacuum/pressure treatment of the heartwood s...
Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz


Influence of wood swelling agents on penetration and copper leaching of copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30556
Copper ethanolamine based preservatives are currently the most important solutions for impregnation of wood in ground contact in Europe. One of the issues related to those and similar water based solutions is insufficient penetration to refractory wood species like Norway spruce. In order to elucidate this issue, commercial copper ethanolamine based solution was supplemented with five different wo...
M Humar, N Thaler, B Lesar


Effectiveness of Copper Indicators in Treated Wood Exposed to Copper Tolerant Fungi
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20554
Wood treated with a copper based wood preservative will typically turn a green color. While the depth of copper penetration can be readily discerned from the green color of the copper it is standard practice in research and commercial treating plants to make use of a color reagent such as Chrome Azurol S, Rubeanic acid or PAN indicator to reveal the penetration more clearly. When copper treat...
L Jin, K Brown, A Zahora, K Archer


Overview of the treated wood quality control program in the United States with the recent challenges and advances
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20616
In the past two decades, there have been significant and rapid changes in wood protection technologies for residential applications which have moved away from long established heavy duty metal oxide based products such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The successor generation of wood protection systems usually contain copper as the primary biocide, in combination with carbon-based co-biocides s...
L Jin


Solvent drying and preservation of timber
1977 - IRG/WP 381
Processes which combine drying and preservation are first reviewed. Some preliminary experiments are then described in which blocks of green Sitka spruce sapwood were immersed, in a solution of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in methanol at 60°C. Satisfactory penetration of the preservative and exchange of methanol and water occurred in a few hours. The methanol was removed rapidly from the wood by evap...
J A Petty


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions....
M Fougerousse


Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
M-L Edlund


Soft rot penetration - Effect of groundline maintenance treatment on poles in sevice
1983 - IRG/WP 3263
R S Johnstone


The use of pressure cycling to improve heartwood penetration in Pinus radiata (D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40050
This study investigates the effect of cycling pressure on the treatability of radiata pine heartwood. The results indicate that liquid penetration into the heartwood is affected by the preconditioning method used and pressure treatment time. There is no significant improvement in the penetration of Pinus radiata (D. Don) heartwood when a cycling or pulsation process is used....
P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley


Effect of medium-term degradation of beech wood by erosive (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and lignin-selective (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) strains of white rot fungi on its selected physical properties
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40292
At the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology a fungal delignification of normal and tension beech wood by erosive and lignin-selective strains white-rot fungi has been studied. The pre-treatment of both kind of wood samples was accompanied by partial delignification and apparent changes of their physical properties influencing the polar liquids penetration....
R Solár, S Kurjatko, M Mamonová, J Hudec


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