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Vertical distribution of fouling and wood-boring organisms in the Trondheimsfjord (Western Norway)
1981 - IRG/WP 467
Results of a detailed study on the vertical distribution of fouling and wood-boring organisms of Trondheimsfjord at an interval of 3 m from intertidal level to a depth of 30 m, has been presented, based on data collected from two series of panels, exposed from 15 March 1977 to 15 July 1977 (Series I) and from 22 July 1977 to 13 March 1978 (Series II). The intensity of fouling generally decreased with increasing depth. Quantitatively, fouling was heavy on panels of Series I more than on Series II, although species-wise it was more heterogenous on panels of Series II. The bulk of the fouling was constituted by Balanus crenatus, Laomedia sp., Mytilus sp., Modiolus sp. and Hiatella arctica. Incidence of borers and the resultant destruction of timber were heavier on panels of Series II than on those of Series I. The influence of the period of exposure on the above pattern of infestation by foulers and borers has been discussed. Psiloteredo megotara concentrated at the upper levels up to a depth of 15 m, with more settlement between 3 m to 9 m depth. Although Xylophaga dorsalis was present on panels from 3 m to 30 m depth, their intensity abruptly changed from 9 m onwards and continued to increase with increasing depth, with a maximum number near the mud level at 30 m. Attack of Limnoria lignorum also was heavy at the mud level. On the same panel, while Psiloteredo megotara preferred to settle in more numbers on the lower surface, Xylophaga dorsalis did so on the upper silted surface. The importance of such selective vertical incidence of different borers and their co-operation in the destructive activity have been stressed from the point of wood destruction in the Tronheimsfjord. The rate of growth of Balanus crenatus, Laomedia sp., Psiloteredo megotara, Xylophaga dorsalis, and Xylophaga praestans in relation to depth has been presented. For Balanus crenatus rate of growth decreased with increasing depth, while for Laomedia the same increas with depth up to 12 m and declined thereafter. In accordance with its depth preference, Psiloteredo megotara registered faster growth between 3 to 15 m depth. In the case of Xylophaga dorsalis, the size of the shell valve and burrow increased with increasing depth up to 24 to 27 m and then showed a slight decline at 30 m. Factors influencing the growth-rate at different levels have been discussed. The results on the vertical zonation and rate of growth of the wood-infesting organisms encountered, have been compared with relevant literature published earlier.
L N Santhakumaran


Vertical distribution of fouling and wood-boring organisms in the Trondheimsfjord (Western Norway)
1981 - IRG/WP 476
Results of a detailed study on the vertical distribution of fouling and wood-boring organisme of Trondheimefjord at an interval of 3 m from intertidal level to a depth of 30 m, has been presented, based on data collected from two series of panels, exposed from 15-3-1977 to 15-7-1977 (Series I) and from 22-7-1977 to 13-3-1978 (Series II). The intensity of fouling generally decreased with increasing depth. Quantitatively fouling was heavy on panels of Series I than on Series II, although species-wise it was more heterogeneous on panels of Series II. The bulk of the fouling was constituted by Balanus crenatus, Laomedia sp., Mytilus edulis, Modiolus sp. and Hiatella arctica. Incidence of borers and the resultant destruction of timber were heavy on panels of Series II than on those of Series I. The influence of the period of exposure on the above pattern of infestation by foulers and borers has been discussed. Psiloteredo megotara concentrated at the upper levels upto a depth of 15 m, with more settlement between 3 m to 9 m depth. Although Xylophaga dorsalis was present on panels from 3 m to 30 m depth, their intensity abruptly changed from 9 m onwards and continued to increase with increasing depth, with maximum number near the mud level at 30 m. Attack of Limnoria lignorum also was heavy at mud level. On the same panel, while Psiloteredo megotara preferred to settle in more numbers on the lower surface, Xylophaga dorsalis did so on the upper silted surface. The importance of such selective vertical incidence of different borers and their cooperation in the destructive activity have been stressed from the point of wood destruction in the Trondheimsfjord.
L N Santhakumaran


