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Enhancing knowledge transfer in the wood protection sector
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50338
In order to meet the needs for the developing bio-based economy, maintaining and expanding the market potential for wood raw materials and wood products in indoor and outdoor construction uses remains a key activity for industries in the biotechnological and forestry sector respectively. A major restraint in this respect is the drastically deviating views and expectations on quality and performance of the material. Such differences can be found between producers and consumers, between architects and engineers, between planners and approval bodies as well as between academia on the one hand and industry and traders on the other hand. The wood protection and wood preservation sector is located exactly within this area of deviating opinions. To overcome the barriers due to different perceptions and therewith strengthen the standing of wood as a desirable building material in the future, new strategies and methods for communication, knowledge transfer and education are needed. Networking and scientific exchange between different disciplines is needed, such as forest science, silviculture, applied forestry, material sciences, wood technology, building technology, architecture and engineering. Consumer demands and preferences, which might serve as limit states to develop service life prediction and performance models, need to consider aesthetical aspects as well as the functionality of timber building assemblies. Finally, teaching students, craftsmen, and salesmen is the key to enhance the acceptance of renewable and carbon-storing products, which are both biodegradable and highly variable in their properties. All these peculiarities require a deeper understanding of their nature and characteristics to improve their purpose-related usage.
C Brischke, G Alfredsen, S Bollmus, M Humar, D Jones, L Meyer-Veltrup, L Nunes

The influence of climate changes on Central European forests with an emphasis on Slovenia
2022 - IRG/WP 22-50368
When forests are managed sustainably, they play an essential role in protecting climate and biodiversity. They protect soils and water resources, provide livelihoods, and contribute to the well-being of rural and urban communities. European forests are multifunctional and provide a range of ecosystem services. These include the production of renewable materials that can replace materials with a larger environmental footprint, thus also contributing to climate neutrality and overall sustainability. Forestry is one of the key sectors capable of reducing dependence on non-renewable resources, mitigating climate change, and thus enabling the transition to a circular bioeconomy. At the same time, forest ecosystems worldwide face a number of threats that are exacerbated by climate change. Global warming will affect future species distribution, timber supply and wood properties (quality). Conservation and management of forest genetic resources, the base of forest biodiversity and productivity, is an essential component of sustainable forestry. In addition, sustainable forestry requires a constant and efficient supply of high-quality seed and seedlings of forest trees. With a high share of forest cover and abundant natural resources, Slovenia shows great potential for transition into a circular bioeconomy. Due to the impact of climate change, recognition of the importance of biodiversity and the concepts of sustainable forest management, changes in the species composition of Slovenian forests are expected in the near future, which will be reflected in a higher proportion of deciduous tree species, affecting all actors in the forest-wood value chain. This paper aims to highlight up-to-date facts about the state of forests in Europe, forests and forestry in Slovenia, the importance of sustainable forest management for forest-based climate change mitigation and adaptation, the role of forest genetic resources and provision of tree seeds and seedlings for sustainable forest development.
J Gričar, L Krajnc, M Westergren, S Rus, H Kraigher

Wood preservation in France. "Bois plus" chain of quality. Description of the scheme early 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 3519
1989 - description of the French "CTB-BOIS PLUS" homologation scheme...
G Ozanne

Forest products laboratory methodology for monitoring decay in wood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20074
Research at the Forest Products Laboratory on the durability of wood in service has included a full complement of laboratory and field tests. In this report, we present a review of past and current methods used to evaluate the condition of preservative-treated wood exposed above ground. Current protocols are described for tests on wood packaging, roofing, and dimension lumber.
R C De Groot, T L Highley

Inventaire des "déchets" ou produits connexes de la filière bois
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-33
G Marcotte

