Your search resulted in 206 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Soft rot decay in acetylated wood. Chemical and anatomical changes in decayed wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40231
Acetylated Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood were studied in soil beds under laboratory conditions for longer periods. High mass losses and dynamic MOE losses were measured in non-acetylated wood and at lower weight percent gains (WPG). Rapid losses of lignin, holocellulose and ?-cellulose occurred in non-acetylated beech wood and no losses were detected at the highest...
B Mohebby, H Militz
Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls....
M J Collins, P Vinden
Some Experiences with Stake Tests at BAM Test Fields and in the BAM Fungus Cellar
Part 2: Comparison of Static and Dynamic Moduli of Elasticity (MOE)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20320
In routine in-ground stake tests of wood preservatives at the BAM test field Horstwalde and in the BAM fungus cellar periodical determinations of both static moduli of elasticity (MOE) on the basis of bending tests and dynamic MOE on the basis of the vibration method were performed as a possible method for the assessment of fungal attack. As expected from other publications, the absolute values of...
M Grinda, S Göller
Natural progression of decay in unrestrained, Southern pine sapwood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20060
In this study, the natural progression of decay is being monitored in 2.4-m (8-ft) lengths of dimension lumber. The 2.4-m lengths are supported without restraint in a horizontal plane approximately 0.75 m above ground in a partially shaded field plot in southern Mississippi. The lumber is 100% sapwood. Prior to installation in the field, each piece was planed to exactly 38 by 89 mm² (1.5 by 3.5 i...
R C De Groot, R J Ross, W Nelson
A dynamic approach to assess the modulus of elasticity in wood decay testing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20139
In this study, the changes in elastic behaviour and mass losses of different hardwood and softwood species exposed to decay in a laboratory soil tests were assessed. Wood decay was monitored using different assessment methods, namely: mass loss and changes in elastic behaviours (MOE) determination. Elastic changes were determined by static and dynamic methods, for the latter, acoustic technique wa...
L Machek, H Militz, R Sierra-Alvarez
Relationship between the bending strength and the degree of termite attacks on western hemlock by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1990 - IRG/WP 1434
For the examination of the relationship between the bending strength and the degree of termite attacks, Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla Sarg.) was used. Sixty specimens (4.5 x 4.5 x 82 cm³) were attacked by termites at the culture room of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The termites were introduced on the central parts (10 cm) of specimens. In the case of the 2 points loading, the bending mom...
K Suzuki, T Tanaka
Biodetioration and strength reductions in preservative treated aspen waferboard
1983 - IRG/WP 2195
Experimental aspen waferboards, bonded with liquid or powdered phenol formaldehyde resins and treated by various methods with a wide selection of preservatives, were tested for fungal resistance in accelerated laboratory trials. Mold growth on the surface as well as weight and strength losses due to the actions of decay fungi were determined. Testing of board strength after decay in high and moder...
E L Schmidt, H J Hall, R O Gertjejansen, R C De Groot
Changes in some important mechanical and physical properties of untreated and treated mining timber after exposure to the conditions of a colliery
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20082
Each of salt treated and untreated mining timber (wedge) pairs with 5x15 cm² cross-section and 155 cm length prepared from Scots pine, Bornmüller's fir and oriental beech was cut in the small standard test specimens to determine changes in some important mechanical and physical properties, 13 month after exposure to the conditions of Kozlu Hard Coal Mines in the depth of 52 m. Thus, the...
Moisture correction for ultrasonic MOE measurements above fibre saturation point in Scots pine sapwood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20333
There is a high correlation between methods for dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) and static modulus of elasticity (MOEstat). MOEdyn methods have been found sensitive to detect early stages of decay and may be seen as an option for non-destructive wood durability testing. As the MOEstat measurements do not change after reaching the fibre saturation point, the uncorrected MOEdyn data from ultr...
E Larnøy, G Alfredsen, H Militz
Natural durability of different wood species in above ground applications - Weight and MOE loss
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10667
In Norway, exterior wood structures have traditionally, nearly exclusively been made of untreated Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and pressure treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In recent years there has been a tendency that other wood species, like various Norwegian hardwoods or imported species, have been used in exterior above ground applications, often not surface treated. For se...
