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Problem of the treatment of dried sawn spruce building timbers with water-borne preservatives. Interim reports for discussion at the 4th Annual Meeting in West Berlin on 27 October 1972
1972 - IRG/WP 311
One of the most difficult technical problems facing the preservation industry is how to improve the treatment of refractory species of timber such as spruce. Its resistance to penetration, even under pressure' precludes its use for more hazardous service situations, and even in less severe conditions a higher level of treatment would be desirable. The importance of this subject led us to look once again at possible ways of improving treatment.
W Liese, J W W Morgan, T Hof, R O Ullevålseter

Non-pressure treatability of plywood by CCA, CCB and boron
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40295
Study on diffusibility and absorbability of CCA, CCB and boric acid in 3 mm thick 3-ply hardwood plywood at water saturated and air-dry conditions and dipped at same concentration (5%) and same duration of time (12 hours) revealed complete diffusion of all the preservatives at water saturated condition. Only the CCA-C was found absorbed by the plywood at air-dry condition. The rate of absorption and diffusion of CCA-C was found about 4.5 times higher than CCB and boric acid.
A K Lahiry

Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse

Treatment of dried sawn spruce and redwood building timbers with water-borne preservatives under a scheme for the quality control of the preservation and preserved wood in the Netherlands
1978 - IRG/WP 3123
Treatment of dried sawn spruce and redwood Building Timbers with water-borne preservatives under a scheme for the quality control of the preservation and preserved wood in the Netherlands. The aim of this article is to give the reader a modest description of the evaluation of fundamental research in wood preservation into a practical application.
H F M Nijman, N Burgers

Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface roughness, and decreased with initial timber moisture content. Dipping time beyond 20 seconds, timber basic density and earlywood content had little effect. Relatively low surface retentions, produced by dipping smoother boards with higher initial moisture contents, provided lower protection against mould and stain during seasoning than higher retentions. Equations describing the effect of surface retention on efficacy were developed for both formulations, and retentions providing complete protection under the conditions of the test were determined.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

Thirty-four year test of on-site preservative treatments to control decay in wood above ground
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30015
This research was initiated in 1958 to investigate efficacy of various preservatives and treating methods for new lumber going into exterior structures of buildings. Post-rail units (2x4 inches) constructed of Southern Pine sapwood, Douglas-fir heartwood, and mill run western hemlock were dip- or brush-treated before or after assembly. Units were trested with pentachlorophenol in various petroleum solvents or with copper napthenate in mineral spirits. Both painted and unpainted units were exposed on a test fence in Madison, WI. Most of the painted untreated pine units (controls) failed by 34 years. Surprisingly, painting completely protected the untreated Douglas-fir units from decay and afforded substantial protection to untreated hemlock. Significant decay in painted units was present only in lightly treated pine units (2-second dip after assembly or brush treated). Copper napthenate (1% copper) was markedly less effective than the penta treatments on unpainted pine and hemlock units. There was no evidence that type of oil carrier or incorporation of a water repellent improved effectiveness of treatment. Three or 15-minute dips in penta were equally effective. Penta-grease applied to unit ends only was effective.
T L Highley, T C Scheffer

TBTO absorption and penetration in pine joinery treated by various processes
1989 - IRG/WP 3523
Matched sections of several White pine (Pinus strobus) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) mouldings were treated with TBTO by Double vacuum, modified empty-cell, 15 second dip and several preheating treatments followed by a 15 s dip treatments. As expected the double vacuum and empty-cell (batch) treatments resulted in much greater retentions and penetrations than the dip treatments. The absorptions by the 15 s dip treatments could be improved significantly by preheating the wood to 60-90C° by microwave, radio-frequency or infra-red techniques. Since this approach is amenable to a continuous treatment process, it is being evaluated for potential commercial application.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung

Influence of a dipping preservative treatment on the performance of wood finished with waterborne coatings
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40121
Within a larger European research project on the performance of joinery finished with waterborne coatings, the influence of a water based dipping preservative treatment was studied in several ways. Six different waterborne coatings were tested with and without a preservative underneath the coating. The performance was tested on pine sapwood and spruce panels in a 2-year outdoor weathering trial on two different sites in Europe. The panels were evaluated visually with respect to cracking, flaking, surface mould growth and development of blue stain underneath the coating. In several cases the preservative treatment improved the performance of the coating, not only with respect to biological deterioration but also for cracking and flaking of the paint. A limited number of coatings were also tested on L-joints according to the EN-330 and of national dutch design. The EN-330 L-joints appeared to be a more challenging substrate compared to the national type, which had a glued connection between tenon and mortise. The influence of the preservative on the moisture content of the wood was evaluated by monthly weighing of the samples exposed outdoors and by laboratory measurements of the coating permeability. At least in laboratory trials the dipping treatment caused a slight reduction of the water permeability. This is most likely the result of the polymeric binder material present in the preservative. The presence of polymeric material underneath the coating was also confirmed in a microscopic evaluation of the distribution of the dipping preservative. The preservative was not equally distributed in the wood, but showed a clear preference for the ray-tissue.
M De Meijer, J Creemers, W Cobben, P Ahola

The preventive actions of three commercial wood preservatives against Dinoderus minutus
1984 - IRG/WP 1233
Dinoderus minutus is one of the most common pest insects for the bamboos. For preventing the damages of this insect, the preventive treatment of bamboos with preservatives is necessary. But because of the environmental reasons, only limited insecticides are available in Japan. The author determined the preventive effects of three commercial products against Dinoderus minutus by the medium of the Buckwheat Cake and also by a bamboo (Phyllostachys bambusolides). The results obtained were severer than ones of Lyctus brunneus. In the case of dipping treatment of the bamboo, Fenitrothion is more effective than two other preservatives (Chlordane and Phoxim).
K Suzuki

A comparison between the effects of ACC & CFK on the durability of beech, hornbeam and cottonwood by using Dipping & Bethel methods in the North of Iran
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40089
From the economical point of view, increasing the lumber durability by the application of preservative treatments is very important. In this study, samples were randomly selected from Fagus orientalis Lipsky., Carpinus betulus L. and Populus deltoides Bartr. in two forms (Board & Squared cross-section) and have been treated with ACC & CFK by using Dipping & Bethel methods. The matched treated and untreated samples have been exposed to outdoor conditions for 3 years in the North of Iran. The decrease of the weight of samples has been considered as the comparison factor. The results have indicated that there are no significant differences (at 95% confidence limits) among the species, but there is a significant difference between the treated & untreated samples. The experiments have also shown that ACC treatment (using Dipping method) has been less effective on Squared cross-section samples than other treatments. Utilization of CFK is recommended fo hornbeam & cottonwood and application of ACC is recommended for beech.
D Parsapajouh, V Etemad, K Pourtahmasebi

Translation of titles of papers listed in Document No: IRG/WP/311
1972 - IRG/WP 312
BAVENDAMM W and W EHLERS: Investigation under conditions similar to those obtained in practice on the impregnation of structural timber by means of brushing and spraying. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 12 (1954) 183 185. BAVENDAMM W and H ANOZYKOWSKI: Investigations under conditions similar to those obtained in practice on the impregnation of structural timber by means of short period dipping and open tank treatment. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 14 (1956) 218 222. BAVEDAMM W: The absorption of preservative by structural timber using manual methods, Holzschutz im Bauwesen, Berlin, W Ernst and Son (1957). BAVENDAMM W and H WILLEITNER: Investigations on the practical application of the bored holes method for the impregnation of structural timber, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 15 (1957) 411 416. BAVENDAMM W and W SCZESNY: Investigations on the practical application of the hot-and-cold open tank process for the impregnation of structural wood, Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 15 (1957) 381 384. BAVENDAMM W and U SIUTS: Investigations on the practical application of the bored holes pressure method for the impregnation of structural timber, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 16 (1958) 430 435. BAVENDAMM W and W SCHNEIDER: Investigations on the practical application by brush and open tank for the impregnation of structural timber with bifluorides, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 17 (1959) 284 291. BAVENDAMM W, H WILLEITNER and P KAUNE: Experiments on the treatability of pine and spruce of different cross-sections, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 23 (1965) 363 368.

