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Development of preservative treatment method using sub and super critical carbon dioxide
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40385
Significant efforts have been devoted for developing biocide impregnation method into wood materials using supercritical fluid. Developing better understandings of fluid phase and its effect on treatment results would facilitate a more rational development of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation. In this project, the preservative treatabilities under super- and sub-critical fluid conditions we...
Myeung-Won Cho, Sung-Mo Kang, Gyu-Hyeok Kim

A review of the configuration of bordered pits to stimulate the fluid flow
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40315
As the bordered pits have generally been thought to have an influence on the refractory nature of softwoods, structural behaviour of this conducting pathways is discussed according to the published literature. Various theories on the role of bordered pits to axial flow are expounded in respect to preservative treatment. Pit aspiration is also reviewed....
I Usta

Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning,...
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri

Direct measurement of fluid flow within wood
1986 - IRG/WP 2248
The problematics of fluid flow mechanism within wood using a permeability concept are highlighted, and the non-feasibility of a practical and versatile model is explained. An alternative method using a negative temperature coefficient thermistor to measure flow velocity directly is presented. The method has been verified in living trees and shows extreme sensitivity for flow above 1 meter/hour. Fo...
J P Hösli

Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 5. Treatment of Sitka spruce and Scots pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40136
The suitability of the MPP Process for CCA treatment and accelerated fixation of species other than Radiata pine was assessed by pilot plant trials on UK-grown Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Pressure and vacuum kickbacks of spruce (14 l/m3) and Scots' pine (122 l/m3) were both substantially lower than that generated during treatment of radiata pine (369...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, G Durbin

Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell pro...
I Usta

The Phase Out of CCA in the United States
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50194
In mid-February, 2002 the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Christine Todd Whitman, announced that the US treated wood industry will have until the end of December 2003 to end residential uses for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA). Industrial uses of CCA will still be allowed after the December 2003 date. This paper explores the events that led up to the announcem...
J D Schert

Laboratory simulation of leaching from creosote treated wood in aquatic exposures
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50157
Creosote has a long history of use as a preservative particularly in industrial wood products, but its use has come under increasing scrutiny as a result of concerns about its potential effects on aquatic and terrestrial non-target organisms. Despite its long use, there is relatively little data on the rates of creosote loss in many exposures. In this report, we describe small scale leaching tank ...
Ying Xiao, J Simonsen, J J Morrell

Vapour boron treatment of wood based panels: Further studies on mechanical properties
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30028
Samples of medium density fibreboard, chipboard and oriented strandboard were treated to two retentions of boric acid by vapour phase methods. The results of short term mechanical tests on this material were discussed by Hashim et al. (1992). The present paper discusses results with long term studies on bending and impact resistance with panel types. Long term tests of impact resistance showed no ...
R Hashim, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, J Dinwoodie

Alternative technologies for wood wastes recycling - Part B: Biotreatment of PCP- and creosote-treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-18 b
Alternative technologies have been investigated to detoxify treated wood. Two classes of organic compounds are studied. Creosote-treated wood are classified in France as dangerous wood wastes. A conventional incineration could be provided for these wood wastes but the cost of this elimination could be very high (> 2000 FFR/ton). For these reasons, we have tested two kinds of new processes as al...
S Legay, P Marchal, G Labat

Comparison of decay rates of preservative-treated stakes in field and fungus cellar tests. Results after 40 months fungal cellar exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2200
Decay rates of preservative-treated Pinus radiata stakes during 40 months exposure in the FRI fungus cellar were compared with those of similarly treated material in a field test. Decay rates in the fungus cellar were from 4 to 100 times higher than in the field, although for the majority of preservatives the rate was between 7 and 12 times higher. The lag phase before onset of decay, noticeable w...
M E Hedley

Bending properties of TCMTB-treated Southern pine sapwood using supercritical carbon dioxide impregnation process
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40080
The effects of elevated pressure and treatment with thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) on the bending properties of Southern pine sapwood were evaluated at pressures ranging from 1,800 to 3,600 psi. All bending properties were affected to some extent by supercritical fluid treatment. Modulus of elasticity and work to maximum load were not significantly affected by pressure levels. Modulus of...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, S Kumar, E S Demessie, K L Levien, J J Morrell

Incorporation of phenyl boronic acid treatment with vapor phase formalization
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40083
Phenylboronic acid (PBA) treatment was incorporated with vapor phase formalization (VPF) in order to increase dimensional stability and boron fixation as well as enhancement of biological resistance. Five and ten hours VPF were applied after PBA treatment as 0.34, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00% concs. aqueous solutions. Anti swelling efficiency (ASE) attended to 71% in specimens impregnated with 0.50% PBA s...
M K Yalinkilic, S Yusuf, T Yoshimura, W-Y Su, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi

The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process - Concepts proved by repetitive pilot plant treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40079
Twenty-four charges of radiate pine roundwood or sawn timber were treated using the MPP Process and hot CCA solution. Treated timber met the CCA retention and penetration requirements of the NZ Timber Preservation Council for Hazard Classes H3 to H5. The objectives of the trials were: (1) To "stress" CCA solution by repetitive heating, treating and cooling to determine its stability in the process...
A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, K Nasheri, H Pearson, M E Hedley

