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Community-wide suppression of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin – Search for the Holy Grail
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10674
In 2006, the Forest Products Laboratory, in collaboration with Alternative Pest Solutions Inc. and the UW-Madison Entomology department, developed a strategy for sustained suppression/elimination of R. flavipes from Endeavor, Wisconsin. Our commitment includes a minimum of five years of active treatment followed by at least one year of monitoring. The Whitmire Micro-Gen Advance baiting system (a.i. 0.25% diflubenzuron) was chosen to be the main method of termite treatment in the Village as the collaborating pest control company had access to this system. The efficacy of these baiting treatment cartridges were assessed in field and laboratory situations. Initial results after the first treatment season suggested a significant effect of the active ingredient on R. flavipes populations as activity in the buildings located in the central treatment zone appeared to be eliminated. However, the two following treatment seasons seemed to show reduced effectiveness of the baiting cartridges in controlling termite populations. In order to improve the efficacy of the commercial bait system, supplementary termiticidal dusts were tested including: borates, N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine, zinc and boron oxide (nanoparticles) as well as dusting with the Micro-Gen cartridge itself. Liquid fipronil was also examined. Although preliminary laboratory tests involving dusting with N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine did not show the dust to transfer to undusted termites, subsequent field and laboratory tests support this compound for used with commercial systems in treatment of northern colonies of R. flavipes.
F Green III, R A Arango, G R Esenther


Laboratory evaluation of four benzoylphenylureas against two species of Reticulitermes Holmgren, 1913 (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) from Southwest Europe
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30472
The use of benzoylphenylureas in baits for the control of termite pest is currently increasing. The chemical compounds used have been tested mainly with American termites. The effectivity against non-American termite species must be analyzed because the worldwide use of those compounds. In this paper four benzoylphenylureas (hexaflumuron, diflubenzuron, triflumuron and noviflumuron) have been tested with two European species (Reticulitermes banyulensis and R. grassei). The most effective concentrations not causing repellency were selected. The mortality rates obtained have been compared among all compounds tested. Our results show more than 95% mortality after a 6-week treatment in assays with noviflumuron, triflumuron and diflubenzurón, being more effective in the order given.
M Gaju-Ricart, M Urbano-Luque, R Molero-Baltanás, C Patiño-Martínez, C Bach de Roca


Observations on colony collapse in Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in laboratory and field settings in Wisconsin
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10709
Parallel strategies were designed to eliminate Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) from a field site in Endeavor, Wisconsin and a simulated field test setup of approximately 20,000 workers in the laboratory. Indoor and outdoor colonies of R. flavipes were baited with commercial cellulose monitoring stations and rolled cardboard stations. If the commercial cellulose baits were attacked, they were replaced with termidicidal baits containing 0.25% diflubenzuron (a chitin synthase inhibitor). In active cardboard stations, termites were dusted with N’N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) and released back into the colony. Overtime, diflubenzuron gradually suppressed worker activity and termite numbers both in the laboratory and the field. However, sharp reductions (>90%) in foraging workers were observed in both field and laboratory colonies with the addition of dusting with NHA. Termidicidal baits containing 0.5% hexaflumeron were secondarily evaluated in the field as a comparison to diflubenzuron. Observations indicated five notable characteristics or criteria of a colony on the verge collapse in one or both venues: i) increasing soldier to worker ratios >20% in the lab, ii) decreasing overall counts of workers collected, iii) increasing numbers of secondary reproductives captured in hexaflumeron bait cartridges outdoors, iv) increasing susceptibility to mites, and v) higher microbial load including bacteria, fungi and slime molds within the colony. Shortly after these events occur—foraging workers disappeared from both commercial and cardboard stations and the colony was essentially eliminated. Although laboratory results do not exactly mirror field results, observations regarding colony decline in both venues are significant when attempting termite control. We conclude that combinations of termite toxicants are more effective than either one alone, and that the above observations may be used as an indicator of sucessful termite treatment.
F Green III, R A Arango, G R Esenther