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Changes of fungicidal, mechanical and sorption properties of wood during above ground outdoor exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20513
The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate differences in mechanical, fungicidal, and sorption properties of four different wood species (sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), common beach (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and copper-ethanolamine (CuE) impregnated Norway spruce (Picea abies)) that were exposed in the 3rd use class (CEN, 1992) for periods between 4 and 30 months...
N Thaler, M Humar

Improvement of liquid penetration of wood by precompression under appropriate conditions and recovery process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40014
A new system for enhancing the penetration of liquid into wood using a precompression treatment was designed, and the effects of compressive deformation and recovery on liquid uptake were evaluated. Precompression of up to 60% under appropriate moisture and heat conditions effectively increased the penetration of liquid into refractory wood samples of practical sizes without producing any strength...
I Iida, Y Imamura

A study of wood quality of Juglans nigra and hybrid walnut (MJ 209xRA) : durability against Coriolus versicolor, density and MOR
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10522
The study investigated possible effects of harvesting season on some wood properties of Juglan nigra (JN) and a hybrid walnut (MJ209xRA). The samples were taken from trees which were harvested in June July, August, November of the same year, and March in the year after to determine whether there were any significant differences in wood properties as regards the harvesting seasons. In order to test...
B Charrier, F Charrier, D P Kamdem, J B Aurel, G Janin

A Preliminary Report on the Properties of Engineered Wood Composite Panels Treated with Copper Naphthenate
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40294
This paper reports on our preliminary investigation of the properties of randomly oriented strandboard which had waterborne or powdered copper naphthenate (CuN) incorporated into the board during manufacture. When compared to zinc borate-treated controls (ZnB), the mechanical properties of strandboard (MOR, MOE, work-to-maximum load, internal bond strength) were not adversely affected by treatmen...
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes

The use of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in natural durability testing
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20117
Losses in weight, losses in bending strength and changes in elastic behaviour were assessed in a fungus cellar test with beech wood stakes (Fagus sylvatica). Results were gained after 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks resp . The outcomes show, that the non-durable species beech is very rapidly attacked by fungi and loses up to 60% of its initial bending strength even within the first 8 weeks. Earlier researc...
L Machek, H Militz, W Gard

Laboratory tests on artificial weathering of Quercus rubra crossties
1986 - IRG/WP 2252
Clear red oak (Quercus rubra) blocks were used to evaluate various types of accelerated aging tests including boil, steaming, and cyclic weathering. It was found that the repeated vacuum and pressure treatment of wood in water, steaming, oven-dry, and freezing appeared to be most effective in reducing the MOE in compression and hardness modules of wood specimens. Red oak crossties which were press...
P Chow, A J Reinschmidt, E J Barenberg, S L Lewis

The influence of the location of a wood defect on the modulus of elasticity determination in wood durability testing
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20287
This study investigates the influence of the location of a wood failure in stakes upon elastic changes observed in beech specimens with the resonance vibration technique. Natural failures were simulated by artificially created defects at different locations of the test stake. The results indicate that the location of an attack in a stake is important for the measurement outcome. When the attack is...
L Machek, H Militz

A dynamic approach to assess the modulus of elasticity in wood decay testing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20139
In this study, the changes in elastic behaviour and mass losses of different hardwood and softwood species exposed to decay in a laboratory soil tests were assessed. Wood decay was monitored using different assessment methods, namely: mass loss and changes in elastic behaviours (MOE) determination. Elastic changes were determined by static and dynamic methods, for the latter, acoustic technique wa...
L Machek, H Militz, R Sierra-Alvarez

Effects of heat treatment on modulus of elasticity of beech wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40222
Heat treatment is the oldest, simplest and cheapest method for reducing hygroscopicity of wood. The heat treatment protects wood against to biological organisms as well as giving wood dimensional stabilization without damaging environment. The effects of heat treatment on modulus of elasticity (MOE) of beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) naturally grown and intensively used in forest products in...
S Yildiz, G Çolakoglu, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, A Temiz