Composting of waste building up in sawmill dipping basins
1990 - IRG/WP 3570
We have studied composting of waste building up in dipping basins at sawmills although this waste can also be disposed of by incineration. Controlled composting within the sawmill area seems to be a feasible method. Another possibility is to accomplish composting directly at the local dumping site. Waste containing antistain chemicals is generally classed as hazardous. It cannot therefore be placed as such at common dumps. However after successful composting the permission to do so can probably be obtained. The composted dipping basin waste might also be suitable as land filling or in some cases as soil improvement material - at least in parks and green belt areas.
I A Linderborg, U Ek

A field test with anti-sapstain chemicals on sawn pine timber stored and seasoned under different conditions
1984 - IRG/WP 3245
Newly sawn timber of European redwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) was dip treated in four different anti-sapstain chemicals. The protectife effect against sapstain, mould and decay was examined after 10 weeks' and 10 months' storage in open and closed stacks. The results showed that the performance of individual chemicals was different in open and close stacks, although the wood as well as the other storage and handling conditions were identical. This makes it possible explain some of the reported differences in performance of chemicals in different locations.
D J Dickinson, B Henningsson

Field trials of Sinesto B at some sawmills in Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3512
The efficacy of SINESTO B as antistain chemical for use in Portugal has been studied. The studies were done during the years 1987-1988 at several Portuguese sawmills in co-operation with the Instituto dos Produtos Florestais and the APCIM (Associacao Portuguesa de Comercio e Industria de Madeiras). SINESTO B was used in 5% and 8% concentrations. The storage time varied from 10 weeks to 6 months. In the tests, PCP was used as reference chemical as well as some other commercial antistain products. SINESTO B performed well in most of the tests. It was even better than 3% PCP. 8% concentration is recommended.
I A Linderborg

Collaborative field trial out-of-ground contact
1982 - IRG/WP 2179
At the 12th meeting of the IRG in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia it was decided after considerable discussion that the best way to proceed with the work of the subgroup was to centre it around a co-operative field trial based on the L-joint test detailed in IRG/WP/2157. At the same time it was agreed that interested laboratories would also conduct their own methods, particularly the German planner test and the French and Yugoslavian inoculation techniques. It has since been decided to concentrate the main part of the test within Europe using Pinus sylvestris joints from a common source and to provide chemicals to other laboratories interested in conducting a similar trial with their own wood species. In this way it is hoped to achieve a tightly controlled comparative test with the CEN countries and to allow greater international comparison. The test is to employ simulated joinery units treated with a good and poor preservative system and exposed out of doors. Periodically replicates will be examined destructively. The destructive examination will consist of a measure of the onset of increased permeability of the wood and the initiation of colonisation by wood destroying Basidiomycetes. It is proposed to use two levels of TnBTO in a model preservative and to apply the preservatives by dipping and by double vacuum.
D J Dickinson, A F Bravery, J K Carey

Fluoride movement through Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber following dipping in potassium/ammonium bifluoride
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40040
The ability of ammonium and potassium fluoride to diffuse through Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber was evaluated over a 90 day period. Boards were dipped in a solution containing 10% (by weight) of ammonium and potassium bifluoride, then stored under cover for 90 days. Samples removed 30, 60 and 90 days after treatment indicated that the fluoride was unable to completely penetrate the wood. Penetration was markedly better in hem-fir, reflecting the greater permeability of this species. Increasing the dipping time had only a marginal effect on chemical uptake. Longer diffusion periods also had little effect on fluoride movement. Chemical assays of increment cores removed from the boards indicated that most of the chemical was detected in the outer 5 mm, although fluoride was present 5 to 15 mm from the surface. The results suggest that fluoride treatment can not completely diffuse through freshly sawn lumber at levels which would confer protection against many wood inhabiting organisms.
J J Morrell, C S Love

After 18 years, preservative dipping and brush treating continue to provide protection to shingles of western wood species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30156
The presence of residual preservation in dip-treated and brush-treated shingles of various species from the western United States was assessed 18 years after installation using Aspergillus bioassays. The performance of western redcedar (Thuja plicata) was compared to western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) and western larch (Larix occidentalis). Untreated shingles of all four species were seriously decayed, while those receiving topical treatments continued to maintain their appearance. Bioassays from the shingles indicated that residual pentachlorophenol and chromated copper arsenate were still present on both upper and lower surfaces. The results illustrate the benefits of topical treatments for protecting wood in above ground exposures.
T C Scheffer, D J Miller, J J Morrell

