Your search resulted in 499 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA treated posts smouldered until destruction of the majority of the posts occurred. Posts treated with CCA-oil took longer for destruction to occur than posts treated with CCA-C or CCA-wax. Creosote treated posts and untreated controls did not show prolonged smouldering and consequently were not destroyed by the burning test, although their strength was reduced. A high fuel load increased the time that posts were alight and smouldering, and for CCA treated posts decreased their time to destruction.
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham
Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals.
Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion properties. The results indicated that inorganic boron compounds with aqueous solutions were very effective as fire retardant and reduced burning of some vinyl monomers at some extent such as styrene and methylmetacrylate when used as a secondary treatment chemical polimerized later on wood structure and phosphoric acid was also showed fire-reterdancy. Further studies are suggested on boron-vinyl monomers, and boric acid+borax with different concentrations by physical and chemical interactions in terms of fire reterdancy.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz
Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. Untreated and treated wood with all combinations were subjected to oxygen index test according to ASTM D 2863-91 and thermal analysis. Results were evaluated in terms of improvement of fire retarding performances of wood by sole or combination treatments.
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara
Evaluation of the fire retardant efficacy and leach resistance of an amino resin fire retardant - Preliminary report
1983 - IRG/WP 3260
The Early Fire Hazard Indices of untreated Pinus radiata were determined by testing to Australian Standard 1530, Part 3 - 1976. Differences in the performance of heartwood and sapwood were noted, with heartwood samples giving higher Ignitability, Heat Evolved and Spread of Flame indices. The treatability of Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H was assessed, and backsawn sapwood treated more effectively than all other combinations of direction of cut and sapwood/heartwood. Treatment of kiln dried DAR Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H did not produce dimensional changes of practical significance. This factor, plus a high concentration gradient of retardant in the treated timber, make it an ideal treatment for fully machined and profiled Pinus radiata. The leach resistance of the retardant was assessed. A greater percentage of phosphorus than nitrogen was leached, but the retardant remaining after leaching conferred similar protection to the unleached material at equivalent rententions. Pyrogard H is an effective leach resistant fire retardant for Pinus radiata.
W D Gardner, P N Alexiou, P Lind, D Butler
Influence of Acetylation on Fire Resistance of Beech Plywood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40326
Influence of acetylation on fire resistance was studied in beech plywood. Beech layers were acetylated in a reactor with acetic anhydride at 120ºC for varying durations. Plywoods were made from the acetylated layers and directly exposed to burning flame from their edges for 60s according to ISO 11925-3. Ignition and glowing time were measured in samples. Results were analyzed statistically based on a complete randomized design to determine effect of the acetylation on fire resistance. Results indicated that the acetylation affects ignition and glowing in plywood. Ignition time was increased due to raised weight percent gains and glowing was decreased instead. The acetylated plywood was burning with short blue flames; while flame was long and yellowish in non-acetylated one. This study revealed that the acetylation retards slightly fire in plywood; however it does not resist wood against fire.
B Mohebby, A Talaii, A Karimi , S Kazemi Najafi
Fire, flame resistance and thermal properties of oil thermally-treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40361
Oil thermal treatment, first developed by German scientists, is a promising technology for improving the durability and dimensional stability of wood for outdoor above-ground residential uses such as siding and shingles. The present authors’ previous research showed that 220ºC is an optimal treatment temperature, with 2 hours’ treatment producing wood with significantly improved moisture and biological resistance. This paper mainly deals with the preliminary investigation into fire, flame resistance and related thermal properties of such thermally modified wood. Slack wax and soybean oil were used as heating media for treatment at 220 ºC. Small-scale fire and flame resistance tests including the crib test and the two-foot tunnel test, were carried out. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) were also used to investigate the corresponding thermal properties. The results indicated that the oil-thermal treatment reduced the flame resistance, as a result of the oil or wax residue in wood surface, and wax absorbed by wood during the high-temperature treatment may facilitate extra heat evolution during thermal decomposition in air. However, in general, oil thermally-treated wood, especially soybean oil-treated wood, did not reduce the fire resistance of wood or affect the thermal properties of wood significantly.