Wood preservation in China
1989 - IRG/WP 3546
Huiming Zhou, Zhongwei Jin

Methods of treatment of wood preservatives. The selection of appropriate preservation process with particular reference to mixed tropical forest resources. A key address
1982 - IRG/WP 3177
All wood is biodegradable. Many timber species have, however, sufficient natural durability to permit their use, particularly in protected situations, without any special precautions. Many others, of course, are readily attacked by insects and where there is sufficient moisture and air, by wood-decaying fungi. It is these timber species which benefit most from treatment with wood preservatives. Even the so called durables may also benefit so since all sapwood is perishable and durable heartwood in the sea or in ground contact eventually fails from attack by animals and/or micro-organisms. In recent years it has become apparent that for high hazard end uses it is necessary to consider the timber species/preservative type/treatment method as a single unit. It is of course possible, after accumulation of experience and test data, to group certain timber species into classes which can be processed together but until this has been established it is necessary to consider each and every timber species as a distinct biological entity which will respond differently to other timber species to preservative treatment. It has also been found that the most widespread treatment process, vacuum/pressure treatment, is inappropriate for many of the timber species available from the world's forests, particularly hardwoods. In ground contact, the commercially available preservatives do not provide the needed protection against fungal decay and in low hazard uses other preservatives and processes may be used more cost effectively for at least equally satisfactory results. In many temperate countries depletion of durable hardwoods led to wide use of perishable conifers in high hazard sites; wood preservation using tar oils or water-borne fixed preservatives applied by pressure improved these conifers so that in many uses they outlasted the best of the durable hardwoods. Thus, and rightly so, emphasis has been placed in most temperate countries on this approach, non-leachable preservatives applied by pressure to permeable coniferous wood. It is thus reasonable to assume that wood preservation has been very successful. Or has it? It depends on the approach made, and whether the objectives of those using wood preservation have been met. The selection of treatment methods depends heavily upon the objectives and the way successful wood preservation is gauged.
C R Levy

Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel

Role of Global Cooperation in Wood Protection for Conserving Forest Resources
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50249
The current uses of treated wood are discussed along with the emerging concerns for continued use of these products. The issues of new chemicals, treatments for wood based composites, migration of chemicals from treated wood, and the disposal of these products at the end of their useful life are all outlined. The potential for the IRG to serve as the focus for research discussion as well as collaborative projects to help enhance wood performance are discussed.
J J Morrell, G Deroubaix

Wood preservation in Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 3216
The report reviews the forestry potential of Turkey and also the historical background of wood preservation in the country. The wood preservation industry in Turkey is mainly concentrated on the treatment of poles and railway sleepers. There is no official body responsible for wood preservation activities, and therefore its promotion depends mainly on the voluntary research efforts carried out by the universities and the Forest Research Institute. Present standards are inadequate to meet contemporary standards of wood protection used in other countries. These should be completely revised and updated. Its forest products potential and geographical location combine to give Turkey a great advantage for exportation of its timber to the Middle East countries. But first of all Turkey has to solve its own problems of promoting a productive industry and efficient wood preservation.
R Ilhan, R Cockcroft

Chemical, physical and biological factors affecting wood decomposition in forest soils
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20281
Organic matter (OM) decomposition is an important variable in determining the potential of forest soils to sequester atmospheric CO2. Studies using OM from a particular location gives site-specific decomposition information, but differences in OM type and quality make it difficult to compare results among soils and forest ecosystems. By using a “standard” OM in decomposition studies, OM quality is held constant, and decomposition is a function of soil abiotic (moisture, temperature, O2/CO2, redox potential, pH, N, P, etc), and biotic (microbial biomass, functional diversity) properties. Wood is a good standard material to use in soil OM decomposition studies, since it is a normal soil component (woody residue, coarse roots), and a slow decomposition rate allows wood to remain in the soil for a number of years. In 1998 a wood stake study was initiated on both public and industry land throughout the U.S., Canada, and Europe. These sites represent a variety of climatic conditions and forest types, which cover a wide range of soil chemical, physical, and biological properties. Wood stakes of two tree species are being used to contrast different lignin types present in wood: loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and aspen (Populus tremuloides). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the effects of abiotic soil properties on wood decomposition, and (2) to assess how these soil properties affect microbial activity and diversity during wood decomposition. This paper will present an overview of the study protocols, field and laboratory methods used, and discuss preliminary results from several of the study sites in North America and Europe.
M Jurgensen, P Laks, D Reed, A Collins, D Page-Dumroese, D Crawford