Effects of seed origin and site on both wood density and longitudinal fluid uptake of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) with height in the tree grown in the United Kingdom
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40226
The variation in density and longitudinal fluid uptake was investigated in short specimens of wood taken from eight seed origins of Sitka spruce trees grown at two sites in the UK. Five trees of each seed origin at each site were sampled at three heights (1, 2 and 3 m above ground level). The density of the samples decreased with increasing height within the stem. This corresponded with increasin...
I Usta, M D C Hale

Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: Pilot plant trials for disposal of kickback using reverse osmosis membrane filtration
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40202
The MPP Process (a one-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process) generates ~ 250 litres of kickback per cubic metre of timber treated. Composition of kickback is mainly wood sugars and traces of copper, chromium and arsenic. In pilot plant scale trials, MPP process kickback was filtered through a Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane of a type found from earlier small-scale trials to be the mo...
H Pearson, G Durbin, M E Hedley

Trial to determine a suitable schedule for radial and longitudinal treatment of plug samples by comparison of changes in the fluid retention and the treated area
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40211
A full-cell process was carried out using different treatment schedules for radial and longitudinal samples because of the anisotrophy of flow. When timbers are impregnated with preservatives much better penetrations are obtained via the end grain than laterally (across the grain). Therefore, suitable schedules for radial and longitudinal flow directions were determined in an trial experiment usin...
I Usta

Cellular and fractural failure after supercritical fluid impregnation of four wood species
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10503
Supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been investigated for delivering biocides into sawn wood. Pressure differentials during treatment may exceed the compressive or tensile strength perpendicular to grain, creating a potential for transverse deformations that exceed elastic strain limits. Wood treated by SCF processing with CO2, a potential biocide carrier, was inspected macroscopically and microscopi...
M E Anderson, R J Leichti, J J Morrell

Penetration and distribution of styrene in pressure treated hardwoods
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40094
A styrene impregnation method was used to compare liquid distribution in several species as affected by flow direction, sapwood/heartwood, and method of impregnation. Twenty-five mm ( 1") cubes were cut from the sapwood and heartwood of red maple (Acer rubrum), white birch (Betula papyrifera), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), red oak (Quercus rubra), ...
P A Cooper, T S Janezic, U Srinivasan, A Omidvar

Leachability of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound) from four wood species
1982 - IRG/WP 3204
Sapwood blocks prepared from red pine, ponderosa pine, southern yellow pine and hem-fir (a commercial mixture of western hemlock and amabilis fir) were treated with didecyldimethylammonium chloride, (an alkylammonium compound, AAC). After oven drying the blocks were vacuum impregnated with distilled water and subjected to a static leach cycle for 48 hours. The leachate was analyzed and the amount ...
J N R Ruddick, A R H Sam

Supercritical fluid impregnation of Douglas-fir heartwood with cyproconazole using temperature induced deposition
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40259
A limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation in wood remains an obstacle to the development of this technology. Developing a better understanding of the effects of various process parameters on treatment results would facilitate more rational development of SCF impregnation. In this project, the effect of treating period and specimen length on su...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell

Supercritical fluid treatment: Effects on bending strength of white spruce heartwood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20008
The effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on wood strength were evaluated using white spruce heartwood, a species known to be especially susceptible to collapse during exposure to higher pressures. The effects of pressures of 2000 or 3600 psig and temperatures of 40 or 80°C were evaluated using 30 or 60 minute exposure periods. No significant differences were noted in modulus of rupture or modu...
S M Smith, J J Morrell, E Sahle-Demessie, K L Levien

Alternative technologies for wood wastes recycling - Part A: Supercritical extraction of PAH compounds from wood wastes
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-18 a
Alternative technologies have been investigated to detoxify treated wood. Two classes of organic compounds are studied. Creosote-treated wood are classified in France as dangerous wood wastes. A conventional incineration could be provided for these wood wastes but the cost of this elimination could be very high (> 2000 FFR/ton). For these reasons, we have tested two kinds of new processes as al...
L Schrive, C Perre, G Labat

Potential for using dip/supercritical fluid treatments for wood impregnation
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40276
While supercritical fluid impregnation offers tremendous potential for impregnating wood species that resist conventional liquid preservative treatments, the resulting treatments are often not uniform among samples in a charge or between charges. One factor that influences treatment is the dynamic change in pressure that occurs during introduction of the biocide laden supercritical fluid into the ...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell

Methods for improving preservative penetration into wood: a review
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40227
Pressure treatment technologies have been available since the mid-1830's, but the processes used for wood treatment are still largely unable to overcome the fundamental limitations of flow through semi-permeable pit membranes. Instead, methods have arisen that attempt to improve treatability of the wood including incising, compression rolling, through boring, or radial drilling. Other a...
J J Morrell, P I Morris

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