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Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports of some copper naphthenate-treated poles rapidly failing. One possible explanation for the varying effectiveness could be that the structure, and resulting biological activity, of the naphthenic acids used to make copper naphthenate may vary. To test this hypothesis several naphthenic acids and copper naphenates were obtained and their fungicidal activity against three wood-destroying fungi measured. In addition, the chemical structure of the naphthenic acids were examined by proton- and carbon- NMR. Different activities were observed, especially against a copper-tolerant fungus. Some apparent correlations were seen between the fungicidal activity and chemical structures for the few samples studied.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher

Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > dimethyl sulfoxide > ethanol > acetone. The non-polar white spirit did not dissolve in the growth medium and the results could not be directly compared with the results for other solvents. As an appropriate solvent for screening of the tested copper(II) carboxylates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was chosen. Minimal inhibitory concentration against Trametes versicolor of the screened carboxylates was in the concentration range of 1x10-4 to 1x10-3 mol/l. Coordinated amine ligands slightly, and not significantly, decreased fungicidal properties of the tested carboxylates.
M Petric, F Pohleven

The evaluation of synergistic effects of chemicals on fungicidal efficacy in crossed-paper tests
1991 - IRG/WP 2383
The mixing effects of wood preservatives were evaluated using the crossed-paper technique. Two filter paper strips (0.7 x 8 cm²) were treated by soaking with different chemicals [fungicides, a termiticide (chlorpyrifos or phoxim), a surface-active agent, a synergistic agent, and a stabilizer], and placed at right angles to each other on a fully grown mycelial mat of a test fungus in a Petri dish. When the four organoiodine fungicides were incorporated with chlorpyrifos or surface active agent, only 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) showed the desirable synergistic effect against every wood-decaying fungus tested. Other fungicides did not always tend to produce the synergistic effect with the addition of a surface active agent. 4-Chlorophenyl-3-iodopropargyl formal (IF-1000) appeared to indicate an undesirable antagonistic effect when mixed with either chlorpyrifos or a surface active agent. 3-Bromo-2, 3 diiodo-2-propenylethyl carbamate (EBIP) did not show any synergistic action by mixing with chlorpyrifos and/or a surface active agent, although the fungicidal enhancement was induced satisfactorily by mixing the fungicide with chlorpyrifos, a stabilizer and/or a synergistic agent, especially against Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Similarity of the results obtained in the present investigation and in the previous laboratory decay tests leads to the conclusion that the crossed-paper technique is suitable for the evaluation of the mixing effect of chemicals on fungicidal efficacy.
Dong-heub Lee, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi

Fungicidal combination products
1987 - IRG/WP 3426
Due to the increased pressure on some of the established fungicides used in wood preservation, possible alternative products become more interesting. The requirements for new chemicals are mainly lower toxicity and greater environmental acceptability. However the efficacy to target organisms should be as good as that of the currently used ones, preferably better. A possibility for progress in this direction could be fungicidal combination products showing broader spectrum of efficacy and synergistic effects. Mixtures of tributyltin compounds with Furmecyclox and K-HDO respectively are tested for this purpose. Toxic values with and without artificial ageing (wind-tunnel exposure and leaching) were determined. Investigations have been made with coating-formulations in order to test penetration, evaporation and the influence of UV-radiation. Aqueous formulations were tested for special purposes such as the treatment of freshly cut timber and the protection of brickwork. The results obtained are very promising, especially regarding long term durability. Further investigations mainly with the aqueous formulations including other test fungi and field trials are necessary to confirm the suggested application as wood preservatives.
H A B Landsiedel

Boron treatments for the preservation of wood - A review of efficacy data for fungi and termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30037
Boron treatments have been used for many decades for protection of timber from biological attack and also as a fire retardant treatment. In recent years there has been an increased interest in boron treatments as an option for protection of structural timbers' e.g. timber framing used in termite risk areas. This paper reviews efficacy data for both fungi and termites relevant to this end-use.
J A Drysdale

Fungicidal and termiticidal effectiveness of alkylammonium compounds
1983 - IRG/WP 3232
This paper is related to effectiveness of several AAC's against wood decay fungi and termites by Japanese standardized test methods.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto

