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Quantitative and qualitative losses in wood of oriental spruce, Picea orientalis (L.) Link., induced by insects from forest to utility
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10647
In this study, some quantitative and qualitative losses in wood of oriental spruce, Picea orientalis (L.) Link., induced by insects from forest to utility were evaluated. In experimental plots, volume of trees damaged by Dendroctonus micans (Kug.) was 34% of the volume of total standing spruce trees in the oriental spruce forests of Turkey. The volume of standing trees that D. micans damaged was 900,7 m3. The volume of trees that the damage was continuing was 451,4 m3 and trees that were cut in the last decade have a volume of 274,9 m3. According to this result, in the 120.000 ha epidemic area of D. micans, 22,8 million m3 standing trees were damaged by the beetle and damage was continuing in 11,43 million m3 standing trees. A total of 6,96 million m3 trees were cut in the last decade. A total of 437 standing spruce trees were evaluated and 40 of them were cut in 0,87 ha in the areas with severe Ips typographus (L.) damage. The average beetle number per tree was 11.432, 18.739, 37.208, 14.447 and 12.380 in the years 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Volume of the damaged standing trees in the experimental plots and 15.000 ha spruce forest area where these plots locate in was calculated as 280 m3 and 4,8 million m3, respectively. Volume of heavily infested trees in the experimental plots and whole epidemic area was 120 m3 and 2,2 million m3, respectively. Total volume of damaged standing trees in hectare and heavily infested trees was 314,6 m3 and 151,4 m3, respectively. Volume of damaged trees and heavily infested trees was 9,43 million m3 and 4,54 million m3 in the 30.000 ha epidemic area, respectively.
H A Akinci, M Eroglu, G E Özcan, Ü C Yildiz

Wood preservation in France. "Bois plus" chain of quality. Description of the scheme early 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 3519
1989 - description of the French "CTB-BOIS PLUS" homologation scheme...
G Ozanne

Wood Preservation in France. A statement of quality control early 1986
1986 - IRG/WP 3389
A statement of quality control in France early 1986 - Summary of new - Standards criteria for preservatives and treated wood - Aptitude of treated wood for use per class of biological hazard
M Romeis, G Ozanne

Treatment of dried sawn spruce and redwood building timbers with water-borne preservatives under a scheme for the quality control of the preservation and preserved wood in the Netherlands
1978 - IRG/WP 3123
Treatment of dried sawn spruce and redwood Building Timbers with water-borne preservatives under a scheme for the quality control of the preservation and preserved wood in the Netherlands. The aim of this article is to give the reader a modest description of the evaluation of fundamental research in wood preservation into a practical application.
H F M Nijman, N Burgers

Measurement of VOC emissions from curative treated wood: A new emission test chamber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-13
A poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is now recognized as a potential factor affecting occupants health. There are three basic strategies to improve IAQ: source control, improvement of the ventilation and use of air cleaners. Usually, the most efficient way to improve IAQ is to eliminate the different pollutant sources or to reduce their emissions. In order to precisely measure emissions from building products and estimate the potential heath impact of emitted pollutants, standardised analytical methods are needed. The aim of this paper is to present the new standards prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for the measurement of indoor air pollutants and their application to the characterization of emissions from wood products. The prestandard ENV 13419, subdivided in three parts, has been prepared by the CEN technical committee 264 : ??ENV 13419-1 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 1 : Emission test chamber method, ??ENV 13419-2 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 2 : Emission test cell method, ??ENV 13419-3 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 3 : Procedure for sampling, storage of samples and preparation of test specimens. The two first parts of the prestandard ENV 13419 specify a general laboratory test method for the determination of the area specific emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from newly produced building products under defined climate conditions in a test chamber (Part 1) or cell (Part 2). The third part specifies for solid, liquid or combined products, the sampling procedure, transport and storage conditions and preparation of test specimens. In France, those European prestandards have been translated by the French Normalisation Association (AFNOR) in three experimental standards : XP ENV 13419-1, XP ENV 13419-2 and XP ENV 13419-3 [1-3]. In parallel to the ongoing work at CEN, the technical committee 146 of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has prepared the draft international standard ISO/DIS 16000 related to indoor air. Part 6 of this standard specifies a method for the determination of the emission of single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) from building materials using test chambers and cells [4]: ??ISO/DIS 16000-6 : Indoor air - Part 6 : Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and chamber air by active sampling on TENAX TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID. It is intended that, after the final voting stage, the CEN prestandards (Parts 1-3) will be taken over by ISO and that Part 6 of the ISO standard will be taken over by CEN as the fourth part of the ENV 13419 prestandard. As an example, the volatile organic compounds emissions from preservative treated wood samples were characterised according to the CEN ENV 13419-1 prestandard describing the emission test chamber method and to the ISO/DIS 16000-6 prestandard for the analytical method. Two representative wood preservatives (hydrodispersable and petroleum solvent formulation) were tested for this purpose. The VOCs concentrations in the test chamber were monitored during 6 days following a simulated curative wood treatment.
F Maupetit, O Ramalho, C Yrieix

