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Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two prep...
I Usta


An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditi...
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain


A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures....
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan


Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell pro...
I Usta


The effects of density on vertical variation of permeability of Sitka spruce within tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40156
Tree improvement of Sitka spruce is a combination of silviculture and tree breeding aimed at producing higher quality products including increased growth rate and timber yield, and wood density. It is useful to know annual ring structure and density distribution when studying the quality of wood, grading it, or determining how the wood structure affects residual flow in softwoods. Since density is...
I Usta.


Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated slash pine heartwood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50020
Drying green slash pine with any of three high temperature drying schedules produced a product in which both the sapwood and the heartwood could be penetrated with CCA using a modified Bethell treatment schedule. Required H3 retentions were achieved in both sapwood and heartwood, from 200 litres per m³ charge uptake. Post-treatment fixation/drying was accomplished by three different regimes, incl...
M J Kennedy, G Palmer


Preservation of two Indonesian timber species for marine environment purposes
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10079
This paper deal with the experiment of CCA full cell processed two non-durable Indonesian species for placed in the marine environment. 80 samples of 5 x 5 x 60 cm³ dried durian (Durio zibethinus) and mahogany (Swietenia mahagony) timber were CCA-full cell processed using 4 combination treatment of: without steaming; one hour steaming; 3% and 5% CCA solution concentration. 40 samples of them were...
P Permadi, I M Padlinurjaji, F Rasmita


Wood protection processes in the Asean countries
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40034
This paper presents the wood processing practices in the Asean countries composing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand except Brunei. The development of wood preservation industry in these countries started as early as 1922 to 1960. As in other industrial countries, treatment pressure with creosote of utility poles, railway sleepers, and marine pilings are the prime commoditi...
F R Siriban


A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence posts with CCA preservatives. Part 1
1988 - IRG/WP 3470
This paper describes the impregnation with CCA preservatives by full-cell process of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts. Several treatments were made for different times of initial vacuum and treating pressure, with fence-posts from two coppice plantations (1st and 2nd rotations), assembled into three diameter classes: small, medium, large. The results concerning the absorption and lateral penetratio...
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, L Nunes


Investigation of temperature effect on fixation of Celcure preservative (ACC) in beech (Fagus orientalis)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40200
In this research, the fixation speed of Celcure 2% (ACC) preservative salt, under temperature of 17°C, 27°C and 50°C, on intact and stained wood specimens of beech was investigated. For this purpose, blocks of wood with 5x5x7 cm dimensions were prepared and saturated with 2% ACC concentration by full-cell process. The specimens were put in three incubators at the above-mentioned temperatures. F...
A Karimi, M Ghorbani


Effect of treating process on efficacy of CCA in a laboratory decay test
1990 - IRG/WP 3628
Test samples of Pinus radiata sapwood measuring 40x40x500 mm³ were treated with a range of concentrations of the copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) formulation "Tanalith C" using Rueping (empty cell), Lowry (empty cell) and Bethell (full cell) treatment processes. Samples were then reduced to 40x40x7 mm³ test blocks and exposed to the decay fungus Coniophora puteana using an agar/block technique. Repl...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, J G Van der Waals


A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3514
This paper describes the second part of a study on pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives presented at the IRG 19th Meeting. Fence-posts of three diameter classes, were treated, considering only one treatment schedule. The results show possibility of vacuum-pressure impregnation of blue gum fence-posts, with diameter less than 9 cm, though mainly by longitu...
L Nunes, D De Sousa Castro Reimão


A novel guide for the determination of the physical properties of wood including kiln drying and full-cell preservative treatment
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20298
An ideal flow chart for the sequential experimental determination of a range of physical properties relevant to wood drying and subsequent preservation was designed as a novel guide to assist wood scientists. In this manner, data assembly and experimental processing are shown. This was designed according to experience and published literature. Aspects emphasised in this review were the physical p...
I Usta, M D C Hale


Trial to determine a suitable schedule for radial and longitudinal treatment of plug samples by comparison of changes in the fluid retention and the treated area
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40211
A full-cell process was carried out using different treatment schedules for radial and longitudinal samples because of the anisotrophy of flow. When timbers are impregnated with preservatives much better penetrations are obtained via the end grain than laterally (across the grain). Therefore, suitable schedules for radial and longitudinal flow directions were determined in an trial experiment usin...
I Usta


