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Targeting fungal proteinases to prevent sapstain on wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10097
Discoloration of wood, caused by a variety of sapstaining fungi, leads to periodic losses in the Canadian lumber export industry. Proteolytic enzymes are thought to be necessary for retrieval of nitrogen during fungal growth on wood. The major extracellular proteinase of Ophiostoma piceae, a representative sapstaining fungus, was purified to homogeneity and its inhibition pattern characterised. Cl...
L D Abraham, D E Bradshaw, A Byrne, P I Morris, C Breuil


Inhibition of termite feeding by fungal siderophores
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1558
Siderophores are iron-chelating extracellular fungal metabolites which may be involved in initiating wood decay. A purified siderophore extract isolated from the brown-rot decay fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr. (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae) was found to deter feeding by Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). This fungus has prev...
J K Grace, B Goodell, W E Jones, V Chandhoke, J Jellison


Comparison of the effects of borate, germanate and tellurate on fungal growth and wood decay
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1533
The tetra-hydroxy borate ion is known to undergo complexation with polyols and has been shown to inhibit dehydrogenase enzymes in this way. It has been previously suggested that this complexation is responsible for the inhibition of fungal growth and the protection of boron treated timber. Other ions that have the ability to complex with polyols have also been shown to inhibit dehydrogenase activi...
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson


Factors affecting resistance to sapstain infection in freshly felled softwood logs
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10467
Previous studies in the UK have shown a marked difference in the susceptibility of logs of five softwood species to infection by sapstain fungi over a 4 month field trial. Recently this result has been confirmed and the rank order of greatest to least susceptibility in these commercially important species is lodgepole pine > Scots pine > Norway spruce > Japanese larch > Sitka spruce. C...
E J Young, R A Eaton, J F Webber, M A W Hill


Effect of amphiphilic antioxidant alkyl ammonium ascorbate on inhibition of fungal growth: Application to wood preservatives formulation
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30466
Amphiphilic surfactants were synthesized from ascorbic acid and different fatty amines and evaluated for formulation of wood preservation products. Characterization of physicochemical properties of the new compounds indicated classical behavior of cationic surfactants. Antioxidant properties, estimated using methyl linoleate oxidation inhibition method, were similar to that of ascorbic acid teste...
C Gérardin , T Koumbi Mounanga, P Gérardin


Impregnation of wood with antifungal compounds from low-quality tree biomass
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30763
In this paper we have reviewed recent research on the development of bio-based preservative formulations for wood done at the Department of wood science and technology, Ljubljana. Preservative formulations used in this investigation were prepared using plant polyphenols as biocidal agents. These nonstructural components of wood were stilbenes and flavonoids, and were extracted from wood of broken ...
V Vek, I Poljanšek, A Balzano, M Humar, P Oven


Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson


Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examinati...
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph


The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of b...
J D Thornton


Fungal and bacterial attack of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from a water-cooling tower
1991 - IRG/WP 1488
Transmission electron microscopy of decaying CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from an industrial water cooling tower showed presence of a thick biofilm covering some areas of the wood. The biofilm contained various morphologically distinct forms of microorganisms embedded in a slime. The study provided evidence of the activity of soft rot fungi and tunnelling and erosion bacteria in wood cells. T...
A P Singh, M E Hedley, D R Page, C S Han, K Atisongkroh


Inhibition of wood-inhabiting fungi by actinomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 1137
Actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Microtetraspora, Nocardia and Rhodococcus, isolated from wood, were laboratory tested for their inhibitory effects against the Basidiomycete fungi Polystictus sanguineus and Sistrotrema brinkmannii. One-third of the representatives of the genus Streptomyces which were tested produced significant inhibitory zones whereas actinomycetes belong...
M S Cavalcante, R A Eaton


The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves


An attempt to evaluate wood resistance against fungal decay in non-sterile conditions by measuring the variation of resistance to bending test
1988 - IRG/WP 2308
The main object of this work was to determine the variation of strength on large test specimens of wood (800 x 45 x 45 mm³) when exposed to accelerated fungal attacks close to natural conditions, out of test vessels. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and the modulus of rupture (MOR) have been assessed. Thereby, the natural resistance of the wood species to fungal decay, the efficiency of preservati...
L N Trong


Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse


A short note on fungal decay in K33-treated poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1169
Soft rot cavities and erosion of the lumen have been found in K33-treated Pinus sylvestris poles from the years 1956-66 by microscopic studies. Poor treatment quality has been proved for some of these poles. The microscopy showed an unusual pattern of attack, and pre-treatment decay is suspected but not yet proved. Sounding the poles and using the Pilodyn indicated decay, but poking did not. Quant...
H Friis-Hansen


Evaluation of new creosote formulations after extended exposures in fungal cellar tests and field plot tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30228
Although creosote, or coal tar creosote, has been the choice of preservative treatment for the railroad industry since the 1920s, exuding or "bleeding" on the surface of creosote-treated products has been one incentive for further enhancements in creosote production and utility (Crawford et al., 2000). To minimize this exuding problem, laboratories such as Koppers Industries Inc., USA, and Commonw...
D M Crawford, P K Lebow, R C De Groot


A direct method for testing plywood and particle boards against fungal decay
1984 - IRG/WP 2214
A method directly inspired from the French standard testing method of the resistance of particle boards against fungal decay (AFNOR N° 51.295 May 1980) is described. But in that experimentation, the infestation is localized and realized in non sterile conditions. Small blocks of Fagus sylvatica (60 x 20 x 10 mm³) used as " inoculates " are infested with basidiomycetes, in Kolle flask for 4 to 6 ...
L N Trong


Are fungal cellar tests really necessary?
1989 - IRG/WP 2333
During the past decade the range of methodology used to evaluate wood preservative potential has significantly expanded. At the forefront of these new tools available to the scientist·is the fungal cellar. This technique, as currently applied, involves the exposure of treated and untreated samples to conditions of moisture and temperature which ensure optimum fungal attack. By comparison data wit...
J N R Ruddick


Biological and chemical observation on the early fungal colonization of TBTO treated Swedish redwood stakes
1984 - IRG/WP 3311
Data on the early fungal colonization of Swedish redwood stakes, impregnated with 1% TBT0 / 0.5% dieldrin solution, both by double vacuum impregnation and immersion processes are presented. Results of chemical analyses of wood samples from the outer 1 mm of separate painted and unpainted stakes, exposed over the same twelve month period, are also discussed....
R Hill, A H Chapman, A Samuel, K Manners, G Morton


Isolation and identification of the fungal flora in treated wood
1976 - IRG/WP 144
J F Levy


Virulence tests with fungal strains used in EN 113 CEN ring test. Results with Coniophora puteana (Schum.ex Fr.) Karst
1986 - IRG/WP 2249
D Dirol


Preliminary note on the fungal problem of rubber wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3246
Susceptibility of rubber wood to fungal attack limits its wider utilisation. Fungal problems encountered in treating rubber wood with boron compounds by diffusion process have been discussed. Sodium pentachlorophenoxide and 2-thiocyanomethylthio benzothioazole (TCMTB) were investigated for possible control of fungal growth during diffusion storage and their performance has been reported....
R Gnanaharan


Fungal defacement of water-stored softwoods
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10009
Sapstain, mould and basidiomycete defacement of untreated sawn boards of Scots and Corsican pine was recorded during a 14 week field trial. Boards were cut from freshly felled logs and from logs previously maintained under water sprinklers for 6 months and ca. 4 years. The incidence of sapstain defacement or the freshly felled wood was very servere aftcr 2 weeks and remained so throughout the boar...
M A Powell, R A Eaton


Synergistic effects between 2-HPNO, Irganox 1076 and EDTA on the inhibition of wood degradation by Coriolus versicolor
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30331
The efficiency of 2-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (2-HPNO) as wood preservative has been investigated. As shown using classical experiments as well as using response surface methodology, the efficiency of 2-HPNO as wood preservative is strongly improved in presence a chelator like EDTA and/or of Irganox 1076 an industrial antioxidant. In these conditions, wood preservative efficiency of the mixture the ...
A Mabicka, S Dumarçay, N Rouhier, M Linder, J P Jacquot, P Gérardin, E Gelhaye


Efficacy of some extractives from Pinus heartwood for protection of Pinus radiata sapwood against biodeterioration. Part 1: Fungal decay
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30072
Chemical compounds thought to contribute to the natural durability of heartwood of Pinus spp. were either chemically synthesised in the laboratory or extracted from the heartwood of Pinus elliottii or Pinus caribaea. These compounds included the stilbenes, pinosylvin and its mono- and di-methyl ethers, and the flavonoids, pinobanksin and pinocembrin. Small blocks of Pinus radiata sapwood were impr...
M J Kennedy, J A Drysdale, J Brown


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