The role of third party independent inspection agency for wood preservation industry in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20425
This presentation attempts to provide a brief historical background and a current status report on the wood preservation industry in China. In addition, it will briefly introduce the need for building the quality control procedures and China wood protection Quality Supervision and Testing Center, a third-party inspection agency. Besides, some suggestions of this industry are proposed for its further development.
Zhenzhong Tang, Changsheng Shen, Yujie Han, Changming Song

A study of wood quality of Juglans nigra and hybrid walnut (MJ 209xRA) : durability against Coriolus versicolor, density and MOR
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10522
The study investigated possible effects of harvesting season on some wood properties of Juglan nigra (JN) and a hybrid walnut (MJ209xRA). The samples were taken from trees which were harvested in June July, August, November of the same year, and March in the year after to determine whether there were any significant differences in wood properties as regards the harvesting seasons. In order to test the durability of the 648 wood samples white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor challenge test (EN113 (AFNOR 1994) was applied by using agar culture medium. The bending strength was also determined after a sixteen-week exposure to the above mentioned fungus. The data obtained clearly indicated that the heartwood of JN was more durable than its sapwood. JN sapwood was more durable than MJ209xRA sapwood. The same trend was observed with the Modulus of rupture (MOR : EN 310): the heartwood displayed higher MOR value than the sapwood. Wood density measurements also demonstrated that the wood density values of the sample heartwoods were much higher than those of the sapwoods. Results also illustrated that, from the wood durability point of view, March is the least interesting period for harvesting. June and November, on the other hand, proved to be more favourable periods as regards harvesting. This study clearly indicates that the durability and the strength of the hybrid walnut (MJ209xRA) are lower than those of the walnut (Juglans nigra), and this fact should be considered in the exploitation of hybrid wood.
B Charrier, F Charrier, D P Kamdem, J B Aurel, G Janin

The effect of mortality diseases on wood quality of sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb)
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10569
Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) is a lagre deciduos, fast growing, strong light demanding and leguminous tree specie. It is an important multipurpose specie widely being planted in the agro forestry and and social forestry pratices in Bangladesh, particularly in the north and south-western parts of the country. On account of its better quality, sissoo is valued as good as construction and utility timber in Bangladesh. It is used as high value timber, wood fuel, nitrogen fixing and fodder trees. For about a decade, sissoo plantings of varying ages have been found dying due to an unknown cause. By 1996 the mortality was wide spread especially in the western part of the country, and it affects the wood properties of sissoo. The wood properties are very important in selecting wood for numerous uses. So, a comparative study of various physical properties of wood among sound, moderately affected and severally affected sissoo trees was conducted. Sound, moderately affected and severally affected sissoo trees showed significant differences in respect of tangential, radial, longitudinal and volumentric shrinkage respectively. Radial shrinkage didn’t differ significantly among top, middle and bottom sections of a particular condition of wood and the same result was of tangential, longitudinal and volumetric shrinkage. The same trees also showed a significant difference in density, but the density didn’t differ significantly among the top, middle or bottom sections of a particular condition of wood. Besides these, the presence of decay, stain, tunnel and discolouration were observed which also determine the wood quality. In sound, sissoo wood these are absent, but in disease affected sisso wood decay, stain, tunnel and discolouration are present which deteriorate the wood quality. It is observed that the wood quality of sound sissoo trees have been found superior to that of moderately affected and severally affected wood.
M M Islam, M O Hannan, G N M Ilias