Changes in the degree of decay of lignocellulosic substrate used in a screening test of fungicidal wood preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 287
This report contains results of investigations aimed at: a) determination of the effect of the kind of substrate and species of test fungus on quantitative changes in used samples prepared from spruce cardboard, and b) comparison of the threshold fungicidal values of come fungicides determined with accelerated method, with values obtained by block method. During performed investigations, the method described in Document No.: IRG/WP/262 was used. Assesment of decomposition degree was based on the loss of weight and amount of NaOH consumption by the substrate.
K Lutomski

Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent was roughly monitored by the curcumin/salicylic acid color test and the presence of copper was detected by the chrome azurol-S reagent. One year after installation of rods, movement of boron was determined by application of curcumin dye to increment cores removed at various distances from the site of boron rod installation. A portion of a sodium borate treated Southern Pine timber was also analyzed by spraying curcumin dye on sawed longitudinal and transverse sections. At 2 years, one foot sections were removed from all timber species, sawed as above, and boron and copper detection reagent sprayed on the sawed surfaces. Movement of copper from rods in all timbers was virtually nil. Both transverse and longitudinal movement of boron from rods was greatest in Southern pine which also had the highest moisture content. Movement of boron was next best in red oak. There was little movement of boron away from the rods in white oak and Douglas-fir.
T L Highley, L Ferge

Fungicidal properties of boron containing preservative Borosol 9
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30348
The fungicidal properties of new boron containing wood preservative Borosol 9 is described in this paper. These properties were of particular interest as this new boron containing preservative, exhibit very good performance against wood damaging insects. But because the tested boron formulation contain also nitrogen compounds, we wanted to verify if nitrogen as a nutrient could promote growth of wood rotting and blue stain fungi. Fungicidal activity of the boron based wood preservative Borosol 9 was evaluated according to the standard EN 113 procedure. Samples made of Norway spruce were brushed two times with 10% aqueous solution of Borosol 9, air dried, steam sterilized and exposed to the following wood rotting fungi: Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Lentinus lepideus. After 16 weeks of exposure the specimens were isolated and their mass losses were determined. After this respective period, the treated wood samples lost on an average less than 1 % of their initial mass. Parallel to this experiment, blue stain testing according to the EN 152-1 procedure was performed. Specimens brushed with Borosol were for six weeks exposed to blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila. After testing period the specimens were isolated and anti blue stain efficacy was determined visually. Both tests showed that Borosol 9 has fungicidal properties. Preservative, containing the boric acid - alkanolamine complex did not enhance fungal decay or growth. On the contrary, they showed high activity against wood decay and blue stain fungi.
G Babuder, M Petric, F Cadež, M Humar, F Pohleven

Amines – Promising Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30287
Environmental concerns require a new approach in the field of wood protection. Band of many traditional wood preservatives has lead to intense researches for new environmental-friendly wood preservatives. Amines seem to be promising substitutes for classical biocides. Fungicidal and leaching resistance as well as some other chemical analysis of beach and Norway spruce samples treated with ethanolamine, triethanolamine or ammonia was examined. Initially, percentage of fixed nitrogen in samples was established. Afterwards fungicidal resistance against Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum were determined according to the standard laboratory test EN 113. Finally, leaching resistance was performed according to the modified standard EN 1250 procedure. We found out that the mayor part of amines remained in wood and did not evaporate from it. The results indicated that amine treated wood increased resistance against wood decay fungi. On the other hand amine treated wood was not found suitable for use in hazard class 4, since amines were leached out of the wood.
M Humar, F Pohleven, Š Kesnar, P Kalan

Studies on the fungicidal effectiveness of a petrol derived product as a creosote alternative
1986 - IRG/WP 3384
This work, appears first because of the necessity to find out a profitable use for a residual product of the petrol pyrolisis, and second, because the lack of high natural durability wood used until now-a-days to build posts and sleepers in creosote lacking countries. Our main objective was pointed to the characterization of this new product and to find out the effectiveness against the wood-destroying fungi, compared to the creosote response.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya.