Natural Durability of Some Heartwood from European and Tropical African Trees against Marine Organisms
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10682
This study aims to investigate the natural marine durability of some tropical and domestic wood species in marine environment. A total of 33 tree species, comprising 18 European and 15 tropical originated trees were exposed to marine conditions in 6 meters depth for a period of 14 months at east and west Black sea, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Marmara coasts. The results indicated that wood species which have rich extractive material content showed high marine durability. European tree species were severely attacked by boring organisms. It was showed that a positive correlation between the amount of extractive material and marine durability. Tropic African species, (Lophira alata, Nauclea diderichii, Tieghemella heckelii, Chlorophora excelsa, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Pterocarpus soyauxii, and Millettia laurentii) consisting of high natural durability were slightly degraded by organisms. The highest attack was observed in the industrial harbors. Five boring and 26 fouling species were identified in marine borers tested wood samples in this study. The two molluscan boring species, Teredo navalis and Lyrodus pedicellatus were present at all harbour sites, but Nototeredo norvegica occurred only industrial harbours; Bankia carinata, and the crustacean wood borer Limnoria tripunctata at only Mediterranean harbours.
S Sen, H Sivrikaya, M Yalçın


Fouling and Boring Organisms Deteriorating Various European and Tropical Woods at Turkish Seas
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10741
This study aims to investigate the diversity of fouling and boring organisms damaging wood material at Turkish coasts. Trials were carried out at six harbour sites throughout the seas surrounding Turkey. Wood samples were hanged down at a depth of six meters in the sea, for a period of one year. Identification of the organisms obtained from wood plates revealed the presence of five wood borer and 26 fouling species. Iskenderun harbour had the highest boring organism diversity (five species), followed by Trabzon, Finike harbours (three species) and Bandirma, Eregli and Alaçati harbours (two species). The two molluscan boring species, Teredo navalis and Lyrodus pedicellatus were present at all harbour sites, but Nototeredo norvegica occurred only at Trabzon and Iskenderun harbours, Bankia carinata only at Iskenderun harbour, and the crustacean wood borer Limnoria tripunctata at Finike and Iskenderun harbours. All native tree species, except for the olive, were significantly impacted from fouling and boring organisms.
S Şen, H Sivrikaya, M Yalcin, A Kerem Bakır, B Öztürk


Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timbers in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40314
Timber is extensively used in India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials. Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future. Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely employed for the protection of fishing craft and the present level of chemical treatment is well below 5% of total timber used. This is due to socio economic problems of the potential timber user groups, unavailability of treatment plants in the coastal areas, lack of awareness in user groups, etc. In this paper, types of fishing craft used in the country, timber uses in the marine environment, bio-deterioration losses, research conducted on bio-deterioration aspects at various places and methods applied for the protection of wooden structures are presented.
B Tarakanadha, M V Rao, M Balaji, P K Aggarwal, K S Rao


Studies on the destruction by marine wood boring organisms of fishing boats in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey
1977 - IRG/WP 427
The present paper concerns the problem of fishing boats which are attacked by wood boring organisms in the Black Sea of Turkey. The aims of this study are: 1) to identify the marine wood boring organisms attacking fishing boats in the Northern Black Sea of Turkey; 2) to identify the wood species that are used in boat building construction and assess their durability; 3) to assess the degree of attack of the marine wood boring organisms and to evaluate the protection methods and chemicals currently applied to the fishing boats.
R Ilhan, O A Sekendiz


Description of a trial with wood preservatives against marine wood boring organisms
1975 - IRG/WP 412
Wood situated in sea water along the Atlantic coasts of the Nordic countries is attacked by marine wood boring organisms. Timber constructions in these waters therefore must be preservative treated. In order to evaluate the effect of various preservatives against marine wood borers, the Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC) organized a rather extensive trial in 1972. In the absence of and while awaiting international standard methods for testing preservatives it was felt that there was a need for a Nordic standard method. The 1972 trial was consequently planned and performed in close cooperation with the standardisation work. The complete standard method was published by NWPC in 1973 (NWPC Standard No. 1.4.2.2/73).
E Norman, B Henningsson