Experiences with penetration of copper-based wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20233
In the Nordic countries there is a long tradition of result type based specifications for preservative-treated wood. A common Nordic standard for treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood was published in 1976. After a revision in 1989 this standard, then named INSTA 140, defined four classes of treated wood: M, A, AB and B. Treaters producing according to this standard had to be affiliated to a quality control and certification scheme. When the European standards EN 351 and EN 599 were to be implemented, the Nordic Wood Preservation Council issued a Nordic application document where the traditional wood preservation classes were defined in terms of EN 351 and EN 599. The present paper describes briefly how the European standards have been implemented in the Nordic countries. During the last years the use of CCA-preservatives has been restricted in the Nordic countries. New copper-based, chromium and arsenic free preservatives have been introduced for commodities above ground. This has by no means been without complications. The treaters have had severe problems to comply with the treatment requirements. Pilot plant treatment trials confirm that the penetrating properties of the chromium/arsenic free preservatives differ substantially from CCA. Experience from the Nordic quality control and certification scheme shows that it is often difficult to judge the penetration of the chromium and arsenic free preservatives. Different copper reagents give different results. A comparative test showed that ammoniumhydroxide and rubeanic acid as reagent for copper was the most sensitive to copper and performed better than other reagents tested.
J Jermer, F G Evans, I Johansson

Natural Durability of Tropical Species – Variations and Prospects
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10568
The tropical timber resources of the world play an unequivocal role in economic development of both the tropical timber producing and importing regions. This paper describes natural durability as an important and preferred wood quality of tropical species of the world with emphasis on Malaysian hardwoods, the link between various aspects of tropical hardwood durability, hardwood utilization and biological hazards of different regions of the world, the resource evolution in the utilization of tropical hardwoods including the introduction of plantation-grown durable species and increased use of wood composites, a summary of research on the major cause of variations in natural durability of tropical hardwoods focusing on heartwood extractive bioefficacy, their microdistribution in relation to natural durability, and heartwood extractives as future sources of novel organic wood protecting chemicals. Recent advances in genetic manipulation of disease resistance in certain tree species makes it theoretically possible to genetically produce naturally durable tropical species with their accompanying inherent anti-microbial substances, which if/when realized, would provide significant opportunities to produce transgenic naturally durable species befitting a natural wood protection concept.
A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, Wang Choon Ling

Rapid analysis - chances and limitations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50130
The reuse of wood out of service in the particle board industry demands a proper handling and separation of assortments with differing content and nature of preservative. A pre-selection based on visual and olfactorial characteristics can be carried out for certain assortments like sleepers, poles, etc. Problems arise from diffuse and less intensive treated wood which is regularly dip-treated or brushed and which may have been leached out by rain since demolition. On the other hand, due to possibte leaching processes, previously untreated wood can be contaminated during storage, thus resulting in a low and ineffective content of preservative, but in a higher concentration than the limit values will allow. Thus, analysis of wood out of service before reuse is recommended. Due to the high throughput during processing, there is no time for classical laboratory analysis. For this reason, the objective of a joint project financed by the German Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU) was to investigate various techniques for rapid analysis and to develop a successful approach to be used in practice. An overview of the state of developments and the possibilities for the rapid analysis of wood waste were presented at IRG 29 (IRG/WP/98-50104). Now, the joint research project reaches its end showing the possibilities and limitations of rapid analysis. In conclusion, the techniques showed their ability for the detection of a broad range of organic and inorganic wood preservatives in a range representing the spectrum from natural content up to impregnation by pressure treatment. The prerequisite is a homogenous sample due to the extreme inhomogeneous distribution of wood preservatives in wood after service. Thus, rapid laboratory analysis can be executed but a routines analysis of solid wood out of service in the entrance control seams not to be applicable.
A Peylo, R-D Peek

Microwave digestion of preserved wood for the determination of Cu, Cr, As, B and P in quality control
1991 - IRG/WP 2364
A microwave digestion method for the determination of copper, chromium, arsenic, boron and phosphorus in preserved woods is described. Samples were digested with nitric acid in pressure-relief type teflon PFA vessels by microwave heating in a commercial laboratory microwave oven. Fast, efficient and complete digestion was achieved within 29 min for 12 samples. The digestion time compared favourably with the 2 h required for conventional procedures. Furthermore the consumption of reagents was reduced significantly. The resulting solutions were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, but the solutions are also suitable for atomic absorption spectrometry.
N Bernth, L B Sheard