Development and field trials of Evotek 230, a new antisapstain product
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30140
Laboratory and greenhouse studies, using freshly sawn pine boards, demonstrated that the fungicidal properties of prochloraz and carbendazim were complementary for protection from sapstain and mould under extreme conditions of close stacking and high humidity. Analysis of dip bath solutions before and after dipping 20 boards showed no evidence of any stripping of the active ingredients. Neither fungicide is very active against basidiomycetes that cause decay. Normally, such fungi do not present a significant hazard to freshly sawn timber and they are out-competed by sapstain fungi in the absence of chemical control. Where the prochloraz + carbendazim combination prevented colonisation by sapstain fungi, and where the boards were stored under very humid conditions, some growth of brown rot fungi was observed which could be prevented by tank mixing the anti-sapstain product with borax. Field trials in Europe, S. America and S.E. Asia have confirmed the anti-sapstain efficacy of Evotek 230, a suspoemulsion containing 100 g/l prochloraz and 130 g/l carbendazim, at rates as low as 0.5%.
A Adams, J Oudenweyer, J L Lindars

The development of a new boron-based wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30085
The paper describes a new boron based wood preservative for the treatment of green timber. The product offers many benefits over conventional boron diffusion treatment including: 1. high viscosity, high concentration formulation; 2. permits dip treatment of a wide range of sawn board and pole sizes at ambient temperatures; 3. permits full cross section diffusion of borates without block stacking and wrapping of treated material; 4. treated material is ready for use within a few hours after dipping, this eliminates long storage periods; 5. a water-repellent coating which acts both as a leach retardant and protects the timber against weathering; 6. the new product permits the use of borates in H3 class situations. Evaluation of diffusion trials and simulated rain test data on treated material is discussed.
P Turner, D Conradie

Bioefficacy of Cunapsol® treated western cedar and southern yellow pine
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30120
Western red cedar and southern yellow pine sapwood were dip treated with a new formulation of waterborne copper naphthenate (Cunapsol®) which complies with VOC regulations. Cunapsol dip treated samples were oven dried at 50°C for 48 hours and then water leached for two weeks. Decay resistance and leachability of preservatives from dip treated specimens were evaluated according to AWPA (American Wood Preservers' Association) standard methods. CCA type C, ACQ type D and oilborne copper naphthenate were used for comparison purposes. Test results suggested that copper loss during leaching of dip treated samples is higher with copper amine based solutions than with CCA type C or oilborne copper naphthenate. Weight loss of treated samples was negligible suggesting that a copper retention of 1.70 ± 0.20 kg/m³ (0.10 pcf) from waterborne copper naphthenate offers adequate protection to western cedar and southern yellow pine.
D P Kamdem, M H Freeman, T L Woods

Comparative study between dipping and boucherie method of bamboo preservation
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40324
A comparative study has been carried out between dipping and boucherie method for three major bamboo species namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) with CCB (Chromated-copper-boron). Preservative treatment has been carried out with five different concentrations of preservative (2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6%) and four different durations of dipping (2 days, 4 days, 6 days and 8 days). It has been observed that jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) and bamboo can be treated more easily and effectively than borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.). In boucherie method, 2% concentration has been given adequate penetration of preservatives. Similarly, 6% concentrations and 8 days duration of dipping has been given better results of preservative penetration. Boron has been penetrated better than copper for all variables. Boucherie method is better than dipping method because this method can preserve a full length of green bamboo within a very short period of time.
A S M A Huda, S M Mithue, M N Islam, M O Hannan