Jieying Wang, P Cooper
Bi-oleothermal treatment of wood at atmospheric pressure: resistance to fungi and insects, resistance to weathering and reaction to fire results
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40418
Bi-oleothermal process is a simple treatment which has been developped by CIRAD in cooperation with FCBA. It allows a deep impregnation of wood with hydrophobic products using cheap facilities. The process includes two steps at atmospheric pressure. The first one is a dipping of wood samples in a hot oil bath (between 110 °C and 200°C) which creates an overpressure inside the wood. The second one is also a dipping in a oil bath but at a lower temperature (20°C to 80°C). In this second bath samples cooling leads to water condensation. A vacuum is created inside the samples and makes the oil to impregnate the wood. In this study, this process has been used to impregnate several wood species with several linseed oils with and without biocides. The resistance to wood destroying fungi has been assessed using a method adapted from EN 113. Results show that the linseed oils lead to an increase in the natural durability. The resistance to termites and to house longhorn beetles has been assessed using EN 117 and EN 47 respectively. Wood treated with biocide-free oil is attacked by termites but afterwards the oil induces the death of the insects. The addition of biocide makes the wood completely protected from termites attacks. EN 47 results show that 93% of mortality amongst the beetles is obtained with the biocide-free oil and 100% with the oil including biocide. The resistance of the treatment to weather has been studied using artificial weathering test according to EN 927-6. Results show that the coating provided by this process constitutes a low performing product compared to conventional stains. However the coatability with a solventborne or a waterborne stain is ensured and leads to good performance after artificial weathering. The influence of the oil treatment on wood exposed to fire was studied on oil treated samples and on samples which were fireproofed and then oil treated. EN ISO 11925-2 tests show the oil treated samples do not pass the test and have a fire classification of F. However samples that have been fireproofed and then impregnated with the linseed oil pass the test and a fire classification of E is obtained. These results were completed with EN 13823 tests. Samples that were fireproofed then oil treated fulfill the C fire classificiation requirements.
L Podgorski, I Le Bayon, I Paulmier, J-D Lanvin, V Georges, D Grenier, H Baillères, J-M Méot
Improving the Dimensional Stability and Fire Resistance of OSB by Roller-Coating Panels with UV-Curable Finishes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40434
Oriented strandboard was sanded and roller-coated with UV-cured finishes. The effects of these treatments on the surface roughness, dimensional stability and fire resistance of OSB were assessed. Sanding reduced the average roughness of OSB, but it had a smaller effect on maximum roughness because sanded boards still contained surface voids between some strands. Sanded boards absorbed less than half of the coating material of unsanded boards, and when they were finished with a UV-cured coating system consisting of filler, sealer and two top-coats they absorbed less water and were almost as dimensionally stable as unsanded and coated boards. The swelling of coated boards after 72 h immersion in water was less than one third of that of uncoated OSB. This reduction in swelling compares favourably with that which can be achieved using chemical or thermal modification of OSB. Coated boards were more fire resistant than uncoated ones, but sanding reduced the fire resistance of OSB (coated and uncoated), possibly because it removed part of the densified surface layer from panels. Hence, we conclude that light surface sanding makes it easier and more economical to apply moisture resistant finishes to OSB using roller coating, but it should not be used prior to application of fire-retardant finishes.
P D Evans, I Cullis
The Effects of Some Fire Retardant Chemicals on the Decay Resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30536
The objective of this study was to determine the decay resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated with 5% and 10% concentration of various fire retardant (FR) chemicals. Experimental panels were produced using by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins having 10%, 15% and 20% of melamine content. MDF specimens were subjected to decay resistance test performed according to modified EN 113 standard method using white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. It was found that the weight loss (%) of MDF specimens treated with chemicals were lower than those of control panels. Especially, the best results were obtained from MDF specimens treated with zinc borate (ZB). Furthermore, decay resistance of the MDF specimens improved with increasing melamine content in the MUF resin and increasing chemical concentration.
D Ustaömer, M Usta, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, E D Tomak
Effects of nano-wollastonite impregnation on fire resistance and dimensional stability of Poplar wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40595
The fire-retardant properties of Nano-Wollastonite (NW) in poplar wood (Populus nigra) were determined in this study. Some physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and Anti-Swelling Efficiency (ASE) were also measured. Specimens were prepared according to the ISO 11925 standard for the fire-retarding properties, and ASTM D4446-2002 standard for the physical properties. Impregnation of wood specimens with nano-wollastonite was carried out using the Ruping Method (empty-cell process) with a concentration of 10%. Three fire-retarding properties were measured; weight loss, ignition point and fire endurance. The results showed that fire-retarding properties increased in the NW-treated specimens. In addition, the NW-impregnated specimens gained higher dimensional stability. However, the water absorption also increased.