Long-term protection of stored lumber against mould, stain, and specifically decay: A comparative field test of fungicidal formulations
1984 - IRG/WP 3281
The problem of decay in packaged, unseasoned lumber stored for many months has become of major importance in recent years. Large financial claims have resulted from decay in Canadian lumber stored at length in seaports and storage yards of distributors. For decades acceptable protection from moulds and sapstain was readily achieved with chlorinated phenols applied at appropriate treating levels. However, in recent years, the use of chlorinated phenols in sawmills has become controversial, out of concern for its persistance in the environment and because of its broad spectrum of toxicity to practically all organisms. Although it was realized that this toxicity to humans had been over-emphasized, the discovery of traces of chlorinated dibenzodioxins as a minor impurity of some chlorinated phenols has generated further pressure to abandon the use of the latter. Forintek Canada Corp. has done extensive laboratory and field testing of fungicides for the lumber industry. Most of the field experiments were four-month studies (1) although one dealt with a two year evaluation of preservative retention and protection (2). In June 1981, under contract to Agriculture Canada, we began a field test of five new fungicidal formulations, comparing them with sodium tetra- and pentachlorpheates (NaTCP).
A J Cserjesi, A Byrne, E L Johnson

Fungicidal efficacy of some dimethyldithiocarbamates, dymethylaminopropionitrile and some salts of S-substituted thioglycolic acid
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30180
Screening for fungicidal activity against Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana of the following compounds was performed: sodium N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate, dimethylalkylammonium (C12-C14) N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate, benzyldimethylalkylammonium (C12-C14) N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate, N,N-dimethylaminopropionitrile and ammonium, copper and zinc salts of N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid. The compounds were synthesised and delivered by UCB Chemicals, Ghent, Belgium. Potato dextrose agar was used as a nutrient medium. The strongest fungicidal activity against both fungi was exhibited by dimethylalkylammonium and benzyldimethylalkylammonium dimethyldithiocarbamates. They retarded mycelium growth already at a concentration of 1.0x10-4 mol/l and completely prevented the growth at 1.0x10-3 mol/l. The other compounds revealed lower fungicidal efficacy. The activity of dimethyldithiocarbamates and dimethylaminopropionitrile was determined also by a mini-block test method. Impregnated spruce wood mini-blocks were exposed to Coniophora puteana and beech wood mini-blocks to Trametes versicolor. In both cases, outcomes of the mini-block test confirmed the screening results.
M Petric, F Pohleven, M Humar, U Kolman

Fungicidal activity of some new water borne copper octanoate based formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30198
Four new water borne formulations for preservation of wood were prepared: the composition of Cu(II) octanoate, 2-aminoethanol (ethanolamine) and water; the composition of complex of Cu(II) octanoate with nicotinamide, 2-aminoethanol and water; the one of Cu(II) octanoate, organic boron complex, 2-aminoethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and water and finally, the mixture of Cu(II) octanoate, diazene, 2-aminoethanol and water. Fungicidal activity of these new formulations against Trametes versicolor, Antrodia vaillantii and Coniophora puteana was determined by filter paper and mini-block test methods. Compared to the commercially used wood preservative containing Cu(II) naphthenate / Cu(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, the new compositions have stronger fungicidal activity. The strongest biocidal activity was exhibited by the formulation with a Cu(II) octanoate/nicotinamide complex.
M Petric, M Pavlic, F Pohleven, P Segedin, B Kozlevcar, S Polanc, B Stefane, R Lenarsic

New boron-based biocides for the protection of wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30283
Boric acid and other simple inorganic oxides of boron are amongst the oldest wood preservatives currently in use. Their relatively low toxicity and broad-spectrum activity are just some of their desirable characteristics. The primary disadvantage associated with conventional boron-based preservatives is their lack of permanence in exposed applications. A collaborative project between CSIRO and the Centre for Green Chemistry is developing new complexes for wood protection based on boron. The approach involves the binding of boron with specifically designed ligands that interact with the wood constituents to reduce leaching. Accelerated weathering trials and cellulose paper bioassays have been used as a means of assessing the performance of large numbers of complexes, and building up qualitative structure-property and structure-activity relationships. The results obtained to date have been promising, with significant improvement in leach resistance and increased biological activity. This paper will discuss the approach adopted and the results obtained thus far. For reasons of confidentiality, some details of the complexes cannot be disclosed.
D G Humphrey, P J Duggan, E M Tyndall, J M Carr, L J Cookson