Efficacy of linear chain carboxylic acid anhydrides as wood protection chemicals
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30295
This paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of linear chain carboxylic acid anhydrides namely, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric and hexanoic anhydride, in improving the decay resistance of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Schneid) sapwood. Wood-anhydride bond formation was verified by the increase in sample weight and volume. A brown rot fungus [Coniophora puteana (Schum.:Fr)] was selected in order to determine and compare the effectiveness (threshold value) of linear chain anhydrides. The work described in this paper has demonstrated that chemically modified Corsican pine sapwood afforded substantial bioprotection against Coniophora puteana. It required a weight gain of approximately 16-18% following reaction to ensure complete protection. No strong and consistent trends could be identified to indicate the advantage of using one of the anhydrides in preference to another.
A N Papadopoulos, M D C Hale, C A S Hill

Environmentally benign biological wood preservatives by Streptomyces rimosus, SC-36
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10196
Microbiocides obtained from mutant culture Streptomyces rimosus SC-36 were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit the growth of brown-rot, soft-rot, white-rot, and sapstain fungi on wood. The test fungi were the brown-rot fungi Antrodia carbonica, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Neolentinus lepideus, and Postia placenta; soft-rot fungi Chaetomium globosum, Paecilomyces variotti, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Phialophola mutabilis, Scytalidium lignicola; and white-rot fungi Flammulina velutipes, Phanerocheate chrysosporium, Shizophyllum commune, and Trametes versicolor. The SC-36 treatment inhibited basidiospore germination and mycelial growth of test fungi in plate assay, plate bioassy, and wood-block (southern yellow pine and sweetgum) tests. Metabolites from SC-36 inhibited the growth of all test fungi. In field trials, the metabolites and living cell treatment of green pine log sections and field wood-blocks (eastern white pine and red maple) inhibited natural spore germination and mycelial growth of all forest-inhabiting fungi, thus preventing wood biodeterioration and biodiscoloration. Our results demonstrated that SC-36 can be used as an alternative to synthetic chemicals and an environmentally benign biological wood preservative.
S C Croan

Wood preservation in Portugal
1985 - IRG/WP 3325
This report deals with the forest potential of Portugal and its timber industry and outlines the evolution of wood preservation in the country. The main hazards to timber in service are noted and the timbers used classified according to their natural durability and treatability. The wood preservatives used are detailed with estimates of the total consumption of the different types. Addresses are listed, of the known manufacturers and importing agencies, of the firms that treat by vacuum/pressure and those that employ the double-vacuum process, and of the organizations concerned with wood preservation research and wood preservation in general. Only two firms specialize in remedial treatments and there are two institutions which are responsible for restoring cultural properties. Information is given on requirements and approvals. The relevant standards are listed and the main Portuguese papers on wood preservation.
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, R Cockcroft

Effect of test site, preservative and wood species on decay type Glenbervie pastoral and radiata pine forest sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30248
Pinus radiata stakes were treated with 0.8, 1.2, 1.8, 2.7 and 4.1 kg/m3 of CCA and Fagus sylvatica with 2.7, 4.1 and 6.1 kg/m3 of CCA. Both wood species were also treated with equivalent retentions of a copper plus triazole preservative (CT) (0.89, 1.3, 2 and 3 kg/m3 of copper for pine & 2.5 and 4 for beech) and chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos in oil (CC) (1.4, 2.1, 3.2 and 4.8 kg/m3 of chlorothalonil for pine and 3.2 and 7.2 for beech). Furthermore, P. radiata was treated with ammoniacal copper plus a quaternary ammmonium compound (ACQ) (0.8, 1.1, 1.7 and 2.6 kg/m3 copper) and a 60/40 mixture of high temperature creosote plus oil (C) (18, 27, 41 and 61 kg/m3). Treated and untreated stakes were exposed in the ground at 13 sites in New Zealand and Australia for between 4 and 6 years. This paper reports the significance of site, timber species, preservative and its concentration and time of exposure, on extent and type of decay, at two sites in Northland, New Zealand. The two sites were adjacent (200 metres), appeared to have essentially similar clay loam soil and climate but one was pastoral and the other was situated within a radiata pine forest. Most types of decay reported in the literature, were observed in this study but other undescribed or only partially characterised types were also found. The decay types found differed between test sites, preservative and timber species. The significance of tunnelling hyphae, which often caused severe decay of wood treated with the higher retentions of various preservatives, appears much greater than the prior literature would suggest. For pine the highest retentions of CC, CT and ACQ gave at least equivalent performance to the reference standards creosote and CCA, after approximately 5 years, at both test sites. For beech CC and CT both gave superior protection to CCA, at both sites. All the preservatives tested exhibited some weaknesses in terms of resistance to the various decay types observed.
R N Wakeling