A Karimi, A Haghighi Poshtir, H Reza Taghiyari, Y Hamzeh, A Akbar Enayati
Study on Fire Resistance of Lightweight Panels Made of Honeycomb and Polyurethane Cores
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40645
In response to the increasing demand of lightweight and durable materials in furniture manufacture, potential of different skin types and cores were investigated to make proper lightweight panel. Fire resistance of panels made of different skins and cores were studied to elucidate the board’s behavior exposed to fire. Skins were MDF (3, 6 and 8 mm), particle board, plywood (3 and 5 layers) and cores were polyurethane foam and Kraft paper honeycombs (3 and 4 cm thickness). Fire tests examined according to ISO11925-3. Time of ignition, sustained Ignition time, sustained glowing time, mass loss and charred surface area were measured. The results indicated that by decrease in the thickness of skins, sustained ignition and glowing time and the charred surface area increased and so fire resistance decreased. The samples made of polyurethane core were burning with long yellow flames and short sustained glowing time; while samples made of Kraft paper honeycomb core were burning with short blue flame by long sustained glowing time. The best results were obtained in lightweight panels made of 4 cm Kraft paper honeycomb core and 8 mm medium density fiber board skin.
A Talaei, M Ghofrani, S Pishan
Fire resistance of wood treated with potassium carbonate and silanes
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30657
This paper reports on the effect that organosilicon compounds and potassium carbonate and urea (PCU) have on wood flammability. The study focus on reducing wood flammability by promoting char formation through manipulation of the condensed phase decomposition chemistry. Potassium carbonate is known as an effective fire retardant, however it is easily leached out from wood and increases its hygroscopicity. The aim of the research was to assess the ability of selected organosilicon compounds to reduce potassium carbonate leachability from the treated wood. The study was performed through the mini fire tube (MFT) method, where fireproofing properties of the treated wood were evaluated. Pine sapwood treated with PCU at the retention of ca. 160kg/m3 showed 6% of wood mass loss as a result of combustion in MFT. The fireproofness effect has been reduced due to the ageing procedure and displayed 60% of wood mass loss. It has been shown that some selected silanes or their blends with siloxanes, superficialy applied on treated wood, allowed to retain PCU in wood and maintain its fireproofness. Wood mass loss resulting from sample’s combustion was significantly reduced (ML<10%). AEAPTMOS, VTMOS and a mixture of alkylalkoxysilanes turned out to be most effective agents limiting potassium carbonate leachability and maintaining wood fireproofness.
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch
Minimum standards for habitability in emergency housing
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50312
In this study we evaluated the properties of a prefabricated HOUSING prototype based on a 64mm thick "Structural Insulated Panel" (SIP; hereinafter SIP64), built by two OSB panels bonded with a two component polyurethane adhesive to a high density expanded polystyrene core. This panel was manufactured as a main element for walls in the construction of emergency housing. The thermal insulation of the SIP64 panel was evaluated according to NCh853Of.91 (thermal insulation standard to calculate the thermal resistance and transmittance). The thermal requirements for exterior walls, Roof an ventilated floors in Chile are dictated by the General Urbanism and Construction Code (OGUC) for 7 climatic zones, so we could secure in which zone it was possible to use de SIP64 panel on exterior walls. Analytical calculation is obtained from the thermal resistance of the SIP64 panel was equal to 1.41 [m * K / W] equivalent to a thermal transmittance of 0.71 [W / m * K], therefore the SIP64 panel matches the thermal requirements in all climatic zones except zone VII. In terms of fire resistance, the quality of SIP64 panel was determined empirically to withstand a common fire under NCh 935/1.Of97 standard test. In this case, it is also the Chilean General Urbanism and Construction Code that dictates the fire resistance requirement for vertical bearing elements. The fire resistance of the panel corresponds to the F15 class, which meets the minimum safety requirements for bearing vertical elements and non- supportive frame walls. Ultimately, it was concluded that it is feasible to use the SIP64 panel as the main element in the construction of emergency housing, meeting the minimum requirements of habitability and safety, and safeguarding the technical design and construction requirements dictated by the OGUC form permanent housing. The SIP64 panel proved also to below cost and easily built, which is also e main interest in emergency housing.