Evaluation of the insecticidal efficacy of deltamethrin and the fungicidal efficacy of its association with TCMTB + MBT in the field of wood preservation
1986 - IRG/WP 1289 E
Deltamethrin possesses many advantages for the insecticidal protection of wood: relatively low toxicity, very reduced evaporation, very prolonged retention in the wood, very slight leaching after having penetrated the wood, and absence of odour. Its association with other active agents or solvents is being studied with regard to chemical compatibility. Compatibility studies have proved positive for azaconazole, TCMTB and MBT. The associaticn of 5 g/l deltamethrin + 50 g/l TCMTB + 50 g/l of MBT is used at a minimum rate of 5% for the preservation of freshly felled rough timber in tropical regions. With regard to insecticidal efficacy, the dilution of 0.025% deltamethrin is that considered effective for spraying in most applications. When the wood is not exposed to harsh weather conditions (sun), a dose of 0.0125% can be used, especially by steeping; at this preventive concentration, deltamethrin possesses a broad spectrum of action. The dose can be reduced even further against Hylotrupes bajulus.
J S Duguet

Fungicidal properties of wood tar being a side product of pyrolysis of previously treated wood with preservatives
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30340
The objective of the paper was to estimate the limit of the fungicidal value of wood tar being a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with creosote oil or salt preservative of the CCB type. The effectiveness of wood tar in wood protection against fungi causing brown rot and soft rot was compared to the effectiveness of creosote oil (type WEI-B). Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the preservatives and next subjected to the action of the following fungi: Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar block method and the ageing test according to the standard PN-EN 84. It was found that wood tar being a product of pyrolysis of used wood which was previously treated may be a potential preservative for wood protection or a component of preservatives. However, better fungicidal properties were found for wood tar obtained from wood previously treated with creosote oil.
B Mazela, M Kielczewski, W Grzeskowiak

Fungicidal effectiveness of amended alkylammonium compound
1987 - IRG/WP 3421
Amendment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride was attempted to improve its fungicidal effectiveness and properties of treating solutions. Addition of copper definitely increased effectiveness in controlling wood decay fungi, although metal corrosiveness and stability of treating solutions was unsatisfactory. Further amendment with stabilizer(s), anticorrosive agent(s) and sequestering agent(s) resulted in improving fungicidal effectiveness as well as properties of treating solutions. When a wood block was impregnated with an adequate mixture of didecyldimethylammonium chloride, copper sulphate, sequestering agent, stabilizer and anticorrosive agent (1:0.5:0.5:1:0.25), laboratory test (JIS A 93029) indicated that a lower retention level of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (1.1 kg/m³) gave a satisfactory protection to the block from decay fungi. On the other hand, didecyldimethylammonium chloride itself was effective enough at higher retentions of 2.2-4.3 kg/m³.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto

Gaseous treatment of timber with allyl isothiocyanate. Fungicidal and insecticidal effects
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30108
Gaseous treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was tested for its effects on the growth of microorganisms on the wood substrate and the mortality of subterranean termites and powder-post beetles. Toxic limits of AIT were determined as concentrations in the air when an AIT-treated filter paper was placed in a sealed container with fungus-inoculated wood specimens. Those were <3.8 ppm for Aureobasidium pullulans, 7.5-15 ppm for Aspergillus niger, 30-59 ppm for Gliocladium virens, 59-118 ppm for Penicillium funiculosum and >118 ppm for Rhizopus stolonifer. LD 50 values were determined for insects. Twenty workers of Coptotermes formosanus or 10 adults of Lyctus brunneus were placed in an air-circulated glass bottle, and the mortality of the test insects was recorded after 24 hours. LD 50/24h were 10-13 ppm and approximately 80 ppm in the air for Coptotermes formosanus and Lyctus brunneus, respectively.
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura

Estimation of the impregnation degree of pine wood by the distribution analysis of active ions concentration in the cross-section
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20174
Samples in the form of pine wood rollers of diversified moisture content of ca. 50, 28 and 12% were impregnated with a water solution of the mixture type CCB with the use of the full-cell process. Moisture content was determined in individual layers from the girth to the pith. In the same way the concentrations of copper and chromium ions with the use of the spectrophotometric method and recalculated to the total dry mass of the preservative. Simultaneously, there was performed biological test according to EN 113 for the investigated mixture and different concentrations: 0,1; 0,16; 0,25; 0,4; 0,63; 1,0; 1,6; 2,5. The obtained fungicidal value let to determine the depth of biological resistance of impregnated wood within the impregnated zone.
K Lutomski, B Mazela