Effect of fire retardants (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate, mixture of monoammonium phosphate and borax and ammonium sulphate) on beech wood with dipping and Lowry methods
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40350
In this study, the possibilities of using four kinds of chemicals as fire retardants with 12% concentration for beechwood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was surveyed. Providing testing samples that are related to the measurement of fire resistance properties according to JIS A-1321-1975 standard were evaluated. Wood samples were impregnated with Lowry and dipping methods. In this study, samples impregnated with diammonium phosphate by Lowry method had the best fire resistance properties. Wood samples impregnated with diammonium phosphate had the highest compression parallel to grain and highest resistance of hardness and samples impregnated by ammonium sulphate had the least total shrinking.
M Akhtari, D Parsapajouh, M Arefkhani

Effect of fire retardants (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate, mixture of monoammonium phosphate and borax and ammonium sulphate) on beech wood with dipping and Lowry methods
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40350
In this study, the possibilities of using four kinds of chemicals as fire retardants with 12% concentration for beechwood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was surveyed. Providing testing samples that are related to the measurement of fire resistance properties according to JIS A-1321-1975 standard were evaluated. Wood samples were impregnated with Lowry and dipping methods. In this study, samples impregnated with diammonium phosphate by Lowry method had the best fire resistance properties. Wood samples impregnated with diammonium phosphate had the highest compression parallel to grain and highest resistance of hardness and samples impregnated by ammonium sulphate had the least total shrinking.
M Akhtari, D Parsapajouh, M Arefkhani

Preventing the introduction of Xylosandrus crassiusculus by dipping green lumber in insecticides prior to shipment
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40370
Xylosandrus crassiusculus, an ambrosia beetle native to Asia and Africa, was introduced into the southeastern United States in 1974. Since that time, this species has substantially expanded its range, causing damage to native ecosystems and healthy nursery stock. This species was found in The Dalles, Oregon in 2004, indicating that it is not limited to sub-tropical environments. This introduction has resulted in a ban on the importation of green wood products from the southeastern United States into Oregon, especially hardwood railroad ties. This research investigated the ability of water and alcohol based dip treatments to penetrate existing galleries and to prevent the infestation of green hardwood products. The results indicated that even a 9 minute dip failed to penetrate the galleries. Dipping samples for 30 seconds in creosote prevented the establishment of new galleries. In addition, cinnamon leaf oil and diesel fuel reduced the degree of insect attack and merit further study. Preventing X. crassiusculus infestation has proven difficult and further studies are planned.
C F Schauwecker, R F Mizell III, J J Morrell

Decontamination of sludges, liquids and soils polluted by “class 1, 2 & 3a” and “temporary” wood treatment products from dipping tanks
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50315
Wood is one of the most widely used building materials as it is easy to find and process. As an organic material, time leads to a degradation of its substance, and even more so when it is exposed to pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and insects. In order to try and inhibit this phenomenon, several preservation treatments have been developed and applied thanks to the production of chemical biocides. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability or capacity of 45 ((44) strains of Basidiomycetes and 1 Ascomycete) wood-decay fungi to degrade eight* samples taken from the timber treatment tanks at four sawmills, and the ease with which they degrade woods treated with these 8 products. Wood degradation is to be studied through weight loss, to reveal fungus activity. At the same time as these studies, the impacts of pollutants**on the fungi and of the toxicity of the degraded products is to be assessed using physical-chemical methods. The results obtained showed that the experiment was adapted to the chosen fungus species. Product P3 seemed to be the most biodegradable by the fungi, especially by Pycnoporus sanguineus (74%), Ganoderma boninense (40%) Trametes versicolor (37%) and Coriolopsis polyzona (34%). Then came product P6 biodegraded by the fungi. The species Trametes versicolor (36%) and Coriolopsis polyzona (32%) degraded the product most. The physical-chemical show a real fungal action for Trametes versicolor (around 10% of biocide reduction). The strains Ganoderma boninense and Coriolopsis polyzona were also effective, though much less so (around 5%).Their action on the pollutants seemed to be more staggered in time. Here too, it will be necessary to extend their contact time. The Pynoporus sanguineus strains were much less effective. These results show that it will be possible to develop a novel method for decontaminating soils at treated timber storage sites and waste sludges accumulating at the bottom of timber treatment tanks using saprophytic microorganisms, particularly wood-decay fungi.
A Zaremski, E Wozniak, S Maman, C Zaremski, S Morel