R Garay, F Pfenniger, W Figueroa
Decay Resistance of MDF Manufactured with Huntite- Hydromagnesite and Zinc borate
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30710
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of some mineral based fire retardants on decay resistance of Medium density fiberboard (MDF). Two mineral based chemicals containing (Huntite/Hydromagnesite) and zinc borate (ZB) were used at two different concentrations for panel manufacturing. Decay test of samples was performed according to EN 113 standard method. At the end of the test, it was found that weight losses of the MDF samples manufactured with mineral based chemicals were clearly lower than weight loss of control samples. Results indicated that the weight loss values changed depending on chemical types and chemical concentrations. Decay resistance of the MDF samples improved with increasing chemical concentrations. The better results were achieved with MDF samples manufactured with huntite/hydromagnesite. Additionally, the combinations of these minerals with zinc borate provided synergic effects. As a conclusion, it was seen that huntite and hydromagnesite minerals have notably effects on decay resistance of MDF panels and can be successfully evaluated as protective chemicals for wood and wood based panels.
U E Başer, D Ustaömer, Ö Özgenç
Selection of heat flux value for wood fire retardants testing using MLC
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40846
One of more crucial elements of investigating treated wood combustion properties with the use of a cone calorimeter is a proper selection of heat flux (HF). The HF level is directly reflected in time to ignition and a thermal degradation degree. The ignition of raw wood or of wood ineffectively protected against fire occurs at a low HF level, i.e. 10-20 kW/m2. By contrast, the ignition of wood which is effectively protected against fire, may occur no sooner than at HF 50 or even at 75 kW/m2. The aim of the paper was to analyse the problem of the selection of heat flux intensity in both experimental and standard fire testing with the use of a mass loss calorimeter (MLC). The subject of the analysis was wood treated with protective agents of various durability and fire resistance. On the one hand, the high HF value for wood samples of low fire resistance restricts or even excludes practical applications of an MLC as a tool for the evaluation of fire protection efficiency. On the other hand, too low value of HF prevents wood either from ignition or from determination of its thermal degradation degree. It especially applies to the situation when wood is effectively protected against fire. In both cases, the problem arises at the interpretation stage of obtained results. The identified problem was presented on the example of wood treated with chemical compounds which are ingredients of commonly used fire retardants, i.e. MAP – monoammonium phosphate, DAP – diammonium phosphate and PC – potassium carbonate, well known for their fire retardant properties. They are also known for their high solubility, which proves their high leaching from wood resulting consequently in a significant decrease in fire retardant properties. Unfortunately a versatile research procedure was not proposed in the performed study. However, the necessity for the individual selection of physical properties of a combustion process was emphasised. The above forces an unconventional method of result interpretation.
B Mazela, W Perdoch, W Grześkowiak, A Batista
The development of a suitable fire retardant for Radiata pine and other species
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30744
The use of fire retardant chemicals, with the overarching aim of creating a safer environment is not a new one, however it is generally under-developed and is often afflicted with an image of environmental and health issues and misperceived high costs. There is an ever-increasing need and desire for effective fire retardancy in timbers to inhibit or suppress the combustion process. This is paramount throughout the world, ever more so now with the effects of climate change driving the need for better protection of building timbers both in commercial and domestic use. Year on year, fires around the globe, on average are becoming larger and seemingly more destructive. These fires are affecting not only forest, bush and scrub land but populated areas too. Fire is unpredictable, destroying residences and taking lives. By slowing combustion, lives can be saved by giving people longer to evacuate. In this study we have investigated enhanced fire resistance properties for a number of timber species in relation to the heat release values (of various species of timber). Unlike many traditional fire retardants which are painted or sprayed onto the timber, this new innovative chemistry is applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation with a fire retardant based on phosphorus and nitrogen synergy. We have conducted a number of trials here in New Zealand and will continue to do so on Radiata pine (Pinus radiata), Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), American white oak (Quercus alba) and Silver beech (Nothofagus menziesii). Variability within material and species plays a key role in retention of the fire retardant and subsequent performance of these wood products when subjected to intense heat. The fire testing results from a research laboratory utilising the small-scale test method ISO 5660 – cone calorimeter test confirm the proven benefits of this fire retardant.
B R Derham, M R Fortune
Thermal performance and fire safety properties of traditional circumferential log-cabin walls
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40872
The paper describes the experiment of fire resistance of a circumferential log-cabin wall fragment using various structural modification of the gap between two log members. The influence of the gap structural modification on the criterion of fire resistance E (envelop integrity) and I (insulation) is evaluated. The evaluating criteria are represented by the development of temperatures measured in various gap setups and photo documentation from the experiment. The experiment is supplemented by the theoretical calculation of the temperatures during a fire on the unexposed fragment side in two cases: according to the average temperatures on the specimen surface from the radiation panel and for the standardised fire temperature 1,000°C. The reason for the calculation is the verification of the I criterion (insulation) in connection with the U-value of the construction, i.e. heat transfer affecting the flashpoint temperature on the unexposed side of the log-cabin wall.
