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Fouling organisms as indicators of the environmental impact of marine preservative-treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50063
This study evaluates the use of fouling organisms (epibiota) to assess the environmental impact of preservative treated wood. This paper presents initial findings from treated panels exposed for 6 months at Sagres, Algarve, Portugal. Panels were treated with CCA, two copper-containing quaternary ammonium (ACQ) formulations and creosote, with nominal retentions from 10 to 40 kg/m³ (creosote 25 pcf). The presence of an abundant, diverse and healthy epibiotic community growing on treated wood was used as an indication that the preservative treatment had a relatively low impact on its immediate environment. Algae and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were the dominant members of the fouling community which developed on all preservative treated wood panels. The biomass (dry weight of organisms) and species diversity of epibiota scraped from the surface of preservative treated wood panels showed the following order CCA > Creosote > ACQ 1:1 > ACQ 2:1. No difference was detected concerning the shell dimension of mussels between treatments, but mussel biomass was much lower on ACQ-treated test samples, indicating that mussel settlement was affected by ACQ treatment, but growth was not. Algal biomass was highest on creosotetreated panels, with biomass on other panels fitting the following sequence: Creosote > CCA > ACQ 1:1 > ACQ 2:1. Copper, chromium and arsenic contents of algae were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Elevated levels of Cu, Cr and As were found in the macroalgal mat from CCA-treated panels. These levels showed significant positive linear regressions with panel preservative retention levels. Higher levels of copper were found in macroalgal mats from ACQ-treated wood, but showed no linear relationship to panel preservative loadings. Copper levels did not exceed 9 ppm in algal tissue, chromium and arsenic levels were below 1 ppm.
R M Albuquerque, S M Cragg

Life Cycle Assessment Comparison of Treated Wood to Alternate Materials – Overview, Results and Lessons
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50282
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proven useful in documenting the “green” benefits of various treated products compared to the commonly used alternates. To date, six LCA comparisons have been done or are nearing completion using ISO14040 and 14044 principles and data from US EPA databases. In almost all cases, the impact indicators for treated wood products show considerably smaller adverse effects on the environment than the comparators. In some cases, there is more than a 10-fold difference favouring the treated wood. This paper briefly reviews the methodology of preparing LCAs and provides an overview of the comparative LCA results, particularly of borate treated lumber to galvanized steel framing.
T Stephen, P E Smith, C R McIntyre

The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer

Loss of preservatives from treated wood during service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3734
During the 23rd IRG conference in Harrogate the matter of preservative losses from treated wood during service was raised. We were asked to collect information in this field and ask now for help from you. Many tests have been carried out at a laboratory scale to study fixation and leaching from wood treated with different preservatives. Very little, however, is reported on losses of preservatives during service. Since these values are of great relevance regarding environmental impact and the final disposal, reuse or recycling of treated wood, it is of great importance to get as much information as possible on the amount of active ingredients lost during service life. We are convinced there are quite a lot of analytical data and additional information available in many places all over the world. It appears to be rewarding to collect those data and put them together adequately to get an astimate of the losses of the different components based on a broad scale of in service situations. This work will be done as soon as information is available and it is intended to present the results on next IRG meeting.
M-L Edlund, D Rudolph

Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton

Environmental impact of CCA poles in service
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50087
Soil samples from different depths and distances from CCA treated utility poles in Canada were analyzed for copper, chromium and arsenic content for a number of soil types, two wood species red pine (Pinus resinosa) and jack pine (P. banksiana) and different pole ages in service. A limited number of poles were equipped with water traps to collect rain water that dripped down the poles and where sufficient ground water was present, ground water samples from next to the pole were analyzed. The level of soil contamination dropped rapidly with distance from the pole, with soil levels approaching background levels within 0.25 from the pole. Generally, copper levels (above background) were highest, followed by arsenic and chromium, consistent with the known relative leaching tendencies of the three elements. Contaminant levels increased with age of the pole in service and were generally highest in wet organic soils, followed by sand loam soils and clay soils. Soil concentrations were highest at the ground line, adjacent to the poles. This suggested that a large source of the soil contamination was contaminated rain water that ran down the pole. Rain water trapped from the pole surfaces during rain events had significant concentrations of all three elements. There was no obvious drop in contaminant content in water that dripped down the poles with age of the poles. Ground water samples from next to the poles occasionally had detectable CCA components above aquatic and drinking water guidelines.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, J-P Aucoin

