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Loss of preservatives from treated wood during service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3734
During the 23rd IRG conference in Harrogate the matter of preservative losses from treated wood during service was raised. We were asked to collect information in this field and ask now for help from you. Many tests have been carried out at a laboratory scale to study fixation and leaching from wood treated with different preservatives. Very little, however, is reported on losses of preservatives ...
M-L Edlund, D Rudolph


Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is d...
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton


Environmental impact of CCA poles in service
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50087
Soil samples from different depths and distances from CCA treated utility poles in Canada were analyzed for copper, chromium and arsenic content for a number of soil types, two wood species red pine (Pinus resinosa) and jack pine (P. banksiana) and different pole ages in service. A limited number of poles were equipped with water traps to collect rain water that dripped down the poles and where su...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, J-P Aucoin


Fully impregnated poles for a minimum environmental impact: Eucalyptus poles
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-24
The classical processes for preservation of wooden poles (vacuum-pressure and Boucherie processes) allow the impregnation of the sapwood only. The new radial-axial injection process has been applied to Eucalyptus poles, and has led to impregnation of both sapwood and heartwood. Further more; preserving product is injected both through the groundline area and through the bott end. This allows the...
L Nitunga


Life cycle analysis: Assessing environmental impact
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50034
Environmental impact assesment is a major issue that faces every nation today. However, consistently and objectively measuring the environmental impact is difficult. During the past two decades, a process called life cycle analysis was developed that tried to make consistent and objective environmental assessments. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry broadened the concept to not ...
S L LeVan


Less environmental impact of wood preservatives by considering the risk of attack in addition to the hazard class system
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-10
Hazard classes, which are standardized in Europe in EN 335, are most useful to direct chemical wood preservation towards the organisms which may attack wood in the various fields of utilisation. However, hazard only signifies the fact that an attack may occur without considering the actual risk to attack. To minimize the application of chemicals with respect of less environmental impact it is nece...
H Willeitner


Comparative environmental impact analysis of telecommunication utility poles: Treated wood and fibreglass
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50136
This study is aimed at providing the information necessary to assess the main environmental implications of different materials utilised in construction of utility poles. The study was performed on fibreglass and CCA treated poles timber. The work has been carried out by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wasted released during the entire life of the pole. The interactions w...
A Cugliandolo, M Onofrio, A Quaglino


The use of a physical field model to study the effects of remedially treated timber on the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and rye (Secale cereale), and the accumulation of toxic preservative constituents in Lolium perenne
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-02
Low cost laboratory model systems can be used to give relatively rapid indications of the environmental effects of preservative treated timber in soil contact. This paper details the effects of remedially treated timber on the growth of crops of Lolium perenne and Secale cereale seeded on soilbeds of different texture in close proximity to remedially treated creosoted pole sections. Lolium perenne...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines


Rapid analytical methods for wood waste - An overview
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50104
The proper handling of wood after service is a today's problem. Untreated wood could be reused or may be used as fuel. For treated wood special care is demanded to avoid environmental impacts. Thus, analytical methods are requested to detect rapidly whether and to what extend wood is contaminated, covering a wide spectrum of organic and inorganic agents used during the last 50 years. Trad...
A Peylo, R-D Peek


Assessment of dehydrogenase activity, fluoride content and total chromium content of soil profiles exposed to preservative treated wood within a model system
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10015
The development and prospective use of a closed model system to facilitate study of a number of indicators of environmental impact of wood preservatives laboratory conditions has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). Chemical analysis of leachate samples collected from drained soil profiles containing creosoted pole sections remedially treated with a chromated fluoride preservative indicated small incr...
G M Smith, D C R Sinclair, A Bruce, H J Staines


Life-cycle assessement of treated wood: A view from the roa
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50078
Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) is being used increasingly as a tool to structure information on the environmental characteristics of material and processes. This paper is based on the experience gained from our LCA studies on treated wood products over the last 4 years. The comprehensive and logical examination af the information available on treated timber provided by LCA has allowed identification...
W Hillier, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, J N B Bell


Initial results and observations of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmetal impact of preservative treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-02
The development of a closed model system for the laboratory assessment of the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). The model consists of a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section positioned in a soil profile from which leachate was collected via a series of simulated field dra...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines


An initial evaluation of the environmental impact of potential marine biocides
1978 - IRG/WP 441
Pilings and other structures in the marine environment are protected primarily by impregnation with creosote alone, or in combination with coal tar or waterborne preservatives such as copper-chrome-arsenate. Some of these materials are considered as possible ecological hazards and face an uncertain future; perhaps newly developed treatments to replace these conventional ones will pose different pr...
J D Bultman, P J Hannan


Isolation of soil borne bacteria and fungi from treated timber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50174
Most research in the last few decades has focused on the development of new strategies to control biological attack and the means to quantify this. Comparatively little work has been done to examine the effect that treated timber might have on its surrounding environment. This presentation will describe a methodology that attempts to detect any changes which might occur in the soil microflora foll...
I Stephan, A Stegemann, G Heidrich