A note on te seasoning, preservative treatment and suitability of debdaru (Polyalthia longifolia Benth & Hooker.) for poles
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40056
The main work is to determining the suitability of Debdaru (Polyalthia longifolia Benth.) as poles from Government and Village forests are investigated. The poles of Debdaru are easily treatable with CCA preservative by full-cell pressure method, but difficult to dry (air & kiln). Proper quality control must be maintain from procurement to treatment, specially during physical selection & d...
G N M Ilias, M D Rokib-ul-Hafiz


Chemical treatment of ten Amazonian timber species of low natural durability
1991 - IRG/WP 3640
The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 10 amazonian wood species of low natural durability, to treatment with CCA preservative (2% concentration): it was concluded that all species studied are easily treated with this preservative. The sapwood showed high absorption and total penetration. The heartwood is relatively easy to preserve, exception to Parkia nitidae (Fava), Quale...
C S Neta, B F Vianez


Notes on a wood preservation industry in Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia
1987 - IRG/WP 3405
This paper deals with a descriptive account on the development of a wood preservation industry in Medan, North Sumatera (Indonesia). The industry was established in 1974 when the State Owned Electicity Corporation decided to use wooden power poles for their distribution network in North Sumatera province. However, the use of wooden power poles was discontinued in 1981, so as the preservation indus...
N Supriana, A Murad


The effect of rate of pressure application on preservative uptake along and across the grain of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp and constant pressure times
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20292
This study was particularly design to determine the preservative uptake at different ramp (rate of increase in pressure) and constant pressure times on longitudinal, tangential and radial penetrations of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) which grown indigeneously in Turkey. The samples of 2 cm cubes of kiln-dried wood (nominated to 12% moisture content) were treated at different ramp times varied ...
I Usta


Protection of rubberwood timber. Part 1: Impregnation with boron preservatives
1989 - IRG/WP 3551
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were treated with a 3% proprietary mixture of borax/boric acid using three different treatment schedules i.e. full-cell, full-cell to refusal and full-cell with 12 cycles of vacuum/pressure. Freshly cut samples had mean preservative retentions of 187 kg/m³, 214 kg/m³ and 178 kg/m³ respectively. Pre-air dried samples for one week had retentions of 252 kg/m³, 308 ...
L T Hong, C C K Liew


Estimation of the impregnation degree of pine wood by the distribution analysis of active ions concentration in the cross-section
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20174
Samples in the form of pine wood rollers of diversified moisture content of ca. 50, 28 and 12% were impregnated with a water solution of the mixture type CCB with the use of the full-cell process. Moisture content was determined in individual layers from the girth to the pith. In the same way the concentrations of copper and chromium ions with the use of the spectrophotometric method and recalcula...
K Lutomski, B Mazela


Industrial fixation of chromium based wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 3630
Fixation is an abstract and non-defined process. Nevertheless it is a specified requirement in most impregnation standards. The impregnation industry is facing increased pressure to deliver fixed products and to increase the safety of the handling of impregnated products. Industrial fixation of impregnated wood can be obtained by using different methods. The purpose of the process is to transform ...
T Christensen


Tilting and vacuum treatment - two methods to obtain a non-dripping freshly treated timber
1989 - IRG/WP 3535
Modern impregnation plants are designed to prevent spread of impregnation solutions from the plant through leakage, etc. It is also important that freshly treated timber does not spread solutions through dripping on the storage area. To prevent this, the impregnation procedure is terminated with a vacuum period. In many plants in Sweden this period is minimized or even excluded to gain time. Inste...
I Johansson, M-L Edlund


Variation in biological performance of CCA caised by preservative application method
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40072
A series of laboratory studies to investigate the influence of treatment application method on CCA performance in Cosican pine has been completed. Biological decay tests, such as serial exposures, were used to induce decay in wood at preservative retentions of up to 10 kg/m³ CCA salts. Significant differences in performance of the preservative against either brown, white or soft rot decay fungi w...
P R Newman, R J Murphy


Microdistribution of water-borne preservatives in blue gum treated by full-cell process
1990 - IRG/WP 3617
The present work deals with the study of the microdistribution of copper, chrome and arsenic elements in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sapwood, treated with a CCA water-borne preservative by full-cell process, with the help of scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersion X-ray analysis technique. The work shows that the retention of CCA elements is high in vessels and vasicentric par...
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, J M Palacios


The susceptibility to sludging of sulfate and oxide CCA
1990 - IRG/WP 3599
Radiata pine sapwood was treated separately with a sulphate CCA-C and an oxide CCA in a pilot scale pressure plant using a full cell process. CCA solutions were recovered from the final vacuum phase, placed in plastic tubes, and their susceptibility to sludging determined by examining changes in solution pH, time required for sludge to form and weight and chemical composition of sludge formed. Sul...
B T Mutandadzi, P D Evans


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