Settlement of fouling organisms on CCA-treated Scots pine in the marine environment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50094
As part of an EU project to investigate the effects of CCA loading on non-target marine fouling animals, exposure panels of Scots pine treated to 12, 24 and 48 kgm-3 CCA and untreated controls were submerged at seven coastal sites (Portsmouth, UK: Kristineberg, Sweden: La Tremblade (2 sites), France: Ria Formosa, Portugal: Sagres, Portugal: Athens, Greece). Inspections were made at 6 and 12 months and the fouling community on treated and untreated panels was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Over the course of the field trial patterns of fouling that were common at several of the sites were recorded. It was found that with increasing CCA loading there was a significant increase in the abundance of several species of calcareous organism. This effect was less pronounced or was absent with non-calcareous animals. There were no noticeable differences in fouling patterns between two formulations of CCA. SEM studies of the surface of CCA treated timber after 7 days submergence showed a higher biofilm accumulation than on untreated timber. The significance of these early stages of biofilm build-up will be discussed in relation to later biota settlement.
C J Brown, R A Eaton


Fouling organisms as indicators of the environmental impact of marine preservative-treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50063
This study evaluates the use of fouling organisms (epibiota) to assess the environmental impact of preservative treated wood. This paper presents initial findings from treated panels exposed for 6 months at Sagres, Algarve, Portugal. Panels were treated with CCA, two copper-containing quaternary ammonium (ACQ) formulations and creosote, with nominal retentions from 10 to 40 kg/m³ (creosote 25 pcf). The presence of an abundant, diverse and healthy epibiotic community growing on treated wood was used as an indication that the preservative treatment had a relatively low impact on its immediate environment. Algae and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were the dominant members of the fouling community which developed on all preservative treated wood panels. The biomass (dry weight of organisms) and species diversity of epibiota scraped from the surface of preservative treated wood panels showed the following order CCA > Creosote > ACQ 1:1 > ACQ 2:1. No difference was detected concerning the shell dimension of mussels between treatments, but mussel biomass was much lower on ACQ-treated test samples, indicating that mussel settlement was affected by ACQ treatment, but growth was not. Algal biomass was highest on creosotetreated panels, with biomass on other panels fitting the following sequence: Creosote > CCA > ACQ 1:1 > ACQ 2:1. Copper, chromium and arsenic contents of algae were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Elevated levels of Cu, Cr and As were found in the macroalgal mat from CCA-treated panels. These levels showed significant positive linear regressions with panel preservative retention levels. Higher levels of copper were found in macroalgal mats from ACQ-treated wood, but showed no linear relationship to panel preservative loadings. Copper levels did not exceed 9 ppm in algal tissue, chromium and arsenic levels were below 1 ppm.
R M Albuquerque, S M Cragg


Effect of wood species on colonization by an unknown wood boring organisms in marine waters
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10108
The effect of wood species on the initial settlement by surface fouling organisms in marine environments was investigated by exposing heartwood panels of Douglas-fir ((Mirb.) Franco), western redcedar (Donn.), and Oregon white oak (Dougl. ex. Hooke) in an estuary located on the coast of Oregon. The oak and western redcedar panels were sparsely colonized over the first 39 days of exposure, while the Douglas-fir panels were rapidly colonized by an unknown wood burrowing organism which had characteristics typical of a Bryozoan. While Bryzoans have been reported previously from wood exposed in marine environments, they are have usually been associated with decayed wood and are typically not considered to be capable of wood damage. The implications for the presence of these organisms on subsequent colonization by Teredinids and Limnorans are considered.
K S Rao, P F Schnieder, J J Morrell


