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Performance of dip and pressure treated wood in termite ground proximity exposures in Hilo, HI, and Colombia
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30491
A number of preservative systems were evaluated for their ability to control termite attack when applied as both dip and pressure treatments. With dip treatments, better performance was observed with southern pine than spruce-pine-fir using the same solution strength treatment, probably as a result of the about 50% greater uptake with southern pine and associated deeper preservative penetration. B...
P Walcheski, A Zahora


The performance of glue laminated railway ties after 40 years of service in the main line track
1989 - IRG/WP 2325
Two series of horizontally glue laminated ties made of a softwood body and topped with a hardwood lamination were creosoted and installed in 1947 in a tangent and a curved main line track. The tests are now 40 years old and the excellent condition of the ties of these two series suggest that a service life of 50-60 years can be expected....
J P Hösli, E E Doyle, C P Bird, T Lee


End grain sealants for wood preservation studies
1985 - IRG/WP 3341
The results of tests with possible end grain sealants for wood preservation studies are reported. The epoxy resins used gave satisfactory performance on wet or dry Sitka spruce and have been used with success for diffusion treatment studies....
R J Murphy, N A Summers


The influence of formulation on the behaviour of LOSP's during industrial impregnation of spruce
1986 - IRG/WP 3387
Evidence is presented that the comparative behaviour of two LOSP formulations during impregnation treatment of spruce cannot be predicted purely on the basis of their physical characteristics (viscosity, surface tension and contact angle) nor on the extent of their 'passive' penetration into pine sapwood....
L D A Saunders, D M Zuvencko


Butt-end incising to improve penetration and retention of creosote in Eucalyptus saligna power transmission poles in Kenya. Preliminary results
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40249
Incising as a possible technique to improve penetration and retention of creosote in the butt end of Eucalyptus saligna power transmission poles in Kenya was investigated. Debarked, butt-end samples from whole poles were seasoned (15% MC), incised using four patterns of incisions, sealed at the top or small diameter end, and pressure treated with a mixture of creosote-furnace oil (60/40 mix) at a...
R Venkatasamy


A new model for wetting and drying of wood end-grain – with implications for durability and service-life
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20477
New experimental data for wetting and drying of wood end-grain, Sandberg (2009), imply that traditional models for moisture transport are not at all applicable. A new model is developed to consider the phenomenological behaviour of water transport in and out of end-grain, using the pore water pressure and sorption scanning properties. Modelling results are compared to experimental results and the ...
L-O Nilsson, K Sandberg


Butt-end incising to improve penetration and retention of CCA in Eucalyptus saligna telegraph poles in Kenya: Preliminary results
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40243
Incising to improve penetration and retention of Copper Chrome Arsenate (CCA) in the butt end of Eucalyptus saligna telegraph poles was investigated. Debarked, seasoned (15% MC) butt-end samples from full size telegraph poles were incised using four patterns of incisions, sealed at the top or small diameter end, and pressure treated, together with un-incised samples, with CCA-C (3.0% oxide typ...
R Venkatasamy


Alternative timbers to Iroko (Milicia excelsa) for various end-uses: Ghana’s offer
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10518
There are hundreds of timber species indigenous to Ghana and several exotic species have been extensively planted. The timber industry in Ghana is very important to the country’s economy. Despite its small size relative to the world trade in timber products, it has the potential to be a driving force in the development of the Ghanaian economy. The industry is currently going through a period...
S A Amartey, Zeen Huang, A Attah


Strategies for enhancing usage of treated wood in Indian context
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40305
India constitutes 2% of the world’s forest area but it has to support over 15% of the human and nearly 14% of the cattle population and therefore forests in India are under immense biotic pressure. The main concern today is the rate at which avoidable factors or man made threats accelerate the process of forest degradation and to evolve measures to check the same. Man made threats include expl...
P K Aggarwal, S C Gairola


Preservative treatment specifications in Fiji
1982 - IRG/WP 3190
The preservative treatment specification used in Fiji is outlined. Reference is made to a basic end use classification and to locally approved treatment processes, preservatives and retention levels. Amenability ratings are defined and penetration requirements for broad commodities indicated. Currently commercial operations rely entirely on pressure treatment with copper-chrome-arsenic multisalts ...
A S Alston


End grain sealing by polymer impregnation
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3708
The solution and dispersion characteristics of several hydrophobic derivatives of cellulose have been studied and the abilities of these polymers to afford effective end grain sealing of Corsican pine have been examined. Both solution and dispersion treatments with ethyl cellulose imparted good water repellency and end grain sealing to wood samples, however, the disperse systems possessed lower vi...
J M Lawther, W B Banks, D G Anderson, J A Cornfield