Reappraisal of some fungicides by the amended JWPA method
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3689
Organoiodine compounds which have been commercialized these years in Japan poorly performed as fungicides in the amended JWPA decay test (Standard 1, 1989) when applied to superficial treatment of timber. Because some parts of active ingredients seemed to disappear from the treated timber surface mainly due to the severe leaching cycles. This was prominently true for beech (Fagus crenata Blume) sapwood against a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L. ex Fr.) Quel. At the highest test concentration of 3% only copper naphthenate could meet the efficacy requirement (<3% mean weight loss prescribed in JWPA Standard 7 (1989).
K Tsunoda

Biological test, AAS and EPR study of copper monoethanolamine complex with quaternary ammonium compounds as a wood preservative
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30321
Experiments were carried out on the wood preservative with a strong fungicidal activity based on Cu(II) carbonate, 2-aminoethanol (monoethanolamine) and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC). The object of the performed investigations was sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) treated with Cu-EA-QAC formulation. Mycological investigations were carried out according to EN 113 and EN 84 standards. The retention of the copper ions in the wood grows nonlinearly with concentration (in %) of the impregnating solution from 0,25 kg/m3 at 0.03% to 1,55 kg/m3 at 0.21% (i.e. nearly 6 times) whereas the copper leachability decreases 2,5 times from 15% to 6% in the same range. These results indicate good fixation of the copper to the wood and high leaching resistance. EPR results and computer simulations of the observed EPR spectra shows that in Cu-EA aqueous solution the Cu(EA)2(H2O)2 complexes exist and the main coordination plane is not destroyed in impregnating solution and in the wood. In Cu-EA-QAC-BA solution the Cu(EA)2(QAC)2 complexes appear whereas EPR spectra of the treated wood indicate coexistence of a few types of Cu-complexes. We have identified strongly fixed Cu(EA)2O2 and Cu(EA)2O complexes with oxygens atoms from wood functional groups.
B Mazela, I Polus, S K Hoffmann, J Goslar

Growth inhibitory effects on blue-stain fungi of applied electricity fields
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10167
Exploratory laboratory experiments on the effects of electricity on two blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans and Ceratocystis piceae on wood revealed that a potential gradient of 1 V/cm corresponding to a current of 15 mA (DC), applied without interruption during a 2 week experimental period, leads to an inhibition of the growth of these fungi. Germination is somewhat more sensitive than mycelial growth. Experiments also revealed that a potential gradient of 10-25 V/cm applied for 30 sec, 3 times every 24 h also inhibited the growth of Aureobasidium pullulans. The mechanism by which electricity exerts its growth inhibiting effect on blue stain fungi on wood is presently unclear.
J Bjurman

Studies on the fungicidal effectiveness of a petroleum derived product as a creosote alternative
1986 - IRG/WP 3384 E
This work, appears first because of the necessity to find out a profitable use for a residual product of the petrol pyrolisis, and second, because the lack of high natural durability wood used until now-a-days to build posts and sleepers in creosote lacking countries. Our main objective was pointed to the characterization of this new product and to find out the effectiveness against the wood-destroying fungi, compared to the creosote response.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya

Diazenes and some organic complexes of boron as potential fungicides for preservation of wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30197
Screening for fungicidal activity represents the first step in searching for new active components with enhanced environmental profile in comparison with traditional wood preservatives. Diazenes, their salts, and the salts of the corresponding semicarbazides, as well as several complexes of boron, were screened for fungicidal activity against wood decay fungi Trametes versicolor, Coniophora puteana and Poria monticola. Activity was exhibited by two diazenes and two salts - tetrafluoroborates. Efficacy of both tetrafluoroborate derivatives was additionally confirmed by a mini-block test. In comparison with diazenes, substances from the group of boron complexes with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds showed enhanced fungicidal activity.
M Petric, B Paradiz, J Stern, F Pohleven, S Polanc, B Stefane, R Lenarsic

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