Persistance of active ingredients in treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-20
Disposing of chemically protected waste wood implies the distinction between surface and pressure treatment. Considering that barked round-wood merely contains, after 7 months open storage, less than 30 g per ton of bark or 25 mg per ton of sapwood, depending on the type of insecticide, the bark or sapwood shavings may be incinerated normally, according to less severe legal prescriptions than for pressure treated wood. Past use poles, destroyed by fungi, will indeed have to be disposed of in specially equipped incineration plants, which respond to strict requirements regarding the waste air.
E Graf, P Manser, S Rezzonico, B Zgraggen

Ultrastructure of Prumnopitys ferruginea wood from a buried forest in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1489
The buried wood of Prumnopitys ferruginea, a New Zealand native tree, was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the extent to which the wood had deteriorated and the cause of its deterioration. Examinations showed that some deterioration of wood had occurred. Microscopy revealed a decay pattern similar to that produced by cavitation bacteria. Lenticular cavities were seen in the S2 layer of tracheid walls oriented diagonally to the length of tracheids. Large areas of the affected S2 wall had a dense, homogeneous appearance. These differed from sound areas of the S2 wall which were much lighter. Some areas of the homogeneous wall contained dense granules. The impression obtained from high resolution images in the TEM was that the granulation of the homogeneous wall preceded clearing of this wall. We assume that cavities formed in these clearing zones.
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Wood preservation in Brazil
1984 - IRG/WP 3321
The report gives statistics on the wood products industries, the forest products exported, the production of treated sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other wood products in Brazil for the years 1977 to 1981. The total numbers of vacuum/pressure plants, through the years 1902 to 1984, indicate that from 1960 there has been a steady increase in treatment requirements. Most of the plants are in the south-eastern and southern regions of Brazil. Details are given of the existing 16 wood preservative industries. Information on the research centres and their research is tabulated, and the legal aspects of using wood preservatives covered, together with their homologation and the relevant standards. The subject is taught in 12 different universities and technological institutes and is promoted by the Brazilian Wood Preservers’ Association. The report ends with a bibliography.
M S Cavalcante, R Cockcroft

Wood preservation in Uruguay
1987 - IRG/WP 3404
The purpose of this paper is a brief description of the current status of wood treatment in Uruguay. The forest resources of the country are summarized, the environment, their economic importance and future potential. The present wood treating facilities are described, together with the chemicals used and the standards generally accepted. Wood treated products used in the Uruguayan market are cited as well as their future. Indicative figures are given on the relative prices of treated wood and its competitives like concrete or imported hardwoods, as well as of the economic incidence of treatment in the price of wood. Finally, a few words about the present status of teaching and research on wood preservation in Uruguay.
G Baillod

Note and literature survey on the "Eucalyptus borer" Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col.; Cerambycidae), a pest in between forest and wood
1984 - IRG/WP 1228
In the Eucalyptus-forests of Huelva, Spain, Phoracantha semipunctata appears as a severe forest-pest fatal to trees impaired by drought. The population snowballed in two and a half years, millions of larvae reduce the value of wood to "papermill-quality''. One of the intentions of the paper is to collect knowledge for help and cure. A literature survey forms the main part of the paper.
S Cymorek