Screening of modified linseed oils on their applicability in wood protection
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30346
In this study modified linseed oils, rape oil and three waxes were screened on their efficacy as wood protecting agents. By testing all products when impregnated with high retentions in Scots Pine sapwood on water repellence qualities, additionally an accelerated weathering test, drying quality, accelerated brown rot and blue stain test, an indication is formed of the capability of these products as wood protecting treatments. All oil and wax treatments significantly improve the water repellency of untreated wood. In weathering resistance, maleinised and polymerised linseed oil showed the best results in improving untreated pine sapwood dimensional stability thus reducing crack formation and decolourization by UV-light. In accelerated brown rot and blue stain tests boiled linseed oil significantly reduced degradation and staining. In addition, maleinised linseed oil and a mixture of modified linseed- and mineral oil are very well performing in the blue stain test. Overall most promising products are the maleinised oils and boiled linseed oil. The maleinised oils have good potentials in long lasting water repellency, showed some fungal growth prevention, are colour stable in weathering tests and create a dimensional stable wood product. Boiled linseed oil is not exceptionally good as a water repellent, but the good drying qualities together with easy handling makes this oil a promising product.
A Treu, J Lückers, H Militz

Wood Preservation in the Federal Republic of Germany
1981 - IRG/WP 3157
The report gives some statistics about the forest products industries in the Federal Republic and a general review of the wood preservation industry. The trend in the use of wooden railway sleepers is decreasing, as is the use of poles. The sale of other pre-treated timber, mainly fence posts, palisades and domestic fences, is however slightly increasing. Apart from the use of pressure treatments for poles and sleepers, dipping, deluging and spraying are the most common methods of treatment used. For constructional timbers the treatment given is often only of a poor quality. A glossary of the treatments used is given and a list of the firms supplying approved preservatives. Information is given for applicants who wish to have preservatives approved for use in the Federal Republic. All wood preservatives have to be registered for the treatment of any constructional timber which relates to the strength of a building. New types of biocides will obtain approval only after special tests have been carried out to ensure their long term effectiveness. The approved State Laboratories which can issue test certificates and organizations which can give useful advice to users of treated wood are listed, together with the addresses of some other organizations. The report lists all the relevant German standards.
R Cockcroft, H Willeitner

Quality and safety scheme for wood in food contact
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-11
When there is no tolerance concerning the content in food of potential contaminants the scheme is limited to a ban of any contaminant with objectives of undetectable amounts at the limits of detection of the chemical analysis. When some tolerances exist, there is a need to check the compliance of a production to such requirements, putting in place the necessary prevention of any accidental situation, within the frame of a clean production flow-sheet. In both cases the introduction of quality assurance, namely at the stage of records and treatability, combined with adapted statistical control on the input and output of a production process and generalisation of cleaner production principles gives a high level of confidence to the wood products. A practical experience is described in this document.
G Deroubaix

Wood preservation in Brazil
1978 - IRG/WP 3126
Wood preservation was stablished in Brazil by 1902 in order to provide treated sleepers for railways, since there was a shortage of durable hardwoods in area served by railways. The growing need of sleepers and poles together with the availability of Eucalyptus spp. contributed for the development of wood preservation. Many wood preservation plants started to be stablished in 1957, and in 1977 their total number was 34, most of them for treatment of sleepers and poles with pentachlorophenol, creosote, CCA and CCB, all made in Brazil. Wood preservation research has been carried out since 1931, but there are few specialists in Brazil. Federal Governmental laws, Brazilian standards, the stablishment of ABPM (Brazilian Wood Preservers' Association), and the IBDF-IPT-ABPM Contract are the main causes for recent development of wood preservation in Brazil.
M S Cavalcante