Fully impregnated poles for a minimum environmental impact: Eucalyptus poles
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-24
The classical processes for preservation of wooden poles (vacuum-pressure and Boucherie processes) allow the impregnation of the sapwood only. The new radial-axial injection process has been applied to Eucalyptus poles, and has led to impregnation of both sapwood and heartwood. Further more; preserving product is injected both through the groundline area and through the bott end. This allows the two entrances to benefit from a very high retention of antiseptic.
L Nitunga

Life cycle analysis: Assessing environmental impact
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50034
Environmental impact assesment is a major issue that faces every nation today. However, consistently and objectively measuring the environmental impact is difficult. During the past two decades, a process called life cycle analysis was developed that tried to make consistent and objective environmental assessments. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry broadened the concept to not only incude the inventory, as previously considered in life cycle analysis, but also the environmental impact and improvement phases. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry defines life cycle assessment as "an objectice process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, to assess the impact of those energy and materials uses and releases on the environment, and to evaluate and implement opportunities to affect environmental improvements." Life cycle assessment (LCA) has received both positive and negative feedback on its utility as a process to evaluate environmental impact. This paper provides a brief history and overview of life cycle assessment, illustrating how it has been used and misused, listing the benefits and limitations, and outlining its possible applications to the wood preservation industry. Life cycle assessment provides an opportunity to quantify some environmental impacts of various wood preservation techniques and treatments; however, the process must be appropriately applied to gain the full benefit.
S L LeVan

Less environmental impact of wood preservatives by considering the risk of attack in addition to the hazard class system
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-10
Hazard classes, which are standardized in Europe in EN 335, are most useful to direct chemical wood preservation towards the organisms which may attack wood in the various fields of utilisation. However, hazard only signifies the fact that an attack may occur without considering the actual risk to attack. To minimize the application of chemicals with respect of less environmental impact it is necessary to consider both, the hazard of attack and the risk which implies the probability, how often attack may occur and how important this will be. In addition, also the consequences of the failure of a wooden commodity will influence the need of chemical wood preservation. It is therefore proposed to combine the hazard classes as specified in EN 335 or in similar non European regulations with a risk assessment including time assessment as a basis for the requirement on chemical wood preservation. For this, details are given in the paper.
H Willeitner

Comparative environmental impact analysis of telecommunication utility poles: Treated wood and fibreglass
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50136
This study is aimed at providing the information necessary to assess the main environmental implications of different materials utilised in construction of utility poles. The study was performed on fibreglass and CCA treated poles timber. The work has been carried out by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wasted released during the entire life of the pole. The interactions with the environment have been analysed, estimated and evaluated for their respective production, lifeservice and disposal phase, on the basis of the principles defined by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro 1992), as sustainable development, precautionary approach, best available technology. According to those principles, results show that quite significantly better performances can be reached with CCA treated poles in terms of processing energy use (about 2 kWh/pole against the 580 kWh/pole necessary for the fibreglass); even the lifeservice extension of the fibreglass product (not really yet known and estimated 40 years in comparison with the 25 - 35 years of a wood treated pole) is not sufficient to compensate for its extremely unfavourable energetic aspect. Otherwise, considering both the material at the end of their use life, a remarkable role is played from fibreglass poles for its wide possibilities of recycling (grinding, gasification, burning, pyrolysis and fluidized bed combustion); even if concrete possibilities of reuse and detoxification are actually adopted for wood products as well. In the assessment of environmental impacts the in-service effects on soil and surrounding water, the CCA leaching can represent a limit to the utilisation of treated wood poles. Studies around the poles have shown amount of CCA components released into the soil of maximum 4,6% by weight of the original salt retention in a treated pole. In conclusion the comparison between the two materials shows a more favourable performance towards the environment for the treated wood products.
A Cugliandolo, M Onofrio, A Quaglino