Evaluation of the natural durability and ultrasonic method for decay detection of some european hardwood and softwood species
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10537
This paper presents the first part of an investigation on the natural durability of mixed plywood made of durable and non durable plies from the following selected timbers : Cedrus atlantica, Cupressus sempervirens, Castanea sativa, Populus sp. I 214 and Fagus sylvatica. In order to carry out this study, the natural durability of the massive wood used to manufacture the plywood panels was asses...
F Faraji, M-F Thévenon, B Thibaut

Bending properties of wood after its decay with Coniophora puteana and subsequent modification with selected chemicals
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40146
Mechanical properties of wood are often decreased due to decay processes caused by biotic and/or abiotic factors. Damaged wooden elements (e.g. historical structures) can be reinforced by more methods, including their modification with convenient chemicals. This paper presents influences of selected chemicals on basic bending properties (modulus of elasticity - MOE, modulus of rupture - MOR) of so...
L Reinprecht, S Varinska

Study of modulus of rupture, circumference taper, sapwood thickness and CCA treatment of Norwegian origin Pinus sylvestris poles
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20054
Nondestructive strength testing with Pilodyn (6J) of Norwegian Pinus sylvestris poles revealed effective modulus of rupture (MOR) of 54.39 N/mm² at wet conditions after CCA-C treatment and circumference measurement revealed circumference taper of 0.021 m/n. Sapwood thickness or penetration of CCA-C study revealed that 77% poles were with sapwood thickness equivalent to 39.6% of radius of poles an...
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A B Fakir, R U Hafiz

Effect of post-treatment drying schedule on the modulus of elasticity of CCA-treated southern pine dimension stock using nondestructive methods
1987 - IRG/WP 3413
This paper describes the results from the nondestructive testing for modulus of elasticity (MOE) of southern pine (Pinus sp.) 2 x 6's treated with chromated copper arsenate and redried using three commercial kiln schedules. The data indicate that redrying CCA-treated southern pine dimension stock treated to above-ground retentions (4 kg/m³) has no deleterious effect on the MOE, regardles...
H M Barnes, S Moore

Bending strength of heat-treated spruce and pine timber
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40242
Heat-treatment of spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) beams (45 x 145 mm) gave a reduction in bending strength of approximately 50%. The bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity) only decreased by 3.5%. Tests were carried out according to EN 408. Another effect of the heat-treatment was increased variation in bending strength. The 5th percentile value of the bending strength, the so c...
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, F Brem

Acoustic technique for assessing decay in preservative treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20138
This study investigated the suitability of vibration techniques to assess the performance of wood preservatives in ground contact. Small stakes (10 x 5 x 100 mm3) of treated and untreated Scots pine sapwood were exposed to decay in lab-scale terrestrial ecosystems. Tests were conducted using three different soils including a garden compost soil, and soils obtained from a test field and a conifer f...
L Machek, M-L Edlund, R Sierra-Alvarez, H Millitz

Correlation between modulus of elasticity, mass losses and FTIR spectra of copper treated decayed wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10580
The composition of copper-based preservatives will change from copper-chromium to copper-ethanolamine, due to environmental demands. The most important drawback of copper-impregnated wood is the presence of tolerant fungal organisms that have developed an ability to degrade such preserved wood. In order to elucidate these processes, specimens (0.5×1.0×15 cm) made of Norway spruce (Picea abies) w...
M Humar, B Bucar, F Pohleven

The Use of Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rupture to Assess Wood Decay in Laboratory Soil-Bed Test
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20338
The efficacy of wood preservatives were determined in a soil-bed test. Samples of alder wood sapwood (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) (5x10x100 mm) were treated with Solutions of CCA (1 % and 2 %), ACQ-1900 (2 % and 3 %), ACQ-2200 (1 % and 2 %), Tanalith E 3491 (2 % and 2.8 %), Wolmanit CX-8 (% 1 and 2 %). Modulus of Elasticity, modulus of rupture, mass loss and decay rate according to AWPA E7 wer...
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz

Effects of CCB on wood strength of Eastern spruce (Picea orientalis L.)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40416
The effects of CCB (chromate copper boron) on the static bending properties of Eastern spruce (Picea orientalis L.) based on MOE (modulus of elasticity) and MOR (modulus of rupture) were evaluated after full-cell vacuum/pressure treatment using a 3.0 % concentration followed by kiln-drying at 15 and 30 % moisture contents with heating the preservative at 30 and 40 ºC. The results showed that MOE ...
I Usta, M Hale

Cantilever bending test of furfurylated poles
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40424
Ten, 8 m long poles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were treated with furfuryl alcohol to a WPG of approximately 40 %. A bending test was performed according to the principles in the draft European standard for wooden poles, prEN 14229 - Structural timber - Wood Poles for overhead lines. The bending strength and stiffness (MOE) for the poles tested were compared to an earlier study by the Swedish Wood Preservation Committee. In the latter study untreated, CCA-treated, ammoniacal Cu-PCP treated and creosoted poles were tested in bending. These types of poles were considered not to differ in strength and stiffness. The results of the furfurylated poles fit well with the results from the previous study. The bending strength and MOE values obtained are compared to the upper and lower 95-percentile values of the results from the previous study and all poles treated with furfuryl alcohol fit within this interval.Thus, this study indicates that a treatment with furfuryl alcohol does not result in a decrease of strength or stiffness. Further testing with a larger population of poles is necessary in order to get a statistically reliable result. In addition to further demonstration of the durability, the treatment process must be optimised to ensure full sapwood penetration and measures have to be taken to avoid the serious cracking observed in this trial before furfurylation can be considered for treatment of Pinus sylvestris poles.
R Ziethén, J Jermer, A Clang

Mechanical and chemical properties of blue stained wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10686
Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-staining fungi. In the previous researches there was general opinion that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. On the other hand, there were some opposite results reported as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two the most frequent and important blue stain fungi Au...
M Humar, V Vek, B Bučar

Repairing of wooden elements by beta-method using carbon, steel or beech rods
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40488
Presented paper is focused on repairing of wooden elements by Beta joints reinforced with carbon, steel or beech rods, and on comparing the efficiency of these joints with traditional carpentry joints. In model laboratory experiments have been determined the bending strength (fm) and the modulus of elasticity (E) of control or original elements (fm-Control; Eo) from Norway spruce (Picea abies Kars...
L Reinprecht

Natural durability of wood tested in different environments in Northern Europe
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10747
Moisture is often recognised as a key factor regarding the long time performance of wooden products, and one of the main challenges for timber products is to predict accurate service life in use class 3 (not covered above ground) and use class 4 (in soil or fresh water contact). A range of durability classification studies have been performed both in field and laboratory. But for several wood spec...
P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, F G Evans

Effects Of Wood Preservative On Mechanical Properties Of Glulam Manufactured From Lower Density Malaysian Tropical Timber
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40590
This study is to investigate the effect of wood preservative on the mechanical properties of glulam timbers made from low density Malaysian hardwood timbers. Utilization of lower density Malaysian tropical timber for structural applications have not exploited extensively due to their inferior strength. By converting into treated glued laminated (glulam) timbers it could offer the possibility of th...
L Francis, Z Ahmad

Mechanical Properties of Hydrothermally Treated Beech Wood in Buffered Mediums
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40597
Hydrothermal treatment of beech wood in buffered mediums was carried out by aim of controlling the destructive effect of acids formed by degradation of carbohydrates on strength properties. Different mediums (water, buffer5, 7 and 8) and temperatures (160 and 180 °C) were used. Mechanical properties of specimens including modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and toughness were de...
A Talaei A Karimi, K Yaghoobi, A Talaei

Investigation of Nanocopper-Hygrothermally Treated Wood Properties
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40644
Nanometals with high thermal conductivity can be considered as modifiers, especially in thermal modification of wood. This study was aimed to investigate some physical and mechanical properties of nanocopper impregnated Iranian beach (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), which was hygrothermally treated. For this purpose, nanocopper solution (400 ppm) was used for impregnation process. Hygrothermal treatment...
G Rassam, B Jamnani, A Faraji Heris

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