Development of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2395
A closed model system was designed to facilitate a controlled study of the leachability and environmental fate of a remedial preservative under laboratory conditions. The elements of the model include a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section which is positioned in a representative soil profile supporting a sward of perennial ryegrass. The model will allow detailed examination of the ...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, B King


A methodology for the life-cycle assessment of treated timber products
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-01
Using case studies of CCA-treated motorway fenceposts and creosote-treated electricity transmission poles, the paper suggests an approach to evaluation of the overall environmental impact of treated timber products, utilising the emerging systems analysis method of life-cycle assessment (LCA). The development and application of LCA methodologies to date is reviewed and the key features identified....
S R Smith, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson


Characteristics and quantity of impregnated wood waste in Germany
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50041
The disposal of wood waste in Germany is one of the main problems not only for the wood preservation industry but also for all concerned with wood waste. Data on characteristics and quantity of wood waste are still needed. Based on criterions given in a previous paper (IRG/WP 93-50006), several assortments have been characterized with regard to their hazardous potential and their logistical aspect...
A Voss, H Willeitner


Fouling organisms as indicators of the environmental impact of marine preservative-treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50063
This study evaluates the use of fouling organisms (epibiota) to assess the environmental impact of preservative treated wood. This paper presents initial findings from treated panels exposed for 6 months at Sagres, Algarve, Portugal. Panels were treated with CCA, two copper-containing quaternary ammonium (ACQ) formulations and creosote, with nominal retentions from 10 to 40 kg/m³ (creosote 25 pcf...
R M Albuquerque, S M Cragg


Fouling assemblage development on copper-chromium-arsenic-treated timber submerged in European waters
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50181
The effect of the anti-marine-borer timber preservative CCA on community development of non-target marine fouling animals was investigated. Panels of Scots pine treated to target retentions of 12, 24 and 48 kg CCA per m3 of wood, plus untreated controls were submerged at seven coastal sites (Portsmouth, UK; La Tremblade (2 sites), France; Ria Formosa, Portugal; Sagres, Portugal; Kristineberg, Swed...
C Brown, R J Eaton, S M Cragg, P Goulletquer, A Nicolaidou, M J Bebianno, J Icely, G F Daniel, T Nilsson, A J Pitman, G Sawyer


Environmental evaluation of products by life cycle analysis [La problématique de lévaluation environnementale des produits à partir de l'analyse de leur cycle de vie et de leur "écobilan"]
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50002
In the last years a significant evolution in terms of industrial environment emerged. It has been realized that regulations on specific pollutants, controls on industrial sites, although indispensable actions, had to be completed with extended approaches based on the assessment of products and integrated substance chain management. To take into account such an approach, methodological researches h...
G C Landrieu


Assessment of the environmental impacts in life cycle analysis
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-31
Evaluation of environmental impacts is of crucial importance nowadays but it is a complex problem. Different methodologies have been proposed for the last 20 years such as the "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) approach. Life Cycle Assessment is an evalution tool of the impacts on the environment of a system including the whole activities associated with, from the extraction of the raw materials to the...
I Blanc-Sommereux


Biological and chemical investigations for the assessment of the environmental impact of wood preservative components
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50127
This study was carried out in order to investigate the suitability of biological and chemical techniques to evaluate the environmental impact of wood preservatives depleted from impregnated wood. Small specimens (15*25*50 mm3) of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) were treated with a CCB salt. After fixation the treated and untreated samples were washed-out according EN 84, and the different le...
E Melcher, H-W Wegen


Ecotox Testing of Leachates as an Alternative Approach for Environmental Impact Assessment of Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50185
Driven by the implementation of the EU Biocidal Product Directive (BPD) in the environmental assessment of treated wood different methodologies and test strategies are at present under discussion within industry, regulatory authorities and standardizing comittees. Test procedures for the analytical determination of emissions to different environmental compartments according to exposure scenario...
H-W Wegen


Fluoride and chromium concentrations in soil adjacent to remedially treated distribution poles
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50066
Soils adjacent to Rentex treated 'on-line' distribution poles were analysed for total fluoride and chromium content for comparison with background values of these elements. Soil samples 6 cm and 25 cm downslope of selected poles were recovered at 1 week, 1 month, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Background soil samples were taken 50 m from the poles at sampling times. Fourteen po...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines, P Durrant


Alternative methodology for the environmental impact assessment of treated wood: the wood emissions ecotoxicology
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50161
Preservative products and technologies are important for optimising the use of wood and wood products in our society. The regulations of their use under the european Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC will require an evaluation of the environmental impact of treated wood. The methodology currently used for this determination is the PEC/PNEC ratio. It consists of calculating PEC values (Predictive...
P Marchal, H W Wegen, J Van Acker, E Melcher, R-D Peek, W J Homan, D Aston, D Rudolph, E F Baines


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