F G Evans, P-O Flæte, G Alfredsen
Measurement of wood decay by dynamic MOE in an accelerated soil contact test
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20390
Current laboratory and field testing of preservatives involves various techniques to determine the extent of fungal attack, including visual inspection, mass loss, and static bending and compression strength measurements. The objective of this study was to compare decay measurement by conventional compression strength versus dynamic MOE, employing small wood stakes in an accelerated laboratory so...
Gan Li, D D Nicholas, T P Schultz
Evaluation of variables that influence dynamic MOE in wood decay studies
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20409
The effect of wood moisture content (MC) and outdoor exposure of southern pine lap-joint components on dynamic MOE values was investigated. The use of dynamic MOE as a method of measuring progressive biodeterioration of above ground test samples shows promise, but the accuracy of this method for evaluating test samples subjected to fluctuating environmental conditions has not been reported. The re...
D Nicholas, J Shi, T Schultz
Testing of decay resistance of sapwood and heartwood of thermally modified Scots pine and Norway spruce
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40523
Thermal modification at elevated temperatures changes the chemical, biological and physical properties of wood. One of the main targets of thermal modification is to increase the biological durability and decay resistance of wood. Although the effects of thermal modification on wood have been widely studied, the significance of sapwood and heartwood on the resistance of thermally modified wood has...
H Viitanen, S Metsä-Kortelainen
Effect of an antioxidant on the efficacy of organic wood preservatives in an accelerated soil contact decay test
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30583
In comparison to inorganic wood preservatives, organic biocides in transient carriers are considerably less effective when the treated wood is exposed to soil contact. Various oils are used in some formulations with pentachlorophenol to improve the efficacy. However, use of these oils imparts unacceptable properties to products used in residential applications. Consequently, there is a need to de...
D D Nicholas, J Shi, T P Schultz, L Sites
Testing the durability of timber products above ground using the block-test method – A critical review
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20637
The block-test method for testing the durability of wood and wood products above ground is reviewed critically with respect to practical aspects, moisture loads, corresponding decay development, and the possibilities of assessing test specimens by determining the dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) of wood. In total, 36 blocks representing different modifications of the original set-up and a wi...
C Brischke, A Gellerich, H Militz
Durability classification of preservative treated and modified wood
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20659
EN 350 (2016) allows formally to determine durability classes (DC) for wood products and wood-based materials, which was previously only possible for untreated wood in the form of natural durability. In a first study, the University of Goettingen carried out the durability classification of chemically modified (modified with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea, DMDHEU) and preservative-treate...
S Bollmus, L Bachle, C Brischke, H Militz
Impact of fungal decay on the bending properties of wood
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20671
Wood used outdoors is generally prone to fungal degradation, and its impact on the structural integrity of wood is an immanent factor for service life planning with timber. Wood decayed to very small mass losses can suffer from a significant reduction in mechanical strength and elastic properties. Hence, the latter are preferred indicators to detect decay in wood durability studies. Numerous previ...
S Bollmus, P B van Niekerk, C Brischke
Durability of acetylated Radiata pine: Laboratory tests and performance in practice
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40899
Wood acetylation is an established process to enhance biological durability and dimensional stability of lower valuable wood species without the use of biocides. Acetylated Radiata pine (ACCOYA® wood) has been on the market for more than 10 years now, starting in 2007. Numerous lab tests have confirmed the high durability of acetylated Radiata pine. Here, additional data with four Radiata pine ...
K Jacobs, W Scheiding, B Weiß
Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examinati...
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph
Moisture content levels and decay of hemlock
1986 - IRG/WP 1287
As a model of decay conditions of wooden members in wooden houses, a decay test was set up in which samples of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) under 4 moisture levels were examined. Each week the samples were weighed and if the weights indicated that their moisture contents were lower than the expected levels, distilled water was added. Every 8 weeks 3 samples from each condition were oven dr...
Summary of development of pile wrappings in Los Angeles Harbour
1987 - IRG/WP 4141
Loss of preservatives from treated wood during service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3734
During the 23rd IRG conference in Harrogate the matter of preservative losses from treated wood during service was raised. We were asked to collect information in this field and ask now for help from you. Many tests have been carried out at a laboratory scale to study fixation and leaching from wood treated with different preservatives. Very little, however, is reported on losses of preservatives ...
M-L Edlund, D Rudolph
Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also ...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell
Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211...
J K Carey, J G Savory
On Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar
1986 - IRG/WP 1285
Donkioporia expansa is found more often in houses than realised until now. Virulence tests according to EN 113 show not only an attack of oak, but also of other hardwoods and even soft-woods....