S Jochim, L Makovicka Osvaldova, M Zachar, Z Danihelova
Effects of Borax and Boric Acid as Fire Retardants on the Resistance of Pterygota macrocarpa Wood to Fire Tests
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30770
The combustible nature of wood as a building material, when exposed to hazards of fire underscores the reason for fire retardant treatments. Pterygota macrocarpa wood is commonly used by builders in Nigeria for roof and other structural applications. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the effect of Borax and Boric acid on the fire-retardant properties of P. macrocarpa wood. Wood samples of dimension 200 x 95 x 10 mm were obtained from the harvested tree of P. macrocarpa across and along at 25%, 50% and 75% of the total length. The result revealed that the control samples without any fire retardant treatment had the highest weight loss of 16.06±7.61 %, followed by samples treated with boric acid (14.74%), while the lowest percentage weight loss of 4.26±1.51 % was observed for P. macrocarpa wood treated with borax. The study shows that percentage weight loss due to combustion of borate-treated wood samples decreases with an increasing proportion of borax in the treatment combination revealing that borax provides better protection than boric acid.
J M Owoyemi, O Apogbona, T O Akinwamide
Effect of densification of Eucalyptus nitens and E. obliqua on moisture uptake, swelling, decay resistance, and fire performance
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40946
Some Australian Eucalyptus species that are abundantly available have low natural durability and poor resistance to fire. These same species are also extremely difficult to treat with preservatives or fire retardants using conventional pressure treatment methods due to a large proportion of refractory heartwood. The aim of this research was to understand whether thermo-mechanical densification had any beneficial effects on the durability or fire performance of plantation Eucalyptus nitens and regrowth Eucalyptus obliqua. Moisture uptake, mass loss and swelling of the samples after exposure to brown and white rot fungi (F. ostreiformis and P. coccineus) were used to analyse the decay resistance of the densified material, while cone calorimeter tests were used to indicate heat release rates. Thermo-mechanical densification has many positive attributes for improving hardness and modifying colour but did not improve decay resistance or fire performance of the samples, however further testing is advised.
B Hassan, J J Morrell, F Wiesner, W Wu, B Belleville, K C Wood
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also examined using Fenton's reagent. The enhancement of decay resistance by acetylation was revealed clearly for all cases of exposures but varying with fungal and wood species used. For a brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, the weight loss reached almost nil in all woods at 20 WPG (weight percent gain) of acetylation, after the striking decrease from 10 to 15 WPG. For a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, it was counted until 12-15 WPG in the perishable hardwoods used, but not in a softwood Cryptomeria japonica, even at 6 WPG. In cases of another brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and soil burial, effect of acetylation was intermediate between Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Anti-degradation mechanism by acetylation was discussed, from these weight loss - weight gain relationships, and the IR-and 13C-NMR spectral analyses of fungus-exposed wood.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi
Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional stability and decay resistance of the benzylated particleboard were evaluated. Particleboards made of benzylated particles having more than 38% of weight percent gain (WPG) showed that dimensional stability and decay resistance were superior to the conventional particleboard made by using phenolformaldehyde resin as a binder, because hydroxyl groups of wood were substituted by hydrophobic benzyl groups with benzylation. Though bending strength of the board was a little lower than control board due to the damage of benzylated particles during benzylation, its internal bonding strength was very high, because the hot-melting strengthened the inter-particle bonding.
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto
Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also determined. All specimens were exposed to decay chambers for 16 weeks. Test results indicated that most of the main factors significantly influence the thickness, length changes, and decay resistance of the high density kenaf fiberboards.
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell
Monographic information on Schizophyllum commune
1975 - IRG/WP 118 E
D Dirol, M Fougerousse
Screening-method for the examination of the resistance against contact-insecticides of Lyctus brunneus Steph. beetles
1981 - IRG/WP 2148
A serie of filter-paper rondelles is treated with different concentrations of an organic insecticide dissolved in aceton. Beetles of Lyctus brunneus are put onto the dry surfaces. During the impact of the poison the knock-down is observed and after a following poisonfree holding, the knock-down and mortality are registred.
E Graf, B Lanz