Issues Facing Wood Preservation in Australia Today
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30327
Timber and timber products are a major part of the Australian building industry and preservative treatment is a common consideration for most timber users. Despite this however, there is a major lack of awareness by the users of the various issues associated with preservative treatment. Australian treatment specifications are logical, concise and uncomplicated. There are three agencies in Australia that set specifications for treated timber and although the various requirements are well coordinated, the different jurisdictions vary in the extent to which treated timber quality is monitored. Recent developments in Australia have seen increased usage of engineered wood products and this has bought with it a shift in the thinking behind timber treatment requirements. Along with approval of glue line treatments, the most recent initiative has been the use of envelope treatments for the protection of house framing against termites. There are a limited number of wood preservative formulations currently approved for use in Australia and over recent years there has been increased erosion of market dominance by copper, chrome arsenic (CCA) wood preservatives. It is likely that pressure on the use of CCA will see this effective wood preservative restricted even more in the future. The major concern for the timber treatment industry in Australia is the absence of a national quality monitoring scheme. Poor performance by treated timber in the market place that results from substandard product can only damage not only the treatment industry but the timber industry as a whole.
J Norton

Chemical analysis of wood waste - The problem of sampling
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20168
A quantitative analysis of the content of active substances in wood is often demanded in quality control after processing and for the proper waste management. As a measure for quality control, analysis has the advantage that the type of preservative is known and assumptions can be made about its distribution in the treated wood.W aste wood may have been treated by a wide range of organic and inorganic preservatives. Therefore, differing methods of analysis have to be used. A correct sampling, however, is a problem due to the very inhomogeneous distribution of preservatives in treated wood influenced by the structure and composition of wood, type and composition of wood preservatives and their application to impregnated wood. the kind of sampling. As a result of literature investigation and own research, an overview over the influencing parameters, structure and composition of wood, type and composition of wood preservatives and their application to impregnated wood. Furthermore, secondary changes due to leaching, evaporation and ageing of active ingredients during service might contribute to an even more uneven distribution. Thus, analytical results can deviate extremely depending on the kind of sampling carried out. The smaller the sample the higher the deviations. Due to this, the applicability of techniques based on small samples, which is characteristic for rapid analysis, is restricted. Multiple data are available on distribution and ist alteration. As a result of a literature survey as well as own research, a summarising overview of the influencing parameters and their effects will be provided. It therefore does not seem practical to implement a general method of sampling. The sampling depends rather on the questions being asked by the investigation and, abover all, on the material under investigation.
A Peylo, R-D Peek

Wood preservation in Japan
1982 - IRG/WP 3218
The report indicates the importance of wood preservation in Japan, which is the world's largest importer. The main hazards of timber are listed, fungi, insects and marine borers. Besides wood preservation fire protection treatments are also important in Japan. Classifications are given of the durability and treatability of the timbers used. In describing the wood preservation industry, the amounts of preservatives used and the volume of the various wooden commodities that have been treated during the past 25 years are detailed. The various Japanese Standards that are used for wood preservation treatments are listed, and the performance and quality requirements of the main ones indicated. The report lists all the organizations which are concerned with wood preservation, including those concerned with research into timber deterioration and wood protection, and adds some other organizations of general interest. It is concluded that the future of the industry appears to be bright. The report ends with an Appendix giving detailed information of the wood preservation plants in Japan, 174 pressure plants and 50 other kind. Some Tables regarding fires and fire tests have been added. A list of 32 references is included.
S Amemiya, R Cockcroft

The use of low cost X-ray fluorescence instruments in the determination of copper chromium and arsenic in preservative treated wood
1987 - IRG/WP 2278
Internal quality control in timber treatment plants can be pursued by analysis of preservative treatment solutions and treated timber. Treaters must proceed with costly and lengthy analyses through analytical laboratories. An alternative approach for the timber treater, is to use low cost analysers (L.C.A.'s) based upon x-ray fluorescence. Detailed comparisons have been made between standard methods (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) and L.C.A.'s for the analysis of CCA treated timber. Results indicated that no difference was found between different formulations. One L.C.A. tested provided more consistent results than those generated by standard methods. Average results provided by the L.C.A.'s were both higher and lower than standard methods. This finding may be related to the retention of preservative being tested. The results indicate that L.C.A.'s promise to be extremely useful to the timber treatment industry.
J Norton, L E Leightley