Wood preservation in Nigeria - Its increasing relevance, observed constraints and potential as a forest conservation option
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3732
The paper discusses the demand and supply of wood and wood products in Nigeria and points out that in view of the large population (88 million) and search for wood for housing and furniture, the demand exceeds supply. There is great shortage of industrial and domestic woods resulting in underutilization of installed machineries in forest industries and low profit margin. Under this prevailing condition, wood preservation has a definite positive role to play in reducing pressure on productive high forests and timber plantations for logs by prolonging the service life of woods in storage and in service. However, factors such as high depreciation of the local currency, Naira against the U.S. Dollar and British Pound Sterling, high cost of imported wood preservatives, low income per capita especially in the rural areas where over 70% of the population live, have tended to slow the pace of advancement of wood preservation practice in the country. With rising costs of sawn timbers and other wood products coupled with the urgent need to enhance their performance and prolong their service life, the paper concludes that wood preservation has a bright future in Nigeria. Moreover, development of less-toxic and environmentally safe wood preservatives, application of fire retardant preservatives, remedial treatment of utility poles and timbers as well as dimensional stabilization of woods will help greatly to raise the status of wood preservation in Nigeria.
M A Odeyinde, S C Ifebueme

Wood decay fungi from New Zealand ‘leaky’ buildings: PCR identification and laboratory decay tests of wood preservative-treated Pinus radiata (Part 1)
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10620
Fungi colonising Pinus radiata D. Don framing timber of ‘leaky’ New Zealand buildings were isolated to produce pure cultures. Mycelia from these cultures on agar media were collected to extract DNA. To identify the fungi to the species level, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primer pairs ITS1-F and ITS4 were performed followed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Identification was by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) search on sequences in GenBank. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus placenta and Antrodia sinuosa were identified with a 98-99% match. With identification, these three decay fungi and a standard decay fungus (Coniophora puteana) were used to determine the effectiveness of currently used wood framing preservatives under laboratory conditions before and after a standard leaching regime. Pinus radiata blocks were treated with water based Boron and Copper Azole and solvent based IPBC and Propiconazole/Tebuconazole (1:1) preservatives and exposed to these four basidiomycetes for 12 weeks under laboratory conditions. Weight loss of up to 55% for preservative-treated samples, up to 62% weight loss for leached samples and up to 58% weight loss for untreated samples was recorded. Additionally, well defined dose responses and approximate toxic thresholds were obtained for all preservatives tested. Results suggested that the minimum IPBC retention specified by Hazard Class 1.2 of NZS3640:2003 (0.025% m/m) is on the low side, and demonstrated complete loss of efficacy of boron at 0.4% m/m boric acid equivalent (BAE) after the 2 week leaching regime. Results further showed that PCR techniques comprise a very useful tool for fungal identification and are expected to provide a reasonably definitive list of causative decay fungi as the survey of ‘leaky’ buildings continues. This study gives a first overview of fungi occurring in New Zealand houses, demonstrating that the test fungus Antrodia sinuosa was more difficult to control with Propiconazole/Tebuconazole at retention 0.007% m/m than the known tolerant fungus Oligoporus placenta, that Boron at Hazard Class 1.2 retention of 0.4% m/m BAE was not toxic to all fungi and that Gloeophyllum sepiarium appeared likely to be important in New Zealand ‘leaky’ buildings and was susceptible to all wood preservatives.
D Stahlhut, R L Farrell, R Wakeling, M Hedley

Amine Oxides for Use in Wood Protection: II: Water Repellent Agents for Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30426
Wood treated with cetyl and stearyl amine oxides was evaluated to determine its long term water repellency. Comparative water uptake data, generated during two years of outdoor exposure, illustrated that Lonza’s products, Barlox® 18S (N-octadecyl-N, N-dimethylamine oxide) and Barlox® 16S (N-hexadecyl-N, N-dimethylamine oxide), were effective water repellent agents, imparting lasting water resistance in treated wood. A conventional wax based water repellent system showed superior initial results for water resistance; however, the water repellent ability of the wax based system started to degrade after four months of weathering and was significantly deteriorated after two years of outside exposure.
Xiao Jiang, L Walker

