IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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A summary of current information on actinomycetes and wood
1978 - IRG/WP 177
B King, R A Eaton, A A W Baecker

Micromorphology of the decay caused by Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers.:Fr.) Pouzar and Flammulina velutipes (Curt.:Fr.) Singer
1988 - IRG/WP 1358
Two basidiomycetes, Chondrostereum purpureum and Flammulina velutipes, form typical soft rot cavities in hardwoods and softwoods. Cavity formation is prececed by T-branching or bending of hyphae penetrating the wood cell walls. The two fungi also cause erosion of the wood cell walls....
T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Novel observations on the micromorphology of soft rot attack of wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10176
Electron microscopic examinations of decaying Pinus radiata horticultural posts which had been treated with CCA preservative prior to being placed in service about nine years ago showed the presence of soft rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria. Some novel observations on the micromorphology of the soft-rotted areas of tracheid walls are described here. The micromorphology of soft-rotted areas was hig...
A P Singh, R N Wakeling

Micromorphology of Schizophyllum commune attack in pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood
1983 - IRG/WP 1184
The decay pattern caused by Schizophyllum commune in pine latewood tracheids was studied using both light and transmission electron microscopy. The attack began as isolated concentric slits within the S2 layer with extensive lamellation and separation of individual wall layers observed in subsequent stages of decay. The slits resulting from attack appeared to be formed in thin, regular concentric ...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Cytoplasmic and extracellular localization of manganese II dependent peroxidase(s) in white rot fungi during degradation of woody materials
1989 - IRG/WP 1416
The manner by which lignin is degraded in-situ in natural substrates by white rot fungi still remains a controversial issue particularly the distribution and role(s) played by lignin degrading enzymes (i.e. manganese II peroxidase and lignin peroxidase). In the present study, use was made of anti-manganese II peroxidase and immunolabelling techniques in conjunction with transmission electron micro...
G F Daniel, B Pettersson, T Nilsson, J Volc

Tunnelling bacteria
1983 - IRG/WP 1186
The micromorphology of decay in wood caused by a certain group of single-cell bacteria, called tunnelling bacteria (TB), is described. TB are characterised by their tunnelling ability within the secondary cell walls of wood fibres. Pure cultures of TB have not yet been obtained although the typical decay patterns can be reproduced using mixed bacterial cultures. Some indications of lignin degradin...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Micromorphology of decay in Keruing heartwood by the basidiomycetes Phellinus contiguus and Dacrymyces stillatus
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10454
This study aimed to characterise the micromorphology of fungal decay in a wooden handrailing in an above ground exposure at the Thames embankment in London. Keruing heartwood (Dipterocarpus spp.) was determined as the construction timber and the two basidiomycetes Phellinus contiguus and Dacrymyces stillatus identified as main decay organisms. Their decay patterns within Keruing heartwood were...
G Kleist, M Ray, R J Murphy

Cavitation bacteria
1984 - IRG/WP 1235
A form of bacterial wood degradation is described. The term "cavitation bacteria" has been coined in order to describe the discrete cavities that are formed within the wood cell walls. The bacteria observed within the cavities appeared to be polymorphic with rounded as well as filamentous forms recognised. TEM studies suggest that the bacteria produce diffusable wood-degrading enzymes. Cavitation ...
T Nilsson, A P Singh

New Observations and Interpretation for Tunnelling Bacteria Decay
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10579
Decay micromorphology was studied systematically for diversely preservative treated Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica 20 x 20 x 500 mm stakes across 13 in-ground field test sites, during a 6.5 year exposure. Sites were selected to maximise occurrence of a diverse range of decay types. Micromorphology that suggested orientation of tunnelling bacteria with the cellulose microfibrils of the S2 and S1...
R Wakeling

Micromorphology of Bamboo Fibers Degraded by Brown-Rot Fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10576
The decay pattern of bamboo by brown-rot fungus was examined. In addition, the influence of polylaminate structures in bamboo fibers on the restriction of fungal decay was also investigated. The weight loss of bamboo Phyllostachys puberscens by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum after 16 week incubation was about 25%. Parenchyma cells were severely degraded. Microscopical studies showed tha...
Kwang Ho Lee, Chang Hyun Cho, Yoon Soo Kim

Common Decay Micromorphology “Anomalies” Challenge Current Decay Classification
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10578
Decay micromorphology was studied systematically for diversely preservative treated Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica 20 x 20 x 500 mm stakes across 13 in-ground field test sites, during a 6.5 year exposure. New insight into the micromorphology of the early stages of decay enabled new and more detailed interpretation of the mechanism of their formation and suggested that current decay classificati...
R Wakeling

Evidence for Basidiomycete Tunnelling in Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10587
Decay micromorphology was studied systematically for diversely preservative treated Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica 20 x 20 x 500 mm stakes across 13 in-ground field test sites, during a 6.5 year exposure. Sites were selected to maximise occurrence of a diverse range of decay types. Presence of clamp connections in close associated with tunnelling coupled with macroscopic features similar to whi...
R Wakeling

Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh

Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi

Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy...
Ö Bergman

Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson

JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated....
K Tsunoda

Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
M-L Edlund

Co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes: Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2339
This document reports progress on the co-operative study between nine laboratories set up following the proposals contained in Document IRG/WP/2316. Results have been received from two laboratories. Toxic values data have been established successfully using the test fungus Coniophora puteana but problems have been encountered with the other test fungi....
A F Bravery, J K Carey

Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
C Jacquiot

On Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar
1986 - IRG/WP 1285
Donkioporia expansa is found more often in houses than realised until now. Virulence tests according to EN 113 show not only an attack of oak, but also of other hardwoods and even soft-woods....
G Buchwald

Nondestructive Evaluation of Oriented Strand Board Exposed to Decay Fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20243
Stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being used in our laboratory to evaluate the performance properties of engineered wood. These techniques have proven useful in the inspection of timber structures to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. But no information exists concerning NDE and important properties of wood composites exposed to dec...
B Illman, V W Yang, R J Ross, W J Nelson

Moisture content levels and decay of hemlock
1986 - IRG/WP 1287
As a model of decay conditions of wooden members in wooden houses, a decay test was set up in which samples of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) under 4 moisture levels were examined. Each week the samples were weighed and if the weights indicated that their moisture contents were lower than the expected levels, distilled water was added. Every 8 weeks 3 samples from each condition were oven dr...
K Suzuki

Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional sta...
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto

How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market a...
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen

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