Wood preservation in the Netherlands
1985 - IRG/WP 3324
This report gives some information on the production, import and use of timber in the Netherlands and, in more detail, about the country's wood preservation industry. As the country's production of wood that is useful for its manufacturing industries is very limited, the position of wood in the building industry is not too important. Architects think first in terms of bricks, concrete, glass and lastly of wood, and then often in the sense of aesthetics and interior decoration. This is one reason why the Dutch wood preservation industry has great difficulties in enlarging its market. Up to date its limited scope does not favour aggressive marketing. Information is given on the country's treating plants and the amount of wood preservatives used. In the Netherlands a wood preservative is a pesticide according to the Dutch Pesticide Law and has to be approved and registered in accordance with this. This enables the authorities to pay attention to such divergent aspects as efficacy and human health and environmental effects. Details are given on how a preservative approval may be applied for. Two appendices have been added listing the wood preservative products and products for remedially treating wood that have been officially registered, together with a list of permit holders of these approved products.
N Burgers, R Cockcroft, D De Jong

Run-off quality from sprinkled debarked logs and logs with bark from Picea abies and Pinus contorta
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50248
Storage of roundwood is necessary for efficient industrial production at sawmills and pulpmills. The need for wood storage becomes even more critical when large storm fellings create huge volumes of wood that is at risk for deterioration. In Scandinavia, the technique of sprinkling of water on roundwood is used to protect stored wood from fungal and insect infestation and drying during the summer. Depending on the sprinkling regime, the contributions to log yard run-off might be considerable. Log yard run-off is polluted and can therefore be harmful to downstream water recipients due to eutrophication and oxygen depletion. It is therefore desirable to find solutions for minimising the pollutants, i.a. organic material and phosphorus, in the run-off. A large portion of these pollutants probably originate in the bark. In Scandinavia, the majority of all logs are debarked after storage and sprinkling. Debarking the logs before storage might help to reduce the amount of pollutants. In this study, two storage experiments were conducted to investigate the importance of bark during sprinkled storage. Experimental piles of debarked logs and logs with bark from Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) were sprinkled for 10 to 12 weeks during the summer at two locations in central Sweden. Run-off was collected below the piles. pH, total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and phenols in the log yard run-offs were analysed and compared. The possibility of using this method for reducing the concentrations of pollutants in log yard run-off are discussed as well as the suitability of its use in Sweden.
M Jonsson

Chemical Analysis in Production Quality Control at Wood Treatment Plants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20396
Analysis methods for quality control analysis in wood treatment plants have evolved with the changes in treatment preservative chemistries and analytical instrument technology. The basic hydrometer specific gravity measurements used for solution strength and classic wet chemistry methods for wood have given way to instrumental techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, automatic titrator, and HPLC. Not all of methods involve complex instrumentation, simple turbidimeters and handheld refractometers can be used for rapid solution strength testing. These newer methods are discussed in the paper as well as the increased importance of inspection and auditing of the treatment plants production by the chemical suppliers and third party inspection agencies.
P Walcheski, L Jin

The Present Situation and Future Development in Quality Assurance for Wood Protection in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20418
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the quality assurance program for wood protection industry in China in term of guiding policies, standardization and implementation activities. The potential deficiencies with the existing practices regarding to the quality of wood protection products and suggestions for the further research and development directions to improve the system are also discussed. Author is confident that with the guidance of the government policy and support; the active involvement of The Timber Value Promotion and Substitution Administration Center of China, Universities and Research Institutes; and the participation of the industry members, future working in the area could be expected to intensify to meet the demands for the country’s rapid economic developments and to ensure the quality of the wood protection products.
Kang Hua Cheng

Biological Treatment to Improve Wood Product Quality and Durability - Fifteen Years of Effort and Experience at FPInnovations-Forintek Division
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40444
Wood plays an important role in the world economy. However, wood is subject to attack from wood-degrading fungi and insects and durability and quality of wood products are becoming increasing concerns for consumers. Development of effective and low environmental impact technologies to improve wood product quality and durability will be required to address these concerns. The application of a biological treatment to wood products is an example of one such technology. During the past fifteen years, a series of research projects were conducted at FPInnovations–Forintek Division to explore and develop various biological technologies and treatments to improve wood quality and durability against mold, stain and decay. These projects included 1) biological protection of logs and green lumber from mold, stain and decay; 2) biological pre-drying of wetwood lumber; 3) biological treatment to improve wood panel durability; 4) biological modification of wood to reduce resin use in panel manufacturing; and 5) biological incising to harden wood. This article summarizes the significant technical breakthroughs and findings made in these studies.
Dian-Qing Yang

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