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Cyclic delamination analysis of preservative-treated wood/FRP interfaces
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40244
Wood preservative chemicals can interfere with adhesive properties when bonding wood laminates or wood/FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) laminate composites. In this work we studied the effects of various wood preservative treatments, and pre- and post-treatment on wood/wood and wood/FRP bond durability using a severe cyclic delamination test (ASTM D-2559). Pre-treatment of individual laminates with oil-borne (copper naphthenate, creosote and pentachlorophenol) and water borne (CCA and CDDA) preservatives increased the delamination between the wood and FRP, although wood/wood bonds were generally acceptable. Post-treatments had limited effect on wood/wood delamination. The use of post-treatments on wood/FRP bonded samples, although less significant than with pre-treatments, also increased delamination of wood/FRP glue lines.
C Tascioglu, B Goodell, R Lopez-Anido

The effect of oil-borne preservative treatments on the shear strength of FRP/wood composite adhesive bonds
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40265
Reinforcement of structural wood components with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) will enhance the beam’s strength, but actual data on long-term durability is sparse, not well documented or not readily accessible. In this study, bond properties of FRP-wood composite materials were investigated following treatment with creosote or copper naphthenate preservatives. The properties investigated included stress and the percentage of wood failure experienced in shear (ASTM 1998). When tested in a wet condition (following a vacuum/pressure soak), creosote-treatment adversely affected the wood failure values associated with specimens fabricated with a pultruded FRP composite sheet (E-glass fiber, bonded with urethane). When these tests were conducted with samples under ambient conditions, the shear strength of this material was also adversely affected by creosote. In addition, both creosote- and copper napthenate-treatment adversely affected the shear strength of a SCRIMP™ fabricated FRP material (carbon fiber, vinyl ester matrix).
B Herzog, B Goodell, R Lopez-Anido

Investigation of some technical properties of heat-treated wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40266
The objective of this study was to investigate some technical properties of heat-treated wood. Wood heat-treated according to a process intended for wood in above-ground end-uses (European hazard class 3) was subject to the following: · A delamination test according to EN 391 with glulam beams made of heat-treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) laminations, assembled with PRF and PVAc adhesive respectively. · Determination of the withdrawal load for screws and nails. · Determination of the emission factor for VOC and the identification of major compounds. Results: · PRF adhesive performed very well whereas PVAc adhesive showed an unacceptable percentage of delamination and thus seems to be unsuitable for gluing heat-treated wood. · There is an indication that the withdrawal load for heat-treated wood is generally lower than for untreated wood. However, the number of tests carried out was quite small and definitive conclusions are difficult to draw. · The emission factor for the heat-treated wood, expressed as TVOC, was less than 10 µg/(m2 x h) and this was less than for untreated reference.
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, A Clang, B Ek-Olausson

Effect of cyclic change of temperature on fungal growth and mass loss
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10065
For estimating the effect of cycling change of temparature on fungal growth, four Japanese species, sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora) and buna (Fagus crenata), four fungal species, Tyromyces palustris, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus coccineus, and five temperature conditions, 10, 20, 27, 35°C and cyclic temperature (20°C 12 hours and 30 or 27°C 12 hours) under constant humidity (75% RH) were examined. The results were summarised that the cyclic condition was rather high fungal growth rate in the case of majority of fungi tested but was not surely increased the mass loss of wood. This tendency is rather clear in the case of brown rot like Tyromyces palustris. The cyclic temperature conditions were not favorable to the groth of Serpula lacrymans.
K Suzuki, K Okada

Influence addition of boron compounds to adhesives on the bonding quality and fungicidal properties of glued wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40497
Wood is one of the most important construction materials. However, users of wood face two issues: limited dimensions and insufficient durability. These issues have been overcome with the development of bonding and wood preservation. The preservation of glued wood is elucidated in this paper. Through the addition of boric acid to adhesives, we tried to improve the fungicidal properties of glued wood. The results of mechanical testing (shear strength and delamination) showed that the addition of boric acid to glue did not have a negative impact on the performance of the glued wood. On the contrary, some properties were even improved. Unfortunately, the addition of boric acid to impregnated wood does not improve the resistance of the glued wood to brown rot fungi.
M Humar, B Lesar, A Ugovsek, M Kariz, P Kralj, M Šernek