The use of a physical field model to study the effects of remedially treated timber on the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and rye (Secale cereale), and the accumulation of toxic preservative constituents in Lolium perenne
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-02
Low cost laboratory model systems can be used to give relatively rapid indications of the environmental effects of preservative treated timber in soil contact. This paper details the effects of remedially treated timber on the growth of crops of Lolium perenne and Secale cereale seeded on soilbeds of different texture in close proximity to remedially treated creosoted pole sections. Lolium perenne sward samples were subjected to chemical analysis for fluoride and chromium content to identify bio-accumulation of these toxic preservative components. Significant but variable reductions in the dry weight yields of Lolium perenne samples were found in conjunction with increased fluoride and chromium contents, together with significant reductions in the density of Lolium perenne swards. The difference in soil texture however was found to be a more significant influence on the growth of Secale cereale than the presence of treated timber. Secale cereale plants within a crop canopy established on the lighter textured soil were characteristically larger and more numerous than plants from canopies on heavier soils. Results are discussed as part of an overall environmental assessment of the remedial treatment and in terms of the suitability of the physical field model as a testbed for such plant studies.
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines

Rapid analytical methods for wood waste - An overview
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50104
The proper handling of wood after service is a today's problem. Untreated wood could be reused or may be used as fuel. For treated wood special care is demanded to avoid environmental impacts. Thus, analytical methods are requested to detect rapidly whether and to what extend wood is contaminated, covering a wide spectrum of organic and inorganic agents used during the last 50 years. Traditional methods can not meet today's requirements due to their time consumption or high detection limits. Modern analytical techniques are widely used in research and industry, but their application for wood waste is still difficult due to the complex and differing organic structure of wood. An overview on analytical methods, their chances and limits will be given. In particular it is reported on a joint research programme initiated by the German Environment Foundation. The program aims at the development of a single or combined method that is able to detect both, organic and inorganic contaminations in wood in industrial scale. This technique shall be suitable for the entrance control at waste disposal sites as well as the controlled demolition. The most promising techniques for fast analises are based on Laser-Plasma-Atomic-Emmission-Spectroscopy for inorganic agents and Ion-Mobility-Spectroscopy for organic agents.
A Peylo, R-D Peek

Assessment of dehydrogenase activity, fluoride content and total chromium content of soil profiles exposed to preservative treated wood within a model system
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10015
The development and prospective use of a closed model system to facilitate study of a number of indicators of environmental impact of wood preservatives laboratory conditions has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). Chemical analysis of leachate samples collected from drained soil profiles containing creosoted pole sections remedially treated with a chromated fluoride preservative indicated small increases in fluoride and chromium concentrations. This paper details measurement of dehydrogenase activity and chemical analysis of soil samples recovered from the surface layers of the model soil profiles adjacent to treated pole sections. Reduced levels of dehydrogenase activity were associated with increased soil concentrations of leached preservative components and lower organic matter content. Findings are discussed as part of an assessment of environmental impact of the remedial treatment in the field
G M Smith, D C R Sinclair, A Bruce, H J Staines

Life-cycle assessement of treated wood: A view from the roa
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50078
Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) is being used increasingly as a tool to structure information on the environmental characteristics of material and processes. This paper is based on the experience gained from our LCA studies on treated wood products over the last 4 years. The comprehensive and logical examination af the information available on treated timber provided by LCA has allowed identification of gaps in our present state of knowledge. There is a large quantity of data available of preservatives and treated timber from past and present studies but, unfortunately, due to constrains in the original experimental design or recording data, much of it is of only limited use in environmental assessments. However, in many cases, only modest change in the design or parameter recorded would be needed to greatly increase their value for environmental impact assessments, such as LCA. A number of specific examples are used to illustrate these points in the paper, and possibilities for future developments in LCA are elaborated.
W Hillier, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, J N B Bell

Initial results and observations of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmetal impact of preservative treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-02
The development of a closed model system for the laboratory assessment of the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). The model consists of a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section positioned in a soil profile from which leachate was collected via a series of simulated field drains. Chemical analyses of leachate and soil provided data indicating movement of toxic preservative constituents from the treated pole section to the model environment. These data were complemented by physical and chemical analysis of a sward of perennial ryegrass supported by the soil profile. This paper reports initial results and observations in terms of the models' suitability for assessment purposes. The advantages of the model system over traditional field studies are discussed.
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines

An initial evaluation of the environmental impact of potential marine biocides
1978 - IRG/WP 441
Pilings and other structures in the marine environment are protected primarily by impregnation with creosote alone, or in combination with coal tar or waterborne preservatives such as copper-chrome-arsenate. Some of these materials are considered as possible ecological hazards and face an uncertain future; perhaps newly developed treatments to replace these conventional ones will pose different problems. Today, for a toxic substance to be approved by cognizant government regulatory agencies it must undergo an extensive evaluation to determine its impact upon the environment. Consequently an initial assessment of the potential environmental impact must be determined for all compounds which have shown promise against marine borers and fungi in our investigations. This has been accomplished by determining their toxicity to marine algae which are the primary producers in the food chain. The principal organism used for this purpose has been Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, but Cyclotella nana and Chaetoceros galvestonensis have also been used.
J D Bultman, P J Hannan

