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A critical review of the AWPA standard method (M12-72) for laboratory evaluation to determine resistance to subterranean termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1298
The American Wood Preservers' Association standard (M12-72) for evaluation of candidate wood preservatives against subterranean termites is reviewed and suggestions for revision are made. The most serious flaws in the current test procedure involve a failure to recognize inter- and intraspecific variation and a lack of quantification of test results.
J P La Fage, M Jones

EN 152: Is this Standard Relevant for today’s Wood Preservatives? A Critical Review.
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20331
The paper critically reviews the Blue stain test method described in EN 152 including possible test variables. Whereas EN 152 has been successfully used for solvent borne wood preservatives, it appears that the methodology is not suited for modern water borne products, where the majority fail. The paper will show that there exist different quality claims not concordant with EN 599-1 within different European countries. This contradicts the requirement for unification in Europe, especially with the implementation of the Biocidal Products Directive. It is further shown, that water based products and other product systems not passing the EN 152-1 can be successfully used and evaluated according to EN 927-3 and other practical exposure trials. The main conclusion of this review is that EN 152 is not reflecting the practical performance of water borne wood preservatives. The standard should be used only to assess the blue stain barrier in wood and not fungal surface growth. It is proposed that EN 927 testing replaces EN152 concerning surface growth assessment
B Jensen, F Imsgard, J Larsen

Permethrin: A Critical Review of an Effective Wood Preservative Insecticide
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30413
Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used in the wood preservation industry. The generally favorable environmental profile of pyrethroids coupled with their high efficacy led to their wide substitution of the chemically resistant organochlorines dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane formerly used for protection of buildings against wood destroying organisms. Much of the research on performance of permethrin and other pyrethroids as insecticides commenced in the 1980s was done in comparison with the performance of organochlorines. This paper reviews research that has been carried out to (1) ascertain the efficacy of permethrin as a wood preservative against insects and marine borers, (2) determine its permanence in wood (3) compare its performance to that of other pyrethroids. The drawbacks of permethrin as compared with other preservatives and pyrethroids are also discussed.
M H Freeman, D N Obanda, T F Shupe

A Critical Review and Survey of the US Wooden Pallet Industry: Focusing on Market Segmentation & N. American Trends
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40545
This paper reviews the history and current and predicted future use values in N. America. Included in this work is historical data on rationality and wood species used to manufacture wooden pallets in the USA and an ongoing current market survey sent to the 1000 largest manufacturers and re-manufacturers in the USA based on SIC Code 2448(Standard Industrial Code Classification). Although CHEP, the largest leaser and re-manufacturer of pallets with 145 million pallets currently in their system uses the SIC Code 7359 with sales of $33 million dollars in their pallet leasing sector. Trends in the Industry include a reduction of use of hardwoods in the wooden pallet industry, with 20% of all hardwoods produced in the USA in 1982 going into pallet manufacturer and today less than 8 % of the hardwood annual production is going into the wooden pallet production. Also included in this work is discussion of combustion values of wooden pallets based on species and species mix as compared to hydrocarbon based (Plastic) pallets. Also discussed in this paper is the current trend in N. America for all multiple use pallets to be added biocide free.
M H Freeman

Testing the durability of timber products above ground using the block-test method – A critical review
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20637
The block-test method for testing the durability of wood and wood products above ground is reviewed critically with respect to practical aspects, moisture loads, corresponding decay development, and the possibilities of assessing test specimens by determining the dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) of wood. In total, 36 blocks representing different modifications of the original set-up and a wide range of tested materials has been evaluated. Rates of decay and MOEdyn loss were compared and assessed regarding their feasibility for durability classification. Benefits and shortcomings of the block-test method are discussed.
C Brischke, A Gellerich, H Militz

Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix

How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen

Proposed methodology for the assessment of safety indexes
1990 - IRG/WP 3562
Safety Indexes (SI)s are developped on the same concept as Efficacy Indexes (EI)s: EIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "efficacy") which are presumed efficient for a given biological class of risk. In the same way, SIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "safety") which are taken as acceptable for human health and the general environment. EIs and SIs as well are derived from different types of bioassays and related to objectives of quality which may be either regulatory or harmonized within the programmes of the Standard Committees (CEN TC/38 for example). Critical Values are characteristics of wood preservatives; EIs and SIs are characteristics of treated wood; they vary with the different classes of risks.
G Ozanne