Amenability of radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) as affected by aspects of cell ends in uniseriate ray parenchyma tissue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40252
The principal objective of this article was to recognise and understand the amenability of ray parenchyma cell ends (end platform) in uniseriate ray tissue to influence the radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) by examination of most (Queen Charlotte Islands in Rhondda, South Wales) and the least (South Oregon in Dalby, North-East England) seed origins that grown in ...
I Usta, M D C Hale


End Coating Masson Pine Grown in South China to Prevent the Development of Blue Stain
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30428
One end (randomly selected) of logs of mason pine (Pinus massoniana) were coated with a wax-type end coating called ANCHORSEAL® immediately after tree cutting. The logs were then stored in summer weather in Guangxi, China. During the storage, at week 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12, five logs of mason pine were sawn into lumber or veneer for the visual observation and measurement of blue stain at the coa...
Zhao Youke, Qin Li, Huang Rongfeng, Lu Jianxiong


Radial flow of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) as affected by wood tapering and the condition of end wall structure of uniseriate ray parenchyma cells
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40441
Amenability to radial permeability of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) was studied on the base of the effects of wood tapering and the structure of end walls of uniseriate ray parenchyma cells. The results showed that the most remarkable culprits of the greatest fluid uptake (as the percentage of void volume filled by the fluid in the radial flow direction, RVVF%) are the lesser woo...
I Usta, S Aslan


Categorization of 300 timber, bamboo and cane grown in Bangladesh based on their families, origins, growths, physical and mechanical properties
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10684
In this study the 300 timber, bamboo and cane plants grown in Bangladesh have been classified into various categories based on their taxonomic families, origin of species, rate of growth, color of wood, texture of wood, shrinkage of wood, equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood, flammability of wood, cutting and sawing properties of timber, finishing and polishing qualities of wood, machining p...
A K Lahiry


Comparison of moisture loss and its increment during the rehearsal process based on natural drying and water soaking application with or without sealing the trial discs of Common black poplar (Populus nigra L.)
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40639
This study was subjected to be set up to prove the pattern of moisture loss and moisture increment within the same wood samples prepared as the discs (30x23±3 cm diameter) with or without the bark intact during drying and in the duration of the water soaking application. In this concept, wood was exemplified by Common black poplar (Populus nigra L.) of the five 12 year old trees that are grown in...
I Usta


Durability of reaction to fire performance of FRT wood products in different end use applications – Methods and results
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40705
Fire retardant treatments (FRT) may considerably improve the reaction to fire properties of wood-based products and the highest fire classifications for combustible products can be reached, but the maintained reaction to fire performance e. g. in exterior applications needs to be addressed in order to form a basis for new and reliable wood products with improved fire performance. A European Techn...
B Östman, L Tsantaridis


Life cycle assessment of creosote treated wood and tall oil treated wood with focus on end-of-life
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50320
The use of creosote for protecting wood products in heavy-duty application outdoors has been common for many years, but stricter regulations have limited creosote’s use. Life cycle assessments (LCA) have shown that in some applications alternatives to creosote treated products do not have less environmental impacts. Searching for alternatives to creosote, tall-oil-based preservatives have been ...
L G F Tellnes, U Hundhausen


Long service life or cascading? The environmental impact of maintenance of wood-based materials for building envelope and their recycling options
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50336
A major restraint in choosing bio-based materials (i.e. wood-based) for external use, is the lack of confidence that architects, designers and customers have toward these materials. In particular, the limit state of bio-based materials, which defines the frequency of maintenance operations, might be reached earlier for wood than for other materials (i.e. concrete). On the other hand, resource and ...
M Petrillo, J Sandak, P Grossi, A Kutnar, A


Conversion by insects – alternative method for wood waste up-cycling
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50337
Building industry is a major consumer of materials and waste generator in Europe. The bio-based building materials are considered as interesting alternative in modern building sector due to their low environmental impact. However, in order to increase confidence for bio-based materials application, they should present satisfying performance during service life allowing at the same time their casca...
A Sandak, J Sandak, M Kutnik, I Paulmier, C Brunet, M Petrillo, P Grossi


Performance of field cut preservatives above-ground and in ground contact exposures
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30742
Field cut preservatives are needed to protect cut ends and drill holes that expose the untreated interior of preserved wood. A series of field cut preservatives were assessed in ground contact and above-ground exposures. After 10 years in ground contact exposure, all of the untreated controls had failed or exhibited very advanced decay. In contrast, the copper naphthenate (2% Cu in mineral spirits...
R Stirling, D Wong


Is cascading of harvested wood products really an environmentally beneficial strategy in Finland and Norway?
2020 - IRG/WP 20-50364
The role of cascading wood waste in the bioeconomy is highlighted in the several strategic documents. The European Waste Framework Directive describes a waste hierarchy where re-use and recovery are considered more favourable options compared with energy recovery, and applies strict re-use and recycling targets to household waste and non-hazardous construction and demolition waste. It is not fully...
C A S Hill, G Alfredsen, M Hughes, L R Gobakken