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 22: Report on the conditions of specimens at Sekondi, Ghana after 60 months
1986 - IRG/WP 4123
The results of the third inspection of CCA and CCB treated test panels exposed at Sekondi, Ghana in June 1980 are presented. None of the panels still in test, i.e. panels of Pinus sylvestris treated with CCA at 3 and 10%, Alstonia scholaris treated with CCA at 10%, Fagus sylvatica treated with CCA at 10%, and Erythrophleum ivorense and Mitragyna stipulosa both treated with CCB at 10%, shows any external evidence of borer attack. X-radiography, however, shows that only Fagus sylvatica panels treated with 10% CCA remain completely free of attack. The attacking borers are teredinids.
F F K Ampong, N Asare-Nyadu


Research activities on marine wood biodeterioration in Indian waters
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4182
India has a sea coast of about 8,000 km - taking into account all islands in Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal. Considerable quantity of wood is used for jetties, piles, catamarans, coastal and fishing vessels etc. and expenditure made on all these strutures including losses involved due to damage by marine borers is considerable. Continous and rapid depletion of timber from our forests particulary at the present time when supplies of timber is far below the demand and foreign exchange involved in import of durable timbers, are also considerable. In order to tackle the different problems connected with the biodeterioration of timber under marine conditions, research Centres were established at Bambay, Goa and Cochin on the West Coast and Vishakapatnam and Madras along the East Coast to cover practically the entire coustal areas of the country. Research directed towards study of biology of marine borers, natural resistance of several species of indigenous timbers and efficacy of wood preservatives in protecting timbers, has yielded vast body of information and good data base on these problems, has been developed.
V V Srinivasan


Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen


Data sheet on wood-boring insects. Apate monachus Fabricius. 2. Position systématique, nomenclature, identification et distribution - Espèces végétales attaquée
1981 - IRG/WP 1105
R L A Damoiseau


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examination. These tests were usually performed with a defined maximum load or deflection path regardless of the remaining degree of elasticity of the test specimens. Recent studies at the BAM revealed that by modifying the method, i.e. by restricting the applied load to the non-destructive interval for each individual test specimen, the calculated modulus of elasticity (MOE) reflect the changing strength properties caused by biological deterioration and allow within a relatively short time valuable predictions on the service life of the treated timber in soil contact.
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph


IRG - wood preservation - annual report 1999; wood preservation in Slovak Republic
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40192
This report gives basic information about wood preservation in Slovak Republic, related to the wood preservation research and education, to the most important wood-destroying organisms, to the wood preserving industry, and also to the problems of standards, market and environment.
L Reinprecht


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 10 from Naos Island, Panama
1980 - IRG/WP 462
Blocks of 3 wood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Alstonia (Alstonia scholaris) were exposed at site number 12 at Naos Island, Panama on March 8, 1978 by John R. DePalma. The arrangement of the panels in the exposure site is as shown in Figure 1.
D W French


Introduction to a field demonstration of various instruments and methods for the detection of defects in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2228
H Friis-Hansen


A medium for mass culturing of a bamboo boring beetle Dinoderus minutus Fabricius
1983 - IRG/WP 1182
The bamboo is a traditional product of Japan. But its susceptibility to insects is one of the most important problems. The author has found that for the determination of the effectiveness of insecticides it is very easy to obtain sufficiently numerous adults of Dinoderus minutus by using Buckwheat Cake. The Buckwheat Cake is prepared with buckwheat flour and thin paper. The author has previously found that Buckwheat Cake is suitable for the culturing of Lyctus brunneus and these results were presented in 1981. In culturing Dinoderus minutus, Buckwheat Cake has been found to be also easier and fasting in bringing forth the adults than natural bamboo.
K Suzuki