Report and recommendations of the National Termite Workshop held in Melbourne on the 17 April 2002.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10478
There are two parts to this Report. Part One summaries the outcomes of an industry workshop organised to better scope the subterranean termite problem, identify knowledge gaps including R&D gaps and identifying strategies including cost-effective co-ordination mechanisms for addressing the issue. Part Two is a brief review of the current state of knowledge on subterranean termites of economic importance to the wood products industry in Australia.
B M Ahmed, J R J French

A review of the configuration of bordered pits to stimulate the fluid flow
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40315
As the bordered pits have generally been thought to have an influence on the refractory nature of softwoods, structural behaviour of this conducting pathways is discussed according to the published literature. Various theories on the role of bordered pits to axial flow are expounded in respect to preservative treatment. Pit aspiration is also reviewed.
I Usta

Boron treatments for the preservation of wood - A review of efficacy data for fungi and termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30037
Boron treatments have been used for many decades for protection of timber from biological attack and also as a fire retardant treatment. In recent years there has been an increased interest in boron treatments as an option for protection of structural timbers' e.g. timber framing used in termite risk areas. This paper reviews efficacy data for both fungi and termites relevant to this end-use.
J A Drysdale

Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning, evacuation and alternating pressure method treatment. Timber Preservation Authority penetration and retention requirements can be met in approximately 4-5 h. The optimum schedule, however, included a 12 hour holding period between steaming and preservative treatment. A method of applying boron preservatives as a vapour is described, Trimethyl borate vapour reacts with wood moisture to form boric acid. The kinetics of this reaction, however, are very fast. This limits treatment to timber dried to very low wood moisture contents.
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri

Wood preservation in France. "Bois plus" chain of quality. Description of the scheme early 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 3519
1989 - description of the French "CTB-BOIS PLUS" homologation scheme...
G Ozanne

Preservative-treated wood as a component in the recovered wood stream in Europe – A quantitative and qualitative review
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50218
Wood preservatives have been used for the protection of timber products in the European market in appreciable quantities for about 100 years. Between the 1960s up to the present day this usage has been particularly noticeable. The aim of this paper is to present quantitative and qualitative data on the volumes of preservative treated wood placed on the market in the UK and Sweden and to evaluate the expected quantities of preservative treated wood coming out of service and into the ‘recovered’ wood stream in the future. Data are presented from a case-study in the UK on CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) treated timber and projections on likely amounts of this entering the recovery stream up to 2061. It is estimated that in the UK in 2001 approximately 62,000m3 of CCA-treated wood required disposal and that this could rise to about 870,000m3 by 2061. The proportion of CCA-treated timber in all post consumer waste wood in the UK is predicted to rise from about 0.9% in 2001, to about 12.3% in 2061 representing a substantial component of the post-consumer wood stream. In Sweden statistics have been compiled for production of preservative treated wood for many years. The preservatives used for waterborne treatments have also changed significantly over the last 10 years from a dominant role for CCA to alternative, As-free systems. It is estimated that preservative treated wood will represent on average about 5% of the recovered wood flow in Sweden over the next 25-30 years and that this will represent an appearance of about 8000 tonnes of As, 7000 tonnes of Cu and 6500 tonnes of Cr. These data and the possible disposal options for CCA and similar treated wood are considered in a life-cycle thinking context.
R J Murphy, P Mc Quillan, J Jermer, R-D Peek

Review of the literature on Lyctidae (Coleoptera)
1987 - IRG/WP 1211
E Graf

Mycological testing of plywood and board materials. Part 1: Review of information supplied by IRG members
1978 - IRG/WP 284
In December 1975 IRG members were asked for published information, information of current work in progress and views on mycological test methods for board materials. The object was to stimulate discussion and possibly establish a joint research effort within IRG in order to establish a meaningful test with reproducible results.
C R Coggins

Bacteria and wood. A review of the literature relating to the presence, action and interaction of bacteria in wood
1971 - IRG/WP 101
S E Rossell, E G M Abbot, J F Levy

A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservation sector.
E F Baines

Biocide Treatments for Wood Composites - A Review
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40323
This paper reviews the biocidal treatment of wood composites. Included are in-process and post-process treatments. Various biocides are covered as are methods of application. Novel treatments and technologies are also presented.
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes

Fumigation as a remedial treatment: A review of North American literature
1983 - IRG/WP 3253
The development of the use of fumigants for eliminating decay in timber and roundwood in North America is reviewed. Initial experiments on oak wilt identified volatile chemicals which eradicated decay in roundwood. Subsequently, extensive experimentation on Douglas-fir poles in service showed that treatment with chloropicrin eliminated internal decay for more than ten years. Vorlex was also quite effective, but Vapam appeared to be much less effective, with decay fungi becoming re-established within ten years of treatment. Studies on other wood species indicated that fumigation could be successfully used to treat resistant species such as western red cedar. Fumigation of glulaminated beams and large timbers with chloropicrin, showed that internal decay could also be eliminated in these products, although wrapping the beam in polyethylene was beneficial for optimization of the treatment. Bioassay techniques have been reported for successful monitoring of fumigant vapor concentrations in treated poles.
J N R Ruddick

Factors affecting the sorption of preservative during diffusion treatment of wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3500
The sorption of preservative into wood during soaking in aqueous solution was found to comprise absorption as well as diffusion of solute. Absorption was increased by partially seasoning the wood prior to soaking and was characterised by (a) a very rapid initial rate of uptake and (b) an extended period of slow uptake, the rate of which varied with prior conditioning. It was concluded that some partial seasoning was desirable to optimise absorption (and therefore reduce soaking times), but that extensive partial seasoning would not significantly increase the quantity of solution taken up during short soaking periods, because of the back pressure from air which tended to become embellished in the wood during soaking. The factors influencing the retention of solute following momentary immersion were identified and included: 1. Surface roughness (which may be influenced by the basic density of the wood species together with the wood sawing or machining processes used); 2. The critical surface tension of the wood substrate; 3. The solubility of the solute; 4. The surface tension of the solution. It was found that during momentary immersion the surfaces of the wood become saturated very quickly. When stored overnight under non-drying conditions however, there was movement of the solution from the surface to the coarse capillary structure of the wood. Subsequent dipping in solution resaturated the surface of the wood. Thus by a process of multiple dipping preservative retentions could be increased as though timber had been kept in the solution.
P Vinden

Termites in Eastern Canada: An updated review and bibliography
1990 - IRG/WP 1431
This report updates Document No. IRG/WP/1333, issued in 1987. The current distribution of termites in eastern Canada and current termite control practices and controversies are explained, and current research is very briefly summarized. Since 1987, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) has been discovered in several more municipalities in the province of Ontario, and in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In October 1989, a well-established drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) infestation was also found in the framing of one house in Toronto. Restrictions on soil pesticide applications for subterranean termite control have increased since 1987, and research on termite biology and control has progressed at the University of Toronto. A comprehensive bibliography of publications, technical reports, and theses concerned with termites in eastern Canada is included in this report.
J K Grace

The use of TCMTB in applications other than sapstain prevention: A review
1990 - IRG/WP 3606
The efficacy of TCMTB against staining fungi and surface moulds has been thoroughly investigated during the last decade. As a result, the chemical is used as an alternative to the chlorinated phenols in various parts of the world for the preservation of freshly sawn timber. Less known are the data obtained against brown rot, white rot and soft rot fungi. The termite repellent and bactericidal properties of the chemical widen the scope of application possibilities. The objective of this article is to report on the data actually available.
R Van der Eynde

Review of remediation methods of sites contaminated by wood preservatives - testing of filter material for use in permeable barrier technology
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50141
Several treatment methods are currently available for treatment of contaminated sites. Soil and water can be treated by immobilisation, separation or destruction of contaminants. It has been common to use intensive treatment methods starting with soil excavation to reach strict purification goals. However, technical and financial reasons make it difficult to reach the desired treatment criteria. As a result, alternative treatment methods are now being allowed. Less intensive in situ methods are being developed, such as natural attenuation, phytoremediation and permeable barriers. A permeable barrier is a passive treatment method for contaminated groundwater. A study was conducted to test various barrier materials for filtering creosote contaminated groundwater. Peat, compost, bark, sewage sludge and sewage sludge pellets were tested out for sorption of phenol, 2-methylphenol and 2,4-dimethylphenol. Peat and compost showed best sorption efficiency. Peat and compost were mixed with sand in various fractions to see if sand can be used to improve hydraulic properties of the filter material.
G Rasmussen, H Iversen, S Andersen

Termites in Eastern Canada: A brief review and assessment
1987 - IRG/WP 1333
The distribution of termites in Canada is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in Ontario province. Municipal and provincial termite control programs are discussed and current treatment practices are described. Previous research on Reticulitermes flavipes in Ontario is briefly reviewed, with reference to a number of unpublished reports and publications of limited distribution.
J K Grace

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