Quantitative and qualitative losses in wood of oriental spruce, Picea orientalis (L.) Link., induced by insects from forest to utility
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10647
In this study, some quantitative and qualitative losses in wood of oriental spruce, Picea orientalis (L.) Link., induced by insects from forest to utility were evaluated. In experimental plots, volume of trees damaged by Dendroctonus micans (Kug.) was 34% of the volume of total standing spruce trees in the oriental spruce forests of Turkey. The volume of standing trees that D. micans damaged was 900,7 m3. The volume of trees that the damage was continuing was 451,4 m3 and trees that were cut in the last decade have a volume of 274,9 m3. According to this result, in the 120.000 ha epidemic area of D. micans, 22,8 million m3 standing trees were damaged by the beetle and damage was continuing in 11,43 million m3 standing trees. A total of 6,96 million m3 trees were cut in the last decade. A total of 437 standing spruce trees were evaluated and 40 of them were cut in 0,87 ha in the areas with severe Ips typographus (L.) damage. The average beetle number per tree was 11.432, 18.739, 37.208, 14.447 and 12.380 in the years 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Volume of the damaged standing trees in the experimental plots and 15.000 ha spruce forest area where these plots locate in was calculated as 280 m3 and 4,8 million m3, respectively. Volume of heavily infested trees in the experimental plots and whole epidemic area was 120 m3 and 2,2 million m3, respectively. Total volume of damaged standing trees in hectare and heavily infested trees was 314,6 m3 and 151,4 m3, respectively. Volume of damaged trees and heavily infested trees was 9,43 million m3 and 4,54 million m3 in the 30.000 ha epidemic area, respectively.
H A Akinci, M Eroglu, G E Özcan, Ü C Yildiz

Wood decay fungi from New Zealand leaky buildings – PCR identification (Part 2) and aerial spore trapping
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10649
Prior to this study, it was not know which species of decay fungi caused decay in New Zealand leaky buildings. Use of molecular biology methodology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and subsequent DNA sequencing, as well as classical mycological techniques based on morphology, has enabled identification of decay fungi and has provided insight into their relative importance based on isolation frequency. Fungi colonising Pinus radiata D. Don framing timber of leaky New Zealand buildings were isolated to produce pure cultures. Mycelia from these cultures on agar media were collected to extract DNA. To identify the fungi to the species level, PCR with primer pairs NSI1 + NLB4 and ITS1-F + ITS4 were performed followed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Identification was by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) search on sequences in GenBank. In total, 421 samples from leaky buildings were processed, mainly decayed timber, but also fibre cement boards and building paper. Sixty-eight fungal identifications were achieved of which 4 species are very common as follows: • Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulf.: Fr.) Karst. 13x • Oligoporus placenta (Fries 1865) Gilb. In Ryv.1985 11x • Antrodia sinuosa (Fr.) Karst. 8x • Gloeophyllum trabeum (Fr.) Murr 4x An aerial spore study of internal air, wall cavity air and exterior air of leaky buildings was carried out using a Merck MAS-100 instrument which collects spores directly onto various selective media plates. Also, decayed wood samples from the same leaky buildings enabled identification of G. sepiarium and A. sinuosa at the same test site. Viable fungal aerial spores were detected at every sampling location, with a highest mean of 3714 colony-forming units (CFU) per square meter found in water-damaged walls. The use of Carboxymethylcellulose medium further demonstrated the presence of cellulose degrading fungi within and around the location. Overall, the combination of these two approaches proved useful for detection of fungal species variation at a multi-unit building complex and it was possible to identify the brown rot decay fungal genus Antrodia with both methods.
D Stahlhut, R L Farrell, R Wakeling, M Hedley

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