Aspects of the biology of the wood-boring weevil Pselactus spadix herbst
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10221
The external morphology of the adult and larval digestive tract of the wood boring weevil Pselactus spadix has been reported for the first time. An examination of adult gut ultrastructure showed that the foregut was adapted for the wood boring habit with the presence of chitinous setae, grinding plates and sieve plates. The adult midgut bore eight caecae and numerous palpii. Spherical yeast-like micro-organisms were observed throughout the foregut and midgut. Adults demonstrated sexual dimorphism in body capsule and rostrum dimensions. The study also demonstrated this weevil to be incapable of flight.
G Cooper, A J Pitman, G S Sawyer


CEN Draft (38 N 460E) Standard: Test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment
1986 - IRG/WP 4132
This European Standard describes a marine test method which provides a basis for asseasing the effectiveness of a wood preservative used to prevent attack of timber in sea-water by marine borers. The method is only suitable for testing preservatives which are intended to prevent attack by marine wood boring organisms of treated timber for use in more or less permanent contact with sea-water. It is not suitable for assessing the effectiveness of preservatives against micro-organisms. The main objective of the method described is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a wood preservative applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation. For this reason permeable timbers are used throughout so that the protective efficacy of various retentions of the preservative can be determined. However, it is recognized that modifications of the method may be used for other purposes, e.g. to determine the relative efficacy of a preservative treatment or to determine the natural durability of the heartwood and sapwood of a selected timber species. The method is primarily intended for testing in temperate waters where Teredine and Limnoria borers dominate. However, it is also capable of being used in tropics where attack by Pholads and specific Crustacean borers may be very destructive. It has to be considered that the test has to be run for a minimum period (usually for 5 years or until the point of failure) before any interpretation of the results can be made. Variations in the test conditions can be expected from one test site to another depending on temperature, salinity, population density of the various borer species etc. This will inevitably influence the general rate of attack. However, by comparing the results obtained for samples treated with the test product with those obtained with a reference preservative and those obtained with untreated control samples, the relative protective effectiveness of the product tested can be evaluated.
G Castan


Exposure trial at tropical marine sites of pyrethroid/creosote mixtures as wood preservatives: Preliminary results
1989 - IRG/WP 4155
Pinus sylvestris sapwood blocks measuring 25 x 25 x 200 mm³, impregnated using a Lowry or Rüping pressure treatment cycle with solutions of permethrin, cypermethrin or deltamethrin in BS144 creosote, have been exposed at marine sites in Australia, Papua New Guinea, the U.K. and Singapore. The effectiveness of these solutions in preventing marine borer attack is being compared with the efficacy of creosote alone, creosote/CCA double treatment, pyrethroids alone and no treatment. Blocks at the tropical sites have been installed in the intertidal zone in areas where the crustacean borer, Sphaeroma is active. Teredinids (shipworms) of several species are very numerous at these sites and the bivalve borer, Martesia, is present. Limnona colonies were found in untreated blocks at the sites in Papua New Guinea and Australia. The results of inspections after exposure periods of up to 26 months at the tropical sites are summarised in this report. Untreated sample blocks failed rapidly to borers, particularly teredinids. Pyrethroids alone reduced the level of crustacean borer attack and to a lesser extent, teredinid attack. All blocks treated with creosote-containing solutions have so far not been attacked by borers or degraded significantly by micro-organisms. Soft-rot and bacterial degradation occurred in untreated blocks and blocks treated with pyrethroids alone. Settlement by barnacles and serpulid worms appears to be inhibited by the creosote/CCA double treatment, but there is no evidence of long-term inhibition of barnacle or serpulid settlement by pyrethroid-containing solutions, whether with creosote or without. Samples at the site in the UK are exposed to teredinid attack. No inspections have yet been carried out at this site.
S M Cragg


Report on International Conference on Marine Biodeterioration, Goa, India, January 1986
1986 - IRG/WP 4127
At the International Conference on Marine Biodeterioration - Advanced Techniques Applicable to the Indian Ocean, there were a number of papers relevant to the aims of Working Group IV of IRG. Abstracts of these papers and a brief commentary on the conference are presented.
S M Cragg


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