Isolation of soil borne bacteria and fungi from treated timber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50174
Most research in the last few decades has focused on the development of new strategies to control biological attack and the means to quantify this. Comparatively little work has been done to examine the effect that treated timber might have on its surrounding environment. This presentation will describe a methodology that attempts to detect any changes which might occur in the soil microflora following the introduction of timber treated with a number of chemical agents containing organic active ingredients (a.i.). It was also the purpose to isolate organisms that can break down organic a.i.. A technique was developed to determine whether the presence and nature of a timber preservative influenced the size and composition of a microbial population that colonised timber when buried in soil. Samples of treated timber were incubated in a solution eluted from soil that contained a diverse, viable microbial population. After incubation, the size and composition of the microflora both in the eluate and adhering to the timber was examined.
I Stephan, A Stegemann, G Heidrich

Development of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2395
A closed model system was designed to facilitate a controlled study of the leachability and environmental fate of a remedial preservative under laboratory conditions. The elements of the model include a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section which is positioned in a representative soil profile supporting a sward of perennial ryegrass. The model will allow detailed examination of the movement of any toxic preservative constituents, in soil and water, released by an accelerated regime of simulated rainfall. Chemical analysis of soil and leachate will be complimented by plant analysis to identify bioaccumulation of any soil contaminants leached from the treated pole section. This paper details the design and development of the system from earlier environmental models, the difficulties encountered in construction and the sampling regimes to be employed. The benefits of such a system for inclusion in preservative testing protocols is discussed.
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, B King

A methodology for the life-cycle assessment of treated timber products
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-01
Using case studies of CCA-treated motorway fenceposts and creosote-treated electricity transmission poles, the paper suggests an approach to evaluation of the overall environmental impact of treated timber products, utilising the emerging systems analysis method of life-cycle assessment (LCA). The development and application of LCA methodologies to date is reviewed and the key features identified. The significant aspects of the use of CCA and creosote are considered with special reference to the construction of an LCA methodology based on environmental impact criteria. The three major elements of an LCA - the life-cycle inventory, the life-cycle impact analysis and the life-cycle improvement analysis - are described in detail and the constraints applying to the completion of each element for preservative treated wood are discussed. A provisional LCA methodology for treated timber is proposed and progress to date in conducting the LCA with this method is presented.
S R Smith, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson

Characteristics and quantity of impregnated wood waste in Germany
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50041
The disposal of wood waste in Germany is one of the main problems not only for the wood preservation industry but also for all concerned with wood waste. Data on characteristics and quantity of wood waste are still needed. Based on criterions given in a previous paper (IRG/WP 93-50006), several assortments have been characterized with regard to their hazardous potential and their logistical aspects. Results show that mixed assortments are those with the highest quantities. Each year about 2 Mio t of wood from demolition of buildings and from building sites have to be disposed. This accounts much more than the whole field of timber from landscape (ca. 220.000 t/a), crossties (ca. 6085.000 t/a) and poles (ca. 25.000 t/a). Timber from landscape, however, has a high hazardous potential and is hard to collect because of its broad distribution (e.g. private households). For assortments with small annual quantities (e.g. cooling towers, wooden silos) specific disposal structures are not realistic. At present most of the assortments cannot be reused or recycled either due to their hazardous potential or to their unfavourable disposal structures. For timber from landscape as well as for timber from demolition of buildings incineration in specific plants should be preferred.
A Voss, H Willeitner

Fouling assemblage development on copper-chromium-arsenic-treated timber submerged in European waters
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50181
The effect of the anti-marine-borer timber preservative CCA on community development of non-target marine fouling animals was investigated. Panels of Scots pine treated to target retentions of 12, 24 and 48 kg CCA per m3 of wood, plus untreated controls were submerged at seven coastal sites (Portsmouth, UK; La Tremblade (2 sites), France; Ria Formosa, Portugal; Sagres, Portugal; Kristineberg, Sweden; Athens, Greece). Inspections were made after 6, 12 and 18 months exposure and the fouling community on the surface of the panels was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Multivariate statistical methods were used to compare community structure between panel treatments. Results showed that panels treated to the three CCA loadings supported very similar fouling assemblages which, in most cases, had higher numbers of taxa and individuals compared to assemblages on untreated panels. There were no detectable detrimental effects on epibiota community development caused by the presence of CCA preservatives within the matrix of the wood at any of the treatment levels. Similar trends were found at all seven exposure sites. This indicates that the range of environmental conditions at the sites had no bearing on preservative impact on fouling biota. Differences in community structure between CCA-treated and untreated panels may be due to enhanced larval settlement on CCA-treated timber by some species as a result of modifications to the surface properties of the timber by the CCA preservative. Possible reasons for the higher numbers of certain species on the surface of CCA-treated panels are discussed.
C Brown, R J Eaton, S M Cragg, P Goulletquer, A Nicolaidou, M J Bebianno, J Icely, G F Daniel, T Nilsson, A J Pitman, G Sawyer

Environmental evaluation of products by life cycle analysis [La problématique de lévaluation environnementale des produits à partir de l'analyse de leur cycle de vie et de leur "écobilan"]
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50002
In the last years a significant evolution in terms of industrial environment emerged. It has been realized that regulations on specific pollutants, controls on industrial sites, although indispensable actions, had to be completed with extended approaches based on the assessment of products and integrated substance chain management. To take into account such an approach, methodological researches have been paeformed in different countries on Life Cycle Analysis. Such an approach has also been undertaken in France where it is named "Ecobilan". The problem is not easy to solve as it meets theoritical as well as practical difficulties. The application of these methodologies stays at the experimental level and great care has to be taken when interpreting the results. The author suggests a realistic use of Life Cycle Analysis and proposes future research orientations.
G C Landrieu

Assessment of the environmental impacts in life cycle analysis
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-31
Evaluation of environmental impacts is of crucial importance nowadays but it is a complex problem. Different methodologies have been proposed for the last 20 years such as the "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) approach. Life Cycle Assessment is an evalution tool of the impacts on the environment of a system including the whole activities associated with, from the extraction of the raw materials to the elimination of the waste. LCA are usually considered in a generic way on the basis of potential global effects, as the involved processes occur anywhere in the world. This approach is handling emerging problems such as global warming, ozone depletion. However handling this global approach for human toxicity, aquatic ecotoxicity or terrestrial ecotoxicity is totally conventional and is not relevant of any factual effect. Considering human toxicity and ecotoxicity in a Life Cycle Assessment might require to perform it at a different scale (local or regional) as well as to record the inventory data separately for each site to enable impact assessment at a local scale.
I Blanc-Sommereux

Biological and chemical investigations for the assessment of the environmental impact of wood preservative components
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50127
This study was carried out in order to investigate the suitability of biological and chemical techniques to evaluate the environmental impact of wood preservatives depleted from impregnated wood. Small specimens (15*25*50 mm3) of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) were treated with a CCB salt. After fixation the treated and untreated samples were washed-out according EN 84, and the different leachates were added continuously on the top of soil columns (lysimeters). The pure wood preservative was used as a reference. After certain time intervals the eluate was separated and the content of ions was analysed. A couple of these solutions were selected to determine their toxicity against luminescent bacteria and daphnia. First results show that the solutions containing the pure wood preservative show highest toxicity against the aquatic micro-organisms used in this test. The values for the leachate containing wood preservative are comparable with data for the wood preservative-free solution. The results clarify that the analytical measurements well correspond with the biological tests on ecotoxicity.
E Melcher, H-W Wegen

Ecotox Testing of Leachates as an Alternative Approach for Environmental Impact Assessment of Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50185
Driven by the implementation of the EU Biocidal Product Directive (BPD) in the environmental assessment of treated wood different methodologies and test strategies are at present under discussion within industry, regulatory authorities and standardizing comittees. Test procedures for the analytical determination of emissions to different environmental compartments according to exposure scenarios are suggested for international harmonization. In addition ´fate and behaviour´ modelling as well as the PEC/PNEC consideration are proposed to produce an environmental risk assessment of treated wood. As an alternative approach direct ecotoxicological testing of leachates is presented with leachates from solvent based preservatives treated timber as example. Daphnids as very sensitive bioindicators exhibited differences due to the included biocides of the preservative formulation tested as well as the leaching procedure used. The methodology of direct ecotoxicological testing as an alternative to PEC/PNEC comparison is discussed for suitability in wood